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Nominated and elected Vice-President in 1836..
Beaten for Vice-President in 1840..
Beaten for President in Democratic Convention,
1844.

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JOHNSON, ANDREW, of Tennessee, supported
for President in National Democratic Convention :

OHNSON, HERSCHEL V., of Georgia, beaten

for Vice-President in Democratic National Conven-

tion in 1856..

Nominated for Vice-President by Democratic

National Committee, 1860.

Speech on Slavery in the Territories in 1848
Holds that capital should own the laborer, in a
speech at Philadelphia in 1856. His Report
affirming the absolute right of holding slaves
in the Territories..
JOHNSON, RICHARD M., of Kentucky, beaten
in Convention for Vice-President, 1882.

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Ditto in 1847-8-9.

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Mr. Atchison's remarks thereon; President

Pierce protests against the renewal of agita-

tion; Mr. Douglas's first Nebraska Report...

He amends his bill; Mr. Chase proposes to au-
thorize the people of Kansas to prohibit Sla-
very therein; Opposed by Messrs. Bell, Doug-
las, etc., and defeated..

Mr. Clayton's "American" amendment; Mr.
Chase moves that the people of the Territory
be authorized to elect their own Governor;
Defeated by 30 to 10; Mr. Seward's speech
against the bill...

The Kansas-Nebraska bill passes the Senate.

82

$4

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WIRT, WILLIAM, of Maryland, Anti-Ma-

sonic candidate for President, 1832

WILKINS, WILLIAM, of Pennsylvania, sup-
ported by Pennsylvania for Vice-President, 1832..

WISCONSIN declares for Free Territory,

through Legislative Resolves...

WOODBURY, LEVI, of New-Hampshire, beaten
for President in Democratic Convention, 1848
WRIGHT, SILAS, of New-York, nominated
for Vice-President by Democratic National Con-
vention of 1844, but declined..

YANCEY, WILLIAM L., of Alabama, offers

a "non-interference " resolve in Democratic Con-

vention, 1848.

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A POLITICAL TEXT-BOOK FOR 1860.

NATIONAL CAUCUSES, CONVENTIONS, AND

PLATFORMS.

a potent influence over such questions, being, on this occasion, unable to agree as to which of her favored sons should have the preference. Ninety-four of the 136 Republican members of Congress attended this caucus, and declared their preference of Mr. Madison, who received 83 votes, the remaining 11 being divided between Mr. Monroe and George Clinton. The Opposition supported Mr. Pinckney; but Mr. Madison was elected by a large majority.

NATIONAL Conventions for the nomination of candidates are of comparatively recent origin. In the earlier political history of the United States, under the Federal Constitution, candidates for President and Vice-President were nominated by congressional and legislative caucuses. Washington was elected as first President under the Constitution, and reëlected for a second term by a unanimous, or nearly unanimous, concurrence of the American people; but an opposition party gradually grew up in Toward the close of Mr. Madison's earlier Congress, which became formidable during his term, he was nominated for reëlection by a second term, and which ultimately crystalized Congressional Caucus held at Washington, in into what was then called the Republican May, 1812. In September of the same year, a party. John Adams, of Massachusetts, was convention of the Opposition, representing prominent among the leading Federalists, while eleven States, was held in the city of NewThomas Jefferson, of Virginia, was preemi-York, which nominated De Witt Clinton, of nently the author and oracle of the Republican party, and, by common consent, they were the opposing candidates for the Presidency, on Washington's retirement in 1796-7.

Mr. Adams was then chosen President, while Mr. Jefferson, having the largest electoral vote next to Mr. A., became Vice-President.

New-York, for President. He was also put in nomination by the Republican Legislature of New-York. The ensuing canvass resulted in the reëlection of Mr. Madison, who received 128 electoral votes to 89 for De Witt Clinton.

no opposition to the reëlection of Mr. Monroe in 1820, a single (Republican) vote being cast against him, and for John Quincy Adams.

In 1816, the Republican Congressional Caucus nominated James Monroe, who received, in the The first Congressional Caucus to nominate caucus, 65 votes to 54 for Wm. H. Crawford, candidates for President and Vice-President, is of Georgia. The Opposition, or Federalists, said to have been held in Philadelphia in the named Rufus King, of New-York, who received year 1800, and to have nominated Mr. Jeffer-only 34 electoral votes out of 217. There was son for the first office, and Aaron Burr for the second. These candidates were elected after a desperate struggle, beating John Adams and Charles C. Pinckney, of South Carolina. In In 1824, the Republican party could not be 1804, Mr. Jefferson was reelected President, induced to abide by the decision of a Congreswith George Clinton, of New-York, for Vice, sional Caucus. A large majority of the Repubencountering but slight opposition: Messrs.lican members formally refused to participate Charles C. Pinckney and Rufus King, the op-in such a gathering, or be governed by its deci posing candidates, receiving only 14 out of 176 Electoral Votes. We have been unable to find any record as to the manner of their nomination. In January, 1808, when Mr. Jefferson's second term was about to close, a Republicau Congressional Caucus was held at Washington, to decide as to the relative claims of Madison and Monroe for the succession, the Legislature of Virginia, which had been said to exert

sion; still, a Caucus was called and attended by the friends of Mr. Crawford alone. Of the 261 members of Congress at this time, 216 were Democrats or Republicans, yet only 66 responded to their names at roll-call, 64 of whom voted for Mr. Crawford as the Republican nominee for President. This nomination was very extensively repudiated throughout the country, and three competing Republican candidates

