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Chitty's Pleadings. New edition, with the lights of heaven, and a capacity of re- , which will enable the attentive and indusNotes, &c. by Edward D. Ingraham, Esq. ceiving rich modifications and improve-trious student to trace with precision,

A Digest of the Reports of the Courts ments of those feelings in return. We are pleasure, and profit, the great variety of of the United States. By T I. Wharton, Esq. convinced that there is more mind, more principles, which, like the muscles of the

The American Dispensatory; containing soul about us, wherever we look, and wher- body, spread themselves through the Engthe various substances employed in Medicine, together with the operation of Pharmacy; &c. &c. imparted both to the material world; there ever we move; and there is—for we have lish language.

It is to be regretted that 30 few fully unThe Tourist's Companion, being a guide is no longer any dullness or death in our derstand the grammatical and accurate to the Lakes, Canada, fre.

habitation; but a sweet music, and an in- construction of their own language. There Memoirs of Richard Henry Lee of Vir- telligent voice, are forever speaking to our is a fashion already too prevalent in our ginia, By, his grandson, Richard Henry Lee, Esq. secret ear, and the beauty of all visible country, which has long obtained in EngIn 2 vols. 8vo with a Portrait.

things becomes their joy, and we partake land, particularly among the superior classA new edition of Horace Delphini. in it, and gather from the confiding grati- es of society, and which has by no means A new edition of Virgil Delphini. tude of surrounding objects, fresh cause of been conducive to a general and extensive The Private Correspondence of Lord praise to the Maker of them all.”

cultivation of the English language. The Byron with his Mother, from the original MSS.

For sale by Cummings, Hilliard, & Co. subject of allusion is an extravagant predi1 vol. 12mo.

High-Ways and By-Ways, or Tales by Boston; William Hilliard, Cambridge; lection for the study of foreign languages, the Road-side, picked up in the French Provinces Gray, Childs, & Co. and J. W. Foster, to the neglect of our own, a language by a Walking Gentleman. Second series. 2 vols. Portsmouth; B. Perkins, Hanover; W. which by us should be esteemed the most 12mo. Hyde, Portland; Bliss & White, and Car- useful and valuable of all.

This extrava Collection of English Literature, edited vill, New York; A. Small

, and Cary & gance has been justly censured by Mr Walby Washington Irving, Esq. (Goldsmith's Works, Lea, Philadelphia ; E. Mickle, Baltimore; ker in the following remark. “We think,” 4 vols. published.)

Pishey Thompson, Washington ; and S. says he,“ we show our breeding by a knowl
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edge of those tongues (the French and ADVERTISEMENTS.

Italian], and an ignorance of our own." ENGLISH TEACHER AND EXER

A knowledge of other languages is truly POETICAL WORKS OF WILLIAM

CISES.

desirable, and the acquisition of them WORDSWORTH.

ought, in a proper degree, to be encouragCUMMINGS, HILLIARD, & Co. No: 134 Wash-ed by all friends of improvement; but it is Just published, the Poetical Works of ington street (No. 1 Cornhill], have for devoutly to be wished, by every friend to William Wordsworth, complete in four sale, new editions of these neat and valua- the interests of our country and of English volumes. ble School Books.

literature, that American youth would show This edition is beautifully and correctly The English Teacher contains all the a zeal, in this respect, exemplified by the printed, and afforded at less than half the Rules, Notes, and important Observations matrons of ancient Rome; and, like them, price of the London copy.

in Murray's large Grammar, which are in- suffer not the study of foreign languages to Extract from the North American Review. troduced in their proper places, and united prevent, but strictly to subserve the culti“ The great distinction and glory of with the Exercises and Key in perpendicu- vation of their own. Wordsworth's Poetry is the intimate con- lar collateral columns, which show intui. It is confidently believed that the Engverse which it holds with nature. He sees tively both the errors and corrections lish Teacher and Exercises are excellently her face to face; he is her friend, her con- through all the exercises in Orthography adapted to produce a radical improvement fidential counsellor, her high priest; and Syntax, Punctuation, and Rhetorical con in this very important department of Enghe comes from her inmost temple to reveal struction.

