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leaves his guides and undertakes to add to, what is the faculty in the human breast nearly all the phenomena it proposes to exor deviate from their precepts, he is unfor- which leads us to perceive and decide upon plain. There are innumerable virtues tunate. He has divided his book into two their character. "Mr Parkburst has taken which do not consist in benevolence. The parts. The first is called “The Theory of almost all his materials for this department word has a distinct and very well settled Morals," and contains an inquiry into the out of Brown's Lectures on the Philosphy meaning, and it will not do to define it so principle of approbation or disapproba of the Human Mind. But he was not quite as to support this hypothesis. I cannot pertion, the origin of the emotions which ac- content with what he could find here. In ceive that it touches in its true significacompany and form these, and the nature of order to answer the great interrogatory, tion either of the cardinal virtues, as they the feelings which excite and call them What constitutes virtue ? he has revived are commonly called. At least it does not forth. The question here is, in other likewise the theory of Dr Hutchinson, constitute them,--does not make them what words, What are the qualities in actions which makes the leading characteristic they are, and even without inquiring which make them virtuous or vicious, and trait of it to be benevolence; a very inter- whether they are connected with that most

esting theory in itself, and capable of being estimable quality, we have no hesitation in which he enjoys are enjoyed by them; and is suc- supported ingeniously and with much moral pronouncing them to be virtues. ceeded by cavy and hatred, as soon as additional eloquence, yet still, partial, imperfect, and, The statement may perhaps be made blessings are bestowed upon them, although his as it is presented by Mr Parkhurst, in the stronger than this. All the virtues can are as great as ever they were. Now it is evident, pages before me, most unsatisfactory. The well be divided into three great classes, --that the feelings produced by a benevolent spirit, objection to it is, that it does not embrace those that spring peculiarly from religious are just the reverse of all this, at every step of the

einotions, those that are connected with progress. The benevolent man feels bis happiness But this, so far from being a reason why it should the duties which a man owes more immedidiminished on seeing others deprived of blessings be encouraged and strengthened, is the very reason ately to himself, and those that ought to which he enjoys ; rejoices when he sees the same why we should be solicitous to restrain its opera. regulate the whole of his intercourse with blessings bestowed upon them; and rejoices still lion, and guard against its excitement. more, when he sees their happiness and usefulness But it is said that scholars who are not pious, other people. Now there is not a single still more increased. • 2. Since the words emulation,' and ambition,' be excited, in some way, to diligence and assiduity which consists in benevolence. Nobody

have no better principles of action, and they must one out of the two former of these classes, in the sense in which they are cominonly used, de, in their studies.'—Whether they have better princi- will say, that it is this wbich makes devonote a principle of action which is unlawful and ples of action or not

, they certainly have those tion or piety a virtue. It forms not a princriminal, they ought not to be used in other and that are not so bad. The desire to promote their cipal feature in temperance, patience, indifferent senses. To use the same word sometimes own future respectability and happiness, and the in a bad

and sometimes in a good sense, has a dan- desire to please their instructers and parents, are dustry, circumspection, &c., the most usegerous tendency. On account of the imperfection not so bad principles of action. They are not ful qualities of our nature; nor in self-comof language, indeed, this cannot always be avoide necessarily criminal at all; and if sometimes so, mand, fortitude, enterprise, firmness, heroic ed: but so far as it can be avoided, it should be. are less so, and less dangerous, than motives of courage, &c., the best and most elevated If the more virtuous part of the community use emulation. The love of learning for its own sake, moral perfections of which we know human certain words in a good sense which others use in is not so bad a principle of action. This is a most beings are capable. So that the theory, if a bad sense, the opinion of the former will be con- powerful stimulus; and not being of a moral nasidered as countenancing the criminal sentiments ture, is of course an innocent motive. Here are true at all, must be confined within the and practices of the latter. The frequent recor- principles of action, amply sufficient to stimulate narrow limits of a single class,-the smallrence of such phrases as “ noble emulation,' 'lauda- every scholar in his studies without the aid of emu- est class probably, and I am not quite sure ble pride,' is an outrage on propriety of language, lation.-But this is denied, and it is said that that it embraces all this. It is a great misand has a most pernicious tendency. Admitting scholars, without the impulse of emulation, will that those who use them mean well.; yet many, who sink into a state of apathy and inaction. Those pomer, or rather an unwarrantable abuse hear or read them, will understand them in a sense who think thus, are requested to make a fair ex- of language to extend it to the others. To which will tend to corrupt their moral principles. periment. When they have done this, if they still say, for example, that prudence is a virtue, This way of using words, may be considered as a think that the principles of action which I have because it is benevolent; or that intemperspecies of bad example. li wears the appear- recommended are not sufficient, that scholars would ance is a vice because it is always destitute ance of evil. It makes a man appear to be the ad- make much greater progress if excited by emula. of that amiable quality, would be manifestvocate of vice. And even if the good man is un- tion, and even that iheir progress must be very derstood as he means, when he commends some small without this excitenient