were brought into the field through legislative | New-York, presided over the delil erations of the and other machinery-viz., Andrew Jackson, Convention, and the nominees received each Henry Clay, and John Quincy Adams. The re- 108 votes. The candidates accepted the nomisult of this famous "scrub race" for the Presi-nation and received the electoral vote of Verdency was, that no one was elected by the mont only. The Convention did not enunciate people, Gen. Jackson receiving 99 electoral any distinct platform of principles, but apvotes, Mr. Adams 84, Mr. Crawford 41, and Mr. pointed a committee to issue an Address to the Clay 37. The election then devolved on the people. In due time, the address was published. | House of Representatives, where Mr. Adams It is quite as prolix and verbose as modern powas chosen, receiving the votes of 13 States, litical addresses; and, after stating at great against 7 for Gen. Jackson, and 4 for Mr. Craw-length the necessary qualifications for the ford. This was the end of "King Caucus." Chief of a great and free people, and presentGen. Jackson was immediately thereafter put ing a searching criticism on the institution of in nomination for the ensuing term by the Le-free-masonry in its moral and political bearings, gislature of Tennessee, having only Mr. Adams somewhat intensified from the excitement for an opponent in 1828, when he was elected caused by the (then recent) alleged murder of by a decided majority, receiving 178 Electoral William Morgan, for having revealed the secrets Votes to 83 for Mr. Adams. Mr. John C. Cal- of the Masonic Order, the Address comes to the houn, who had at first aspired to the Presidency, conclusion that, since the institution had bein 1824, withdrew at an early stage from the come a political engine, political agencies must canvass, and was thereupon chosen Vice-Presi-be used to avert its baneful effects-in other dent by a very large electoral majority-Mr. words, "that an enlightened exercise of the Albert Gallatin, of Pennsylvania, (the caucus right of suffrage is the constitutional and candidate on the Crawford ticket,) being his equitable mode adopted by the Anti-Masons is only serious competitor. In 1828, Mr. Calhoun necessary to remove the evil they suffer, and was the candidate for Vice-President on the produce the reforms they seek." Jackson ticket, and of course reëlected. It was currently stated that the concentration of the Crawford and Calhoun strength on this ticket was mainly effected by Messrs. Martin Van Buren and Churchill C. Cambreleng, of NewYork, during a southern tour made by them in 1827. In 1828, Richard Rush, of Pennsylvania, was the candidate for Vice-President on the Adams ticket.

DEMOCRATIC OR JACKSON NATIONAL
CONVENTION-1832.

There was no open opposition in the Democratic party to the nomination of Gen. Jackson for a second term; but the party were not so well satisfied with Mr. Calhoun, the Vice-President; so a Convention was called to meet at Baltimore in May, 1832, to nominate a candidate for the second office. Delegates appeared U. S. ANTI-MASONIC CONVENTION-1830. and took their seats from the States of The first political National Convention in this Maine, New-Hampshire, Vermont, Massachucountry of which we have any record was held setts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New-York, at Philadelphia in September, 1830, styled the New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, MaryUnited States Anti-Masonic Convention. It was land, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, composed of 96 delegates, representing the Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, TenStates of New-York, Massachusetts, Connecti-nessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. cut, Vermont, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New-Jersey, Delaware, Ohio, Maryland and the Territory of Michigan. Francis Granger of New-York presided; but no business was transacted beyond the adoption of the following

resolution:

Resolved, That it is recommended to the people of the United States, opposed to secret societies, to meet in convention on Monday the 26th day of September, 1881, at the city of Baltimore, by delegates equal in number to their representatives in both houses of Congress, to

make nominations of suitable candidates for the office of President and Vice-President, to be supported at the next election, and for the transaction of such other business as the cause of Anti-Masonry may require.

Gen. Robert Lucas, of Ohio, presided, and the regular proceedings were commenced by the passage of the following resolution:

Resolved, That each State be entitled, in the nomination to be made for the Vice-Presidency, to a number of votes equal to the number to which they will be entitled in the electoral colleges, under the new apportionment, in voting for President and Vice-President; and that two-thirds of the whole number of the votes in the Convention shall be necessary to constitute a choice.

This seems to have been the origin of the famous "two-thirds" rule which has prevailed of late in Democratic National Conventions.

The Convention proceeded to ballot for a candidate for Vice-President, with the following result:

In compliance with the foregoing call, a National Anti-Masonic Convention was held at Balti- For Martin Van Buren: Connecticut, 8; Illinois, 2; more, in September, 1831, which nominated Ohio, 21; Tennessee, 15; North Carolina, 9; Georgia, 11; William Wirt, of Maryland, for President, and Louisiana, 5; Pennsylvania, 80; Maryland, 7; New Jersey, 8; Mississippi, 4; Rhode Island, 4; Maine, 10; Amos Ellmaker, of Pennsylvania, for Vice-Pre-Massachusetts, 14; Delaware, 8; New-Hampshire, 7; sident. The convention was attended by 112 de- New-York, 42; Vermont, 7; Alabama, 1-Total, 208. legates from the States of Maine, New-Hampshire, Kentucky, 15-Total, 26. For Richard M. Johnson: Illinois, 2; Indiana, 9; Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Delaware and Maryland -only Total, 49. Massachusetts, New-York and Pennsylvania Mr. Van Buren, having received more than being fully represented. John C. Spencer, of two-thirds of all the votes cast, was declared

For Philip P. Barbour: North Carolina, 6; Virginia, 23; Maryland, 3; South Carolina, 11; Alabama, 6

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