lish education. With these aids, individuto us her mysteries, and unravel those se- The Exercises form a neat 18mno volume als and pupils, with a little instruction in cret influences which he had always felt, of 252 pages, on good paper and neat type, parsing, may alone become not only profibut hardly understood. It is not merely for the particular use of pupils in schools ; cients, but skilful and just critics, io one of that he admires her beauties with enthusi- and being a counterpart to the Teacher, the most copious and difficult of all lanasm, and describes them with the nicest corresponds to it in design and execution. guages, our own. accuracy, but he gives them voice, lan- / The Key is left out of this volume for the Feb. 1. guage, passion, power, sympathy; he causes purpose of giving the scholar an opportunithem to live, breathe, feel. We acknowl. I ty of exercising his judgment upon the apedge that even this has been done by gifted plication of the rules, without a too ready

The Publishers of this Gazette furnish, bards before him; but never so thoroughly and frequent reference to the key.

on liberal terms, every book and every as by him; they lifted up corners of the The Promiscuous Exercises in each of periodical work of any value which America veil, and he has drawn it aside; he has the four parts of False Grammar, in both affords. They have regular correspondents, established new relationships, and detected volumes, bave figures, or letters of the al- and make up orders on the tenth of every hitherto unexplored affinities, and made the phabet, introduced, referring to the partic. month for England and France, and free connexion still closer than ever between ular rule or principle by which nearly eve- quently for Germany and Italy, and import this goodly universe and the heart of man. ry individual correction is to be made. from thence to order, books, in quantities Every person of susceptibility has been Great care and vigilance bave been exer- or single copies, for a moderate commisaffected with more or less distinctness, by cised to prevent defects of the press in sion. Their orders are served by gentle the various forms of natural beauty, and the these editions, as well as to correct the nu- men well qualified to select the best ediassociations and remembrances connected merous errors which have found their way tions, and are purchased at the lowest cash with them by the progress of a storm, the into the various editions of these works prices. All new publications in any way expanse of ocean, the gladness of a sunny now in circulation. There can be no haz- noticed in this Gazette, they have for sale, field,

ard in saying, that there is no American or can procure on quite as good terms as The silence that is in the starry sky, edition, either of Murray's Exercises or those of their respective publishers. The sleep that is among the lonely hills. Key, so correct as the English Teacher,

CUMMINGS, HILLIARD, & Co. Wordsworth has taught these sentiments and the Boston “ Improved Stereotype Ediand impulses a language, and has given tion of the English Exercises."

CAMBRIDGE: them a law and a rule. Our intercourse These very neat and handsome school with nature becomes permanent; we ac- manuals will perform much service, save PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, quire a habit of transferring human feel much time, and furnish teachers, private ings to the growth of earth, the elements, I learners, and schools with those facilities HILLIARD AND METCALF.

BY

taken into view; for, while all admit that mano, with the intent of becoming a mem- | walk eight or nine hours. In the first month of my tares are sowo with the wheat, who re- ber of the Propaganda Society. Before stay in that seminary, I went with the others to see member that the missionaries, and they long he became convinced that popery was VII., and I considered the canonization not as a

the canonization of Alfonsio Maria Ligori by Pius who send them, are subject to human frail

. not the best form of the religion of Christ; beatification and sanctification, but only as a repreties, and do not believe that the mere send- he suffered some petty persecution in Rome, sentation, or a description of the grace of God ing or going on this errand purifies from left the papal court in disgrace, and arriv- working in the individul; but I found afterwards, "all error,-it is no less true that the Word ed in England in 1819. He was recom- that my idea was not according to the Romish sysof God is thus scattered abroad among the mended to the London Society for Promot- tem. In Rome, they divide the canonization into nations, and light from Heaven made to ing Christianity among the Jews, and by second Smtificazione: both acts cost the family of penetrate the darkness.

But they who them was sent to Cambridge, and afterwards the saint a great price. The words beatificazione believe that these religious missions are in to the Missionary College at Stansted, in and santifazione correspond entirely to the Latin efficient as to their principal purpose, or Sussex, at which places he remained two words, beatum facere, and sanctum facere aliquem, that they call into exercise bad passions as years, employed in studying the oriental But how can I believe that a pope can make saints ?