, I will then request ly false and absurd. The virtue and the thing which is really laudable, under the name of them to tell me how much intellectual improvement vice are indeed often differently associated. emulation, ambition, or pride ; yet those who seek we must put into the scale to weigh against the We have seen prudent men not remarkaa cloak for their sins, will pervert this language in moral evil of emulation, with its attendant train, ble for their benevolence; we bave seen order to justify themselves, and will rejoice in the vanity and pride, envy, hatred, and slander. opportunity of indulging the most unballowed pas.

intemperate men, on the contrary, in whose

Here, then, I rest my argument. It is not necessions under these specious names. It is no small sary to prove that emulation has an unfavourable moral character this formed the prevailing thing,' says Madame de Staël, · for men to have influence on the acquisition of knowledge and on

trait. plausible language which they may use in favour of intellectual improvement. We may adnit

, not Mr Parkhurst is not any more fortunate their conduct. They employ it, at first, to deceive only that industry is pronoted, but that the mental in his attempt to correct the erroneous others; and they end by deceiving themselves.' powers are excited into more vigorous action, and principles of Dr Paley, from whom he takes I therefore, as a friend to the cause of virtue, pro- the pupil's progress in science and literature accel:1 the materials, arrangement and all, for his test against the terms emulation' and ambition' | erated. What is all this, when set by the side of ever being used to express any thing which is lauda a heart depraved and temper hurt? To christian Second Part, which he calls “ Practical ble or innocent.

parents and christian instructers, I make my ap- Ethics.” The plain good sense, and the 3. Since emulation is criminal, it ought not to be peal. I have little hope of influencing those who false theory of that excellent writer, are encouraged, but discountenanced in children and despise the virtues of the heart. But to you, ye well known to all your readers. Utility is youth. It is said, 'that as scholars who are not followers of the meck and lowly Jesus, I look for the criterion by which he measures every make use of such principles as they have; and imical to the genius of christinnity. You remem- question in morals, that a spirit of emulation will exist among them, ber the lessons of humility which Christ repeated- dient is right.”. “ Actions are to be esti

“ Whatever is expewhether it is encouraged or not.'-I admit

, that ly inculcated on bis primitive disciples,-especially mated by their tendency.” “It is the scholars who are not pious, and even those who whenever they manifested a spirit of emulation or utility of any moral rule alone which conare, are actuated in a greater or less degree by wrong of ambition. You remember that

he uniformly re-stitutes the obligation of it.” Now these thing for them to be actuated by wrong motives in that humility is an indispensable qualification for principles are supposed to be very injurious studying, and another for instructers directly to in- admission into the kingdom of heaven. You will in their effects on the science of ethics, Huence them, and expressly to encourage them, to therefore consider the improvement of the moral and through this medium, on the morals of act from such motives. -1 admit, too, that the prin- and religious character as an object of infinitely the community. The mad, Machiavel theociple of emulation cannot be wholly eradicated greater importance than the attainment of any, or ry of Godwin may perhaps be fairly asfrom the breasts of the young. ral as human depravity: and perhaps it is as im- will you wish your children to pluck of the tree of cribed to them. They are certainly liable possible wholly to prevent it from being excited in knowledge, like our first parents, at the suggestion to one plain objection, that they are vague a school, as to make all the scholars perfectly holy. of a fiend.

and uncertain as a standard or rule of con

THE LAY MONASTERY.

us.

duct, and that it is difficult, or rather im- est and importance, which are connected On the dim and misty lakes possible, to make any useful application of with the subject, and they are very numer.

Gloriously the morning breaks,

And the eagle's on his cloud: them for the regulation and improvement ous, I will discuss with you on some other

Whilst the wind, with sighing, woos of our morals. But Mr Parkhurst thinks occasion, if a convenient opportunity should

To its arms the chaste cold ooze, he refutes all the reasonings against them occur.

Yours, &c.

And the rustling reeds pipe loud. by insisting, in opposition to Dr Paley, on

Where the embracing ivy holds the perfectly strict observance of general

Close the hoar elm in its folds, rules. He will allow not a single excep

No. II.

In the meadow's fenny land, tion to these. Nothing will warrant a

And the winding river sweeps breach or a departure from them. Nothing

Winter Months.

Through its shallows and still deeps, can excuse falsehood; nothing can justify

A sad tale's best for Winter.

Silent with my rod I stand. deception of any sort. The rule once be

Winter's Tale.