since Rome herself confesses that popes may burn well as good ones, and help to propagate languages. In the summer of 1821, he left in hell. mischievous error, will still admit that their England for Gibraltar; thence he proceed- In November, the Exercitia Spiritualia (which influence upon literature is decidedly bene ed to Malta, Alexandria, to Jerusalem and always precede the public lectures, and every ficial, whether they suppose this good ef. different parts of Palestine; at the close of solemn lestival) began; a strange clergyman, or fect to be dearly or cheaply purchased. the next year he returned to Malta, and some nonk, is invited at such a time to preach 10 These remarks were suggested to us by soon after went to Palestine a second time, lege are obliged to observe a strict silence two days, Mr Wolf's Journal. It exhibits a young with two missionaries from this country, and are ordered to meditate and to go every day man of bright intellect, acquiring by his The bulk of the volume is filled with the three times into the chapel, to hear the sermons or own efforts almost a “ gift of tongues," that narrative of his first visit to Palestine, exhortations of the missionary: The act begins he might be fit for the missionary work. which is contained in bis Journal and let- with holy song, Veni Sancte Spiritus, reple tuorum He is then engaged in collating the Scrip-ters. Our limits will not permit us to corda fidelium, et tui amoris ignem in eis accende, tures and commentaries upon them in va- make an analysis of this Journal, --which, faciem terræ." I heard sometimes, but not often, rious languages, in scrutinizing them rigor- we believe, most readers would find inter- sermons very fine, and according to the Gospel, ously, in disputing upon the remote deriva- esting. It exbibits the character of Mr especially when Prince O., the Stolberg of Rome, tions of words and obscure shades of mean- Wolf in a very favourable light, and proves preached to us in the seminary. He unites the zeal iog, and labouring to understand the pre- him to be possessed of uncommon talents of Elias and true Christianity, with great worldly cise force and purport of expressions, and and attainments. Mr Wolf's sincerity can- and love for the Gospel, the character of a man of to translate them exactly from one tongue not be doubted; and his representation of learning and philosophy. into another,--and all this with a zeal and the state and disposition of the Jews in va- The lectures upon Church History occupy four industry, which, were he a mere scholar, rious parts of the world, encourages the years, and yet they only come down to the fourwould ensure bim great fame. But we belief, that a spirit of inquiry, a willing teenth century, Dissertations about celibacy, the may leave the instance before us, which ness to know the doctrines and evidence of holy wars, and the infallibility of the popes, and

reconciling the fallibility of Pope Honorius with has many parallels, and advert to a few the christian religion is beginning to mani- the doctrine of infallibility, take up the greatest part facts of common notoriety. For almost all fest itself among them.

of the history. The professor's prudence surprised that we know of the twelve hundred dia- We do not know that any part of the me, when he lectured on the history of Henry IV. lects of North America, we are indebted work interested us more than those pages and Gregory VII. So long as he was able to defend to missionaries. Marsbman and Morrison of Mr Wolf's own memoir, which disclose the latter against the emperor, he did it; but when

he came to facts mentioned of the pope which he have brought the Chinese language and the actual condition of the papal court, could not defend, he merely read the history, and literature within reach of European schol- and makes us acquainted with the internal left us to form our own judgment. I only found ars; the obscure and almost forgotten Cop- economy, the customs, purposes, and prac. one amongst the pupils of the Seminary, who had a tic language is made to yield up its ele- tices of the seminaries and societies of spirit of tolerance, and knowledge of the Bible. ments to the uses of philology; the anoma- Rome. The following extracts are from

I frequently heard the noise of a crowd of people lous signs and exponents of the Chinese this part of the work.

flocking to the church called Rotunda, and exclaimwords are brought to illustrate the hiero

I entered the Seminario Romano the fifth of ing, " The mother of God opens her eyes and works glyphics of Egypt; and there is scarcely a September, 1816, being twenty years of age. i miracles.". The clergy send soldiers to guard the corner of the earth so remote or so obscure, received a long violet blue garment, and a triangu- image which represents the Virgin; and to deceive that something of its peculiar dialect may time the vacations of the schools took place, which collects money for the mother of God. lar hat like the other pupils of that college. At this the people, one priest reads mass, and another

It is true not be known by him who wishes to learn continued till the month of November: and I found the greatest part of the clergy said to me that this it. Of oriental literature it is peculiarly not so much edification in the Seminario Romano, was only the fanaticism of the people; but why true, that the study of every department of as in the shops of the German artists. The Semi- does the pope approve such an idolatrous fanatiit is facilitated by the means which mission- nario has, besides the master and vice-master, a cism, and why do they send soldiers to the altar of ary efforts have wrought out, and which, prefect also, who was a priest like the former, but a that image, and why do priests collect money for the but for these efforts, would not probably day in their walks, and when they assist any bishop the altar of that image, to show respect and hon

man of no talent. He accompanies the pupils every support of that image, and to celebrate mass before have existed. Again, missionary societies or cardinal, or the pope, in any ceremony. He calls our to it? The vicar-general, in a printed declarahave established presses among ihe princi- the pupils every day for the rosary prayer, and tion, approved the miracles, said to be wrought by pal heathen nations. What incalculable closes the door of the pupils' room in the evening, the image of the Virgin. advantages may be expected from this! and calls them up in the morning. This is the In the month of October, 1819, all the pupils Why may not Asia profit by the exercise month, and his board. When the prefect opens try-house. I saw there the villa of Mæcenas, the

whole duty; he receives for it two crowns per went to Tivoli, where they have a very fine coun. of this wonderful art, almost as Europe bas the doors, and awakes the pupils, one of them is grotto of Neptune, the ruins of the barracks of the profited by it? At all events, it is a great obliged to recite the Litany of the Virgin Mary; army of Trajan, and the ruins of the temple of the thing to have put so powerful an instru- and they are all obliged to cry, Ora pro nobis, Sybil ; and I read Horace's poetry in one of his ment into operation.

which they do mechanically, and without devotion! own country houses. I went one day, with the Joseph Wolf was born in 1796, in Wei- After that, they go into the private chapel, and read other pupils, to the church of the Eriars of that

a meditation taken from the book of the Jesuit town. They were then celebrating ne festival of lersbach, in Bavaria. His father was a Seyneri, which contains some good things, logether St Franciscus Assissi. AU the monks of Rome Rabbi; and intending his son to be a very with Mohammedan notions and abominable super are accustoned to preach sermons on the day of orthodox Jew, he educated him according stitions. The description of hell and paradise here their patriarch, which they call Panegyrica. I ly. But Joseph was disposed, while yet

a given, is the

same 1 once read in a superstitious heard the panegyricum of si Franciscus of Assissi, boy, to become a Christian; when seven. After meditation they go to hear mass in another all the miracles of St Franciscus, and all the pains teen years old he was baptized, and three private chapel, and then breakfast; and in the days of his body, where they observed the five wounds years after he entered the Seminario Ro- l when public lectures are given, they are obliged to of Christ. And, alter the acconnt of these mira

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bronght into action; and wild beasts, venomous their general character is diversified by local cir: they do; but the Colombian government reptiles, and tormenting insects, enter equally into cumstances, we may observe that the inhabitants of are not, therefore, to be considered so absofor his peculiar use and convenience. The climate

, port towns, are the most refined and intelligent: lutely devoid of common sense and prudence though hot, is neither so unhealthy nor debilitating that the inhabitants of the interior and mountain as the Colonel supposes. They might find as that of the seacoast, the air being refreshed and country, particularly of New Grenada, are the most in the doings of other American congresses, purified by the strong breezes blowing constantly simple in their habits, the least crafty in their dis- which are admitted to be the wisest in the over this grassy ocean, which extends

not less than positions, buit ignorant, timid, selfish, and inhospit: world, some enactments on a principle not 300 miles in every direction betwixt the Andes and able. The inhabitants of the plains form a totally the Orinoco.

distinct class, whose characteristics, as their mode very different from their own. Of the vegetable productions of this coun- of life, are peculiarly their own. Nothing is, ac- sume, moreover, that Colonel Hall 'has

cording to an European view of the subject, more heard of such things as corn laws in his try it is unnecessary to speak. It is obvious, pacific than the life of a herdsman, nothing less native land, as well as other matters, in that there are few, which might not find a likely to engender ferocity or military habits ; it is regard to which the imperial parliament itcongenial soil in some part of this exten, sufficient, however, to have once witnessed the self is somewhat in the rear of the march of products are the pearls of Margaritta and different opinion. The immense herds raised in political science. boundless and unenclosed plains, are gathered,

This work will be most interesting to Goagira, the fisheries of which are now penned, or conducted, as change of pasture may emigrants, for whose use indeed it is more monopolized by a British company. The require

, by half-naked horsemen, each armed with particularly intended. It will, therefore, be mineral treasures are gold, silver, platina, a lance, whose rapid movements, shouts, and wild

more valuable in Great Britain than it can and emeralds.

demeanour, suggest the idea of a body of Tartar cavSo much for the country, which, it must alry. The untamed nature of the cattle themselves, be in this country, for few, we imagine, will be admitted, is a fairer land than our own. the deep and rapid rivers over which they are fre- whatever may be its disadvantages, for a

the attacks of wild beasts to which they are exposed be so Quixotic as to leave a land like ours, We have next to inquire concerning its in: quently to be led, with a variety of circumstances residence in the semi-barbarous republics habitants and government, and here we shall essential to the mode of life of the Llaneros