But when sultry suns are high ing established that you ought not to do To a melancholy man there is a feeling

Underneath the oak Ilie, any particular kind of actions that you of intercourse and good fellowship existing

As it shades the water's edge,

And I mark my line, away should not misrepresent, for example,-you between himself and winter, and in the

In the wheeling eddy, play, cannot frame a reason, you cannot imag- language of its hollow voice and whistling Tangling with the river sedge. ine a state or combination of circuinstances winds, he finds its communion with bim. which will authorize you to violate it, or There is a vigorous impulse and reaction be

When the eye of evening looks

On green woods and winding brooks, excuse you for even the slightest voluntary tween the hearts of men and external things;

And the wind sighs o'er the lea, deviation from an exact compliance with and though philosophy has long endeavour- Woods and streams --I leave you then, its precepts. This seems to be absurd ed to solve the problem, yet the doubt still

While the shadow in the glen enough on the face of it. But allowing it remains whether the energies of feeling

Lengthens by the greenwood tree. to be true, the difficulty is not at all re- are influenced and directed by surrounding Winter, though to many a comfortless moved. The same objections lie against objects to a greater degree than that in season, is a time well suited to meditation. this as against Dr Paley's theory. I should which the heart cbanges every thing, An opening year finds us changed as times like to ask Mr Parkhurst where these gen- that the eye rests upon, with its own and seasons have changed. There is vacant eral rules are to come from? Who is to cheerful or melancholy light. For me, chair by our social fireside and a vacant be the framer of them? On what princi- even the winter wind has a voice of elo- niche in our hearts,-love may have grown ples are they to be made ? Is there any quent emphasis. As I sit retired by my cold and friendship deserted us, and we limit to their number? Suppose two or evening fireside, and mark the strong light may have outlived those, who we hoped more to conflict with one another, which glare out upon the old furniture of my would outlive Perhaps we have shall prevail? And who is to be the judge chamber, -and hear the wind in motion parted forever with them, from whom we in all these cases ? Does not our author among the bare trees without, and sharply never before parted, the feet of strangers perceive that these rules in morality are, whistling through every chink and crevice, may tread upon the sepulchres of our with a very few exceptions, of mere human there seems to be something articulate friends, and a tender remembrance may be invention, and if utility alone is to be the in the sound it utters; for it brings me tid all that remains of them. It is as true as it criterion by which they are made, every ings of leafless woods and desert walks. is trite, that we seldom value friendship as man will take the business into his own But desert as they are, in thought I visit we ought, until we feel in some degree its hands, and frame them to suit his own ideas them again. There is, indeed, no voice to loss. But when our parent earth bas foldon that subject ? No single action stands welcome me there; and I stand amid the ed to its cold bosom the child of clay, and by itself and alone. There are other simi- tall and widowed trees, like one that revis- has incorporated with its substance the lar ones, which may be classed and arrang- its in the winter of his life those scenes, form whose affections were incorporated ed with it. Even the exceptions to one gen- which its summer had gladdened. The with our own, we then feel how bard it is eral rule are so, only because they belong forest and the valley and the upland are to relinquish the communion of friendship. to another. So that, on the principles of silent around me, save when the icicle The voice of humanity is loud within us, this utility system, if we wish to screen or drops from the withered branch and slides and tells us that a powerful attraction holds justify some doubtful action of ours, all away on the crusted snow, or my footsteps within the limit of society the individuals we have to do, is to draw up a rule, which startle the heron from his fountain, and he that compose it; and that we exist but in will embrace and take it under its protec- wings bis noisy way opwards. The giant the mutual intercourse of heart with heart tion. The combination probably will sup- oak heaves out its arms to the wind, the Yet how little we think of these hidden symport it, and it will receive its character en withered vine hangs, covered with hoar- pathies. We pass away from the earth, tirely from the company, where we have frost, from the brown elm, and the dark and the world, with its cares and gayeties, the good fortune to find it a place. moss is frozen upon its trunk. And yet so goes on the same without us as with us.