, or of South America. To the indigent agrifind the superiority no longer visible. The Plainsmen, all require and produce those habits by culturists of many portions of England, character of the former is various, and is which they are distinguished; besides being the

breeders and keepers of the cattle, they are also Colombia will doubtless have charms, and thus described by our author.

their butchers, both from necessity and amusement. another century will probably find, on the Long habits of slavery and oppression, partially Their chief, we may say their only, pastime, is fertile plains of Venezuela and New Grencounteracted by a feverish interval of liberty, ill drawn froin this source : to throw a Lazo, or ada, other men and other principles from understood and imperfectly enjoyed; the almost coiled rope, round a bull's horns while at his speed, total want of education, and absence of that moral to pierce him in the spine, or hamstring him tili those which have so long disgraced and stimulus, which, under the name of honour or char- they have occasion to kill him; to flay, quarter, and abused this garden of the world. acter, forces every respectable individual of Euro- divide his quivering carcase with all the technicality Many in this country, we suppose, will be pean society to a line of conduct conformable with of our old European huntsman, is the pride and al- curious to learn more particulars of the his situation; all these circumstances have produced most the sole enjoyment of their lives. The revo actual state of the South American prove a negativeness or debility both in thought and as lution thus found them a ready made body of irreg: inces, than we have been able to give in tion, which renders them troublesome to deal with, ular cavalry, i popular cheif sprang unito anive this short sketch; and they will find in the to calculate their behaviour except you could be very short time bebeld them excellent Guerillas, account of Colonel Hall, a great deal of incertain of the last idea which has occupied their and not less expert thieves and cut-throats—in their formation, which cannot, as far as we know, imagination, for the feeling of interest most imme. favour we must

revoke our negation as to the natu- be found any where else, and much of it of conduct! Does a merchant contract with a planter haps, in the world, a race of people who shed her clude this article with an anecdote, which diately present is pretty generally decisive of their ral cruelty of the Colombians. There is not, per a very interesting character. We shall confor quantity of coffee or cocoa at a certain rater man blood with more indifference on with a lighted illustrates the nature of the

care which the should another purchaser appear ind offer the qualities, if we except courage, and a strong love Holy Inquisition exercised over the morals slightest advance of price. The readiness with of independence, their defects are redeemed or of the subjects, under the ancient regime. which they break a promise or an agreement, can qualified; pacific virtues they have done; it is only be equalled by the sophistical ingenuity with fortunate, however, that the natural abundance of

A painter in Bogota, of the name of Antonio which they defend themselves for having done so the plains tends constantly to diniinish their dispo Garcia, had two paintings from which he used to In this respect they seem a nation of lawyers, who, sition towards a life of savage marauding; were it study-a Hercules spinning by the side of Omphale,

with ease, twist words and meanings as they otherwise, the Llaneros would be to Colombia, what I and Endymion sleeping on the breast of Diana: the please.' As the reproach of being a liar is the last the Moors of the Nubian desert are to Egypt and Commissary of the Inquisition was informed of the insult which can be offered or endured among free the interior of Africa ?

circumstance on the ground that the pictures were

indecent, searched his cabinet, and bad them cut in men, so is the term lie the last to be used in decent

The government is framed according to pieces, which the owner was allowed to keep.' conversation; here, on the contrary, not only is the expressiorf a good one, and adapted to the meridian the central system, and is much better in of the genteelest society, but the reproach of being theory than in practice. The distance of a liar may be safely cast on friend or foe with as the capital from the various provinces, the Missionary Journal and Memoir of the little offence given or taken as the term : Rake' or difficulty of travelling, but above all, the Rev. Joseph Wolf, Missionary to the * Prodigal would cause in a fashionable, London character of a people just emerged from the Jews. Written by himself._Revised and homilies in defence of liberty, that without it there most degrading slavery, will probably long edited by John Bauford, Esq. F. S. A. can be no virtue. prevent any government, and much more a