But it is high time to bring this letter to strong a principle of association is contra- Our death brings no change to the face of a close. It has been prolonged now infi- riety, thal the changing beauty of the other nature. The woods and the waters are as nitely beyond the limits I originally assigned seasons seem to pass over the woods again, green,—the skies are as fair, and the air as to it. And what is worse, I find that I have even whilst I stand with them. The buds full of freshness and the trees of melody, as devoted a great deal too much of it to the of spring swell out afresh,--the summer when we were on earth. O, how the dead discussion of questions, which are not of cloud overshadows the forest, and the sum- outmultitude the living :-but nature is fresh the greatest value either in the science or mer wind plays in the green leaves : -and and fair with buds, and ripening fruits, and the practice of morality. The abstract in- again there is beauty in the many-coloured changing seasons. Here indeed the conquiry, What constitutes virtue? is interest- hills of autumn. I see the trees resume nexion is not mutual; but it is between ing and curious rather than important; and their verdure, and again they bend ourselves and the rest of our race. Interis of comparatively little moment, whether

"In branching beauty and in living green"-

est is linked in with interest,-affection anwe decide that an action is virtuous because whilst the angler, with rod and line, sings

swers to affection! And hence it is that it is useful, or useful because it is virtuous,

“ there is a tear for all that die." But though the latter supposition seems much on his way to the silent river.

when a friend leaves us forever, and death more satisfactory to me. These things,

THE ANGLER'S SONG.

seals up the volume of his life, the cares of however, have a place in the books of all From the river's plashy bank,

the living soon call us from the grave of our moral writers, the oldest and the latest Where the sedge grows green and rank, and the most able of them. It is this cir

And the twisted woodbine springs,

the dead, and his memory is lost to the cumstance alone which has led me on in

Upward speeds the morning lark

mind as his form to the sight. To its silver cloud-and bark!

Winter, apart from its being a season so my inquiries. The matters of more inter- On his way the woodman sings.

well adapted to moral thought, is also suit

LETTERS FROM A TRAVELLER.

ed to the studies of the poet. When the gard to the oratorical powers of its inbabi- , corbells, which usually represent some groeye of sense is shut on things around us, tants.

tesque figure. Those at Roslin were, for the mental eye enjoys most perfect vision. On Monday noon we bade farewell to oor the most part, heads. Among these the Winter has made bare and desert our woods friends in Glasgow, and set off on foot in a guide pointed out that of the abovementionand mountains, but we can sit by our even-shower of rain for Hamilton. On the road ed 'prentice, his master, and weeping mothing firesides and form conceptions of more we passed Bothwell bridge, where the Cove-er; and truly the old lady looked dolorous than natural beauty. No poet paints criti. nanters were defeated in Old Mortality enough to authenticate the tradition. cally from nature; but the ideal world of It is a narrow stone edifice, with high bat- Among the variety of odd figures, I noticed poetry is not only peopled with its own tlements. Hamilton is about eleven miles one of a cherub playing on a bagpipe. children, but it is shadowed and beautified distant from Glasgow. On Wednesday we On the whole there were few particulars with its own woods and waters. Thus the walked to Lanark; our road lay along the here to interest one much, and the chapel poetic mind, gathering together whatever banks of the Clyde, which is here a beau- was different in that respect from Melrose ; is beautiful in natural scenery, embodies tiful river, and bordered by the most fertile but the general impression given by the into one more perfect whole the several cole country I have seen in Scotland. The day building was very agreeable. lected parts. The most striking features of was delightful, and we of course enjoyed We next visited Roslin Castle, of which different landscapes are taken, and the out- our walk more than usual. During a great little remains, and that entirely in ruins. line filled up by imagination. And thus in part of the morning, we were entertained Its situation is highly picturesque. There the barrenness of winter we have rich en by the moveinents of a party on the opposite is a deep valley, or ravine, whose sides are joyment in our own thoughts, and the sterile side of the river, engaged in hunting; the are precipitous. The castle was built earth becomes green and fruitful in our shouts of the hunters and their alternate partly on the declivity of one side, and comconceptions, and blooms again in memo- appearance and disappearance, as thickets municated with the opposite brow, by means ry or in anticipation.

or inequalities of ground occurred in the of a draw bridge. The bridge is now of THE LAY MONK. course of the pursuit, attracted our atten- stone. At the bottom of the rayine, and

tion and interested us so much, that it was round the foot of the castle, flows the Esk with great regret that we finally lost sight river, its banks bordered with the green hol

of them. No. VIII.

ly and broom. The sun shone bright while In the afternoon we reached the falls of we were there, and I have seldom beheld a Edinburgh, April 10, 18—, Clyde ; these are three in number, of which more beautiful scene, than was presented MY DEAR FRIENDS,

Corra Linn is the most remarkable. Near by the Esk tumbling over the rocks in Since my last, I have made anoth- the fall is a cave, which, for aught I know, miniature cataracts before us, the frowning er visit to St Mungo's city, which B- may be the identical one, which sheltered ruins above, and the green hills around. We had not yet seen. We sailed up the Forth Balfour, after the defeat at Bothwell. On remained here a long time, B-gather. to a small port near Falkirk, in a steam- a slight elevation of ground above this fall, ing mosses, and I musing. We were formboat, which was small and mean in every is a summer-house, in the roof of which a ed for companions in a ramble; I sit or respect, when compared with those of our large mirror is placed in an oblique direc- stand with perfect composure, while he own country. The morning was stormy, tion, so as to reflect the appearance of the picks mosses, and rarely fret, however long and we were confined to the cabin, and had Lion. To a spectator, standing in this he may be thus employed; and though I no opportunity to enjoy the beauty of the summer-housc, with his back to the river, only answer his appeals and inquiries rescenery. From the landing we crossed and looking up to the roof, the water seems specting the beauties of a cryptogamous over to the grand canal, where, as I have to be tumbling down directly on his head. specimen, by a nod, or interjection of acbefore mentioned, it passes Falkirk. We Though water-falls are no great curiosities quiescence, he is well satisfied, if I listen embarked here again in the canal boat and to an American, it is agreeable enough to with patience; while on the other hand he reached Glasgow in the evening. This last see one without a saw-mill and slabs. never interrupts my meditations on the mode of travelling we found very agreeable; At Lanark are the famous cotton mills picturesque, to use Dr Syntax's expression, the boat was drawn by three horses, har- of Owen, of which you have probably seen except by the appeals before mentioned, nessed in a line and driven at the rate of more particular accounts, than I have which go for nothing ; so that if we happen six miles an hour. It contained a large either time or patience to give you. The to find a spot, where the cryptogamia thrive cabin, 'handsomely fitted up and furnished distance from Lanark to Edinburgh is and the scenery is romantic, it is hard to with books, backgammon and chess boards, thirty-two miles, which we easily accom- determine how long we shall remain. Ros&c. &c. The canal is a noble work, deep plished the next day in eight hours and a lin was a position to win both our hearts, and wide enough to admit the passage of half. The country was uninteresting, and and its attractions prevented our reaching vessels of small burthen; it passes, howev- there was nothing to interrupt our pro- Edinburgh till sometime after dark. er, through a dreary tract of country, in gress.

Last Sunday I attended the service at the course of which I observed nothing Last week I went with B to Roslin, the High Church, and had the pleasure which was connected with any interesting which is but a short distance from this of seeing the Lord Provost and the Baillies associations, except the village of Calder, city-about seven miles. The Chapel is in their velvet and ermine, as well as the which recalled the idea of a spirited Scotch one of the most perfect remains of antiqui- judges, or Lords of Session, in their threeair, called Calder Fair, strongly resembling ty in Scotland, and a beautiful specimen of tailed wigs. The former occupied the front our own national Yankee Doodle.

Gothic architecture. One of the pillars is seat of the gallery, on one side of the The day after our arrival at Glasgow exquisitely carved. It is called the 'Pren-church, and the latter a similar situation, on was Saturday, which we employed in seeing tice's Pillar, from a tradition, that while the the other. When they were all in order, a few lions, and on Sunday heard a serinon master builder was at Rome, for the pur- they discharged a volley of low bows at from the Rev. Dr Chalmers. His perform- pose of learning the method of executing each other across the interval. When the ance did little towards altering the opinion this kind of work, one of his apprentices preacher had ended, he let off a bow at each I have already expressed respecting Scotch finished it from a design, which he happened party, who rose, returned the fire and marcheloquence. His voice was bad, and his pro- to see ; for which good deed his master, on ed off under convoy of the city guard, who, nunciation occasionally vulgar; he some- his return, beat out bis brains with a ham- if one might judge from their costume and times spoke in a low tone, and some- mer. A similar story was related to us of appearance, might have served under the times screamed and beat the pulpit cushion, some part of Melrose abbey, and possibly gracious king Duncan. but all in vain as far as my feelings were the legend is common to many old churches. About a mile or more from Edinburgh, is concerned. And having thus heard their The clustered arches of the roof, in these a beautiful spot, which is said to be the most celebrated pulpit orator, I shall ancient buildings, spring either from pil- scene of Allan Ramsay's Gentle Shepherd. leave Scotland an obstinate heretic, in re-l lars, or projections from the walls, called | It is a green valley, completely embosomed

ocean.

among the Pentland hills, through the society, and kept no journal. I have delay- , clapped the helm down, brought her up once whole length of which meanders a gentle ed writing from time to time, till my obser- more to the wind, and we shot close in to rivulet, shooting across from side to side, vations of small matters have glided out of the rocks. Hard a lee! fore sbeet, fore as it meets with obstacles to its direct mind, and I have omitted many things, and top-bowline!” roared the old fellow; but we course; the source of the brook is a clear might as well perhaps have omitted more, should have heard him, if he had spoken pool, supplied by a stream, which, descend with which a letter might be filled, because in a whisper. We hardly moved a muscle ing from the hills, falls over a precipitous they are to be found elsewhere. I shall re- while she was rounding to; and every man bank about fifteen feet in height. This turn with a feeling, common perhaps to drew a long breath as the flutter of the I suppose to be

every traveller, that the country he has fore-topsail ended in a flap against the top“ Habie's how,

visited has much to recommend it, but mast, and, swelling out on each side of it, Where a' that's sweet in spring and simmer grow; that the one to which he is returning, has showed us that it was fairly backed. Between twa birks, out o'er a little lin

more.

Great Britain is doubtless a great This was a foretaste of the manner in The water fa's and makes a singan din;

and happy nation--but I am persuaded that which we were likely to be navigated across A pool, breast deep, beneath, as clear as glass,

the United States, or, at least, that portion the ocean. The following morning we left Kisses with easy whirls the bordering grass."

of them with which I am acquainted, con- the Forth with a fair wind. Our course was Book-making, in this realm, seems to be tains, on the whole, a happier, and I hope north-about, as it is called, and in a few days as much a trade as cabinet or chair mak. will one day contain, a greater people. we passed through the Pentland Frith, and ing. Books are poured out from the press Farewell.

by John o'Groat's house, and, steering west, on all subjects, of all shapes, and of all

lost sight of land on the great Atlantic sizes, and some of them superlatively ridic

We soon began to be aware, that

LETTER IX. ulous. I have seen one, which contained

both captain and mate were grossly ignonothing but the inscriptions on seals. Not

Quebec, June 2, 18,

rant of navigation, and that a bint now and remarkable ones, but such as you see every My Dear FRIENDS,

then from myself and fellow-passenger were day, as “ All 's well,” “ Forget me not, Though at last safely landed on the likely to be useful. The latter, a Mr Carr, &c.; but the most ludicrous thing of this right side of the Atlantic, some time must had been formerly a clerk in some establishkind, that I have met with, is a book, en- yet elapse before I can have the pleasure of ment at Jamaica, and had several times titled “Neck-clothiana,” or “Tyetana," meeting you. I send this letter in the mean passed the Atlantic; while I, as you know, consisting of descriptions of the various time, as a kind of sop for your impatience. bave had opportunities of picking up a little methods of tying on a cravat, illustrated You will perceive by its contents, that I knowledge in this way. Most American capby plates; there was the Napoleon tye, have not passed the great water again with- tains, confident in their knowledge and exthe American tye, the Osbaldistone tye, and out adventure or peril.

perience would have cut us very short, had the horse-collar, with many others equally One fine afternoon, on the 15th of April, I we presumed to interfere with their managenonsensical.

set sail from Leith, in a pretty brig of about ment; but Sawney knew better things. He I have lately seen two persons of note, two hundred tons. My fellow-passengers had the grace, at least, to know that he was Henry Mackenzie, the author of the Man in the cabin, were an intelligent emigrant ignorant of many matters, that it was his of Feeling, La Roche, &c., and Sir Walter from Northumberland and a stupid Scotch duty to know; and “I dare say you're Scott. The former is now an old man, and lad. In the steerage was a company of right,” was his usual reply to our exposinot remarkable in his appearance. He is about one hundred Scotch and English emi- tions. On one occasion, he was in much rather thin, which is proper enough for a grants, to which I had the honour of acting trouble about the great disagreement beMan of Feeling Scott is an elderly, as physician, surgeon, &c. As we beat tween his dead reckoning and the latitude thoughtful looking man, his hair between slowly down the Forth, against a light by observation, till we suggested to him, that sandy and grey, and did not look at all as I easterly breeze, and Arthur's seat retired there was such a thing as variation of the expected. The place where I saw him, and from our view, a feeling of melancholy pre-compass, and that this was different in differthe office, that of clerk of a court, was dominated in my mind. I can easily con- ent parts of the globe—“I dare say you're rather unfavourable for poetic effect, to be ceive of the strong attachment which an right,” he replied, and what was more to the sure; bundles of papers, briefs, writs, black Edinburgher feels for his native city; there purpose, he became sure of it, when he made gowns, tailed wigs, a row of judges in an is something in picturesque scenery and sit- the due allowance for the said variation, as tique (I had like to have written it antic) uation which takes a strong hold on the laid down in his chart. The mate assured dresses, barbarous law jargon, and the affections, and though, with the exception of me, that he believed the brig was unlucky, statue of Lord Mansfield, are as far from Band a few others of my countrymen, since he had never made a voyage in her poetry as from the centre to the utmost there is hardly an individual in Edinburgh without meeting with some accident. In

about whom Icare agroat; yet I believe I shall the course of the passage, which was Though the dress of the judges is some- never think of the gude town again without long and tedious, I derived considerable what grotesque, it looks very rich, being of a queer kind of feeling about the heart. In amusement from my protegés in the steer scarlet cloth and white satin. The lawyers an hour or two we arrived off Wemyss, in age. They were a simple race; most of them, wear gowns and three tailed-wigs, which the county of Fife ; here the captain left us having resided all their lives in an inland give them the air of so many monkeys. to the care of his mate, with directions to lay village, had never seen the mast of a ship, till The mode of proceeding differs from that off and on, till he should rejoin us. While the their arrival at Leith; every thing was matof our own, or the English courts. The conversation was going on between them, the ter of amazement, from the beasts (whales) juries consist of fifteen, insteadof twelve, vessel was running in shore, and as the boat that raised a reek (smoke) to the bubbles and a plurality of voices, is sufficient to pushed off, the mate, a young man about (Portuguese man of war) that floated by us. condemn or acquit. The witnesses are twenty, attempted to put her about, but, to We had frequent occasion to lay to, during sworn by the judges, and not by the clerk his great consternation, she missed stays. strong head gales; and when they inquired as in our courts. The former seems to He immediately began to wear ship, an op- into the reason of this cessation of the ship's me the better practice.

eration which, with so little sea-room as we progress, a waggish sailor informed them, In a few days I shall sail for Quebec, and then had, would have probably been the last that the object was to afford the vessel some take my leave of this beautiful city. You which the good brig Percival would have rest

. On this subject, they entertained dif will think that a residence of six months undertaken for some months. The captain, ferent opinions; most of them thought it ought to have afforded more matter worthy in his boat, stood aghast at a manoeuvre unreasonable thus to delay in the middle of of being related, than is contained in the which threatened such a speedy termination the ocean; but some of the women comfew letters I bave written. But my atted to his voyage. Luckily, the want of disci- passionately exclaimed, - Poor thing, she tion has been much occupied by profession- pline was, in this instance, of service to us; must be a-weary.” They were generally al pursuits, I have gone very little into an old seaman rap to the quarter deck, I able to read, and, on the whole, were

pole.

LETTERS FROM A TRAVELLER.

ed to the studies of the poet. When the gard to the oratorical powers of its inhabi- | corbells, which usually represent some groeye of sense is shut on things around us, tants.

tesque figure. Those at Roslio were, for the mental eye enjoys most perfect vision. On Monday noon we bade farewell to our the most part, heads. Among these the Winter has made bare and desert our woods friends in Glasgow, and set off on foot in a guide pointed out that of the abovementionand mountains, but we can sit by our even- shower of rain for Hamilton. On the road ed 'prentice, his master, and weeping mothing firesides and form conceptions of more we passed Bothwell bridge, where the Cove-er; and truly the old lady looked dolorous than natural beauty. No poet paints criti. nanters were defeated in Old Mortality. enough to authenticate the tradition. cally from nature; but the ideal world of It is a narrow stone edifice, with high bat- Among the variety of odd figures, I noticed poetry is not only peopled with its own tlements. Hamilton is about eleven miles one of a cherub playing on a bagpipe. children, but it is shadowed and beautified distant from Glasgow. On Wednesday we on the whole there were few particulars with its own woods and waters. Thus the walked to Lanark; our road lay along the here to interest one much, and the chapel poetic mind, gathering together whatever banks of the Clyde, which is here a beau- was different in that respect from Melrose ; is beautiful in natural scenery, embodies tiful river, and bordered by the most fertile but the general impression given by the into one more perfect whole the several cole country I have seen in Scotland. The day building was very agreeable. lected parts. The most striking features of was delightful, and we of course enjoyed We next visited Roslin Castle, of which different landscapes are taken, and the out. our walk more than usual. During a great little remains, and that entirely in ruins. line filled up by imagination. And thus in part of the morning, we were entertained Its situation is highly picturesque. There the barrenness of winter we have rich en- by the movements of a party on the opposite is a deep valley, or ravine, whose sides are joyment in our own thoughts, and the sterile side of the river, engaged in hunting ; the are precipitous. The castle was built earth becomes green and fruitful in our shouts of the hunters and their alternate partly on the declivity of one side, and comconceptions, and blooms again in memo- appearance and disappearance, as thickets municated with the opposite brow, by means ry or in anticipation.

or inequalities of ground occurred in the of a draw bridge. The bridge is now of THE LAY MONK. course of the pursuit, attracted our atten- stone. At the bottom of the rayine, and

tion and interested us so much, that it was round the foot of the castle, flows the Esk with great regret that we finally lost sight river, its banks bordered with the green hol

of them. No. VIII.

ly and broom. The sun shone bright while In the afternoon we reached the falls of we were there, and I have seldom beheld a Edinburgh, April 10, 18— Clyde ; these are three in number, of which more beautiful scene, than was presented MY DEAR FRIENDS,

Corra Linn is the most remarkable. Near by the Esk tumbling over the rocks in Since my last, I have made anoth- the fall is a cave, which, for aught I know, miniature cataracts before us, the frowning er visit to St Mungo's city, which B- may be the identical one, which sheltered ruins above, and the green hills around. We had not yet seen. We sailed up the Forth Balfour, after the defeat at Bothwell. On remained here a long time; B- gatherto a small port near Falkirk, in a steam- a slight elevation of ground above this fall, ing mosses, and I musing. We were formboat, which was small and mean in every is a summer-house, in the roof of which a ed for companions in a ramble; I sit or respect, when compared with those of our large mirror is placed in an oblique direc- stand with perfect composure, while he own country. The morning was stormy, tion, so as to reflect the appearance of the picks mosses, and rarely fret, however long and we were confined to the cabin, and had Linn. To a spectator, standing in this he may be thus employed; and though I no opportunity to enjoy the beauty of the summer-house, with his back to the river, only answer his appeals and inquiries rescenery. From the landing we crossed and looking up to the roof, the water seems specting the beauties of a cryptogamous over to the grand canal, where, as I have to be tumbling down directly on his head. specimen, by a nod, or interjection of acbefore mentioned, it passes Falkirk. We Though water-falls are no great curiosities quiescence, he is well satisfied, if I listen embarked here again in the canal boat and to an American, it is agreeable enough to with patience; while on the other hand be Teached Glasgow in the evening. This last see one without a saw-mill and slabs. never interrupts my meditations on the mode of travelling we found very agreeable; At Lanark are the famous cotton mills picturesque, to use Dr Syntax's expression, the boat was drawn by three horses, har- of Owen, of which you have probably seen except by the appeals before mentioned, nessed in a line and driven at the rate of more particular accounts, than I have which go for nothing ; so that if we happen six miles an hour. It contained a large either time or patience to give you. The to find a spot, where the cryptogamia thrive cabin, handsomely fitted up and furnished distance from Lanark to Edinburgh is and the scenery is romantic, it is hard to with books, backgammon and chess boards, thirty-two miles, which we easily accom- determine how long we shall remain. Ros&c. &c. The canal is a noble work, deep plished the next day in eight hours and a lin was a position to win both our hearts, and wide enough to admit the passage of half. The country was uninteresting, and and its attractions prevented our reaching vessels of small burthen; it passes, howev- there was nothing to interrupt our pro- Edinburgh till sometime after dark. er, through a dreary tract of country, in gress.

Last Sunday I attended the service at the course of which I observed nothing Last week I went with B to Roslin, the High Church, and had the pleasure which was connected with any interesting which is but a short distance from this of seeing the Lord Provost and the Baillies associations, except the village of Calder, city-about seven miles. The Chapel is in their velvet and ermine, as well as the which recalled the idea of a spirited Scotch one of the most perfect remains of antiqui- judges, or Lords of Session, in their threeair, called Calder Fair, strongly resembling ty in Scotland, and a beautiful specimen of tailed wigs. The former occupied the front our own national Yankee Doodle.

Gothic architecture. One of the pillars is seat of the gallery, on one side of the The day after our arrival at Glasgow exquisitely carved. It is called the 'Pren-church, and the latter a similar situation, on was Saturday, which we employed in seeing tice's Pillar, from a tradition, that while the the other. When they were all in order, a few lions, and on Sunday heard a serinon master builder was at Rome, for the pur- they discharged a volley of low bows at from the Rev. Dr Chalmers. His perform- pose of learning the method of executing each other across the interval. When the ance did little towards altering the opinion this kind of work, one of his apprentices preacher had ended, he let off a bow at each I have already expressed respecting Scotch finished it from a design, which he happened party, who rose, returned the fire and marcheloquence. His voice was bad, and his pro- to see ; for which good deed his master, on ed off under convoy of the city guard, who, nunciation occasionally vulgar; he some his return, beat out his brains with a ham- if one 'might judge from their costume and times spoke in a low tone, and some- mer. A similar story was related to us of appearance, might have served under the times screamed and beat the pulpit cushion, some part of Melrose abbey, and possibly gracious king Duncan. but all in vain as far as my feelings were the legend is common to many old churches. About a mile or more from Edinburgh, is concerned. And having thus heard their The clustered arches of the roof, in these a beautiful spot, which is said to be the most celebrated pulpit orator, I shall ancient buildings, spring either from pil- scene of Allan Ramsay's Gentle Shepherd. leave Scotland an obstinate heretic, in re- lars, or projections from the walls, called It is a green valley, completely embosomed

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