New York 1824. 12mo. pp. 332. The most pleasing trait in the character of the republican one, from possessing that effi- There are few things in which sensible Colombian Creoles is good nature. It is easy to ciency, which is necessary for protecting and conscientious men differ so much as in live with them if you require little of them: they individual rights against the encroachments their views of the utility and tendency of have little or no active benevolence, because such of craft or power. Indeed, as our author missions. Different minds may, and as they reflection. But they are not vindictive, for revenge observes, the forms of government in the are impressed with different convictions, is both a strong and a permanent feeling ; nor are South American provinces must be consid- must have different opinions of the characthey cruel, although this assertion may seem para: ered as yet, as experimental. Liberty, edu- ter and amount of the good and evil from doxical to those acquainted with the history of the cation, and the emigration of foreigners, which they spring, and which they effect. ties which are the fruit of a savage nature, and such will

, in time, enable them to establish one But this difference of opinion must be conas weakness itself may give birth to, when

that shall be better adapted to their circum- fined to their use as religious missions; for Roused up to too much wrath which follows o'er stances than any which has hitherto been their influence upon the interests of litera

in operation. Colonel Hall criticises some ture will receive unqualified acknowledg. Neither are they in general proud or assuming, ex: with severity, supposing them to evince an these interests of value. In estimating

of the prohibitory regulations of the congressment and commendation from all who deem Which occasions they are apt to verify the musty ignorance or contempt of the clearest prin- their efficacy and importance with respect piroverb, "Set a beggar on horseback. As far as ciples of political economy, and doubtless to religion, many considerations should be

grown fears.'

taken into view ; for, while all admit that mano, with the intent of becoming a mem- | walk eight or nine hours. In the first month of my tares are sown with the wheat, who re- ber of the Propaganda Society. Before stay in that seminary, I went with the others to see member that the missionaries, and they long he became convinced that popery was vih, and I considered the canonization not as a who send them, are subject to human frail. not the best form of the religion of Christ; beatification and sanctification, but only as a repreties, and do not believe that the mere send- he suffered some petty persecution in Rome, sentation, or a description of the grace of God ing or going on this errand purifies from left the papal court in disgrace, and arriv- working in the individul; but I found afterwards, all error,-it is no less true that the Word ed in England in 1819. He was recom- that my idea was not according to the Romish sysof God is thus scattered abroad among the mended to the London Society for Promot- tem. In Rome, they divide the canonization into nations, and light from Heaven made to ing Christianity among the Jews, and by second Sentificazione: both acts cost the family of penetrate the darkness. But they who them was sent to Cambridge, and afterwards the saint a great price. The words beatificazione believe that these religious missions are in to the Missionary College at Stansted, in and santifiazione correspond entirely to the Latin efficient as to their principal purpose, or Sussex, at which places he remained two words, beatum facere, and sanctum facere aliquem. that they call into exercise bad passions as years, employed in studying the oriental But how can I believe that a pope can make saints ?

since Rome herself confesses that popes may burn well as good ones, and help to propagate languages. In the summer of 1821, he left in hell. mischievous error, will still admit that their England for Gibraltar; thence be proceed- In November, the Exercitia Spiritualia (wbich influence upon literature is decidedly bene- ed to Malta, Alexandria, to Jerusalem and always precede the public lectures, and every ficial, whether they suppose this good ef. different parts of Palestine; at the close of solemn festival) began; a strange clergyman, or fect to be dearly or cheaply purchased. the next year he returned to Malta, and some monk, is invited at such a time to preach 10

These remarks were suggested to us by soon after went to Palestine a second time, lege are obliged to observe a strict silence two days, Mr Wolf's Journal. It exhibits a young with two missionaries from this country, and are ordered to meditate and to go every day man of bright intellect, acquiring by his The bulk of the volume is filled with the three times into the chapel, to hear the sermons or own efforts almost a “gift of tongues,” that narrative of his first visit to Palestine, exhortations of the missionary: The act begins he might be fit for the missionary work. which is contained in his Journal and let with boly song, "Veni Sancte Spiritus, reple tuorum He is then engaged in collating the Scrip-ters. Our limits will not permit us to emitte spiritum tuum et creabuntur, et renovabis

corda fidelium, et tui amoris ignem in eis accende, tures and commentaries upon them in va- make an analysis of this Journal, --which, faciem terræ.' I heard sometimes, but not often, rious languages, in scrutinizing them rigor- we believe, most readers would find inter- sermons very fine, and according to the Gospel, ously, in disputing upon the remote deriva- esting. It exhibits the character of Mr especially when Prince O.

, the Stolberg of Rome, tions of words and obscure shades of mean- Wolf in a very favourable light, and proves preached to us in the seminary. He unites the zeal ing, and labouring to understand the pre- him to be possessed of uncommon talents of Elias and true Christianity, with great worldly cise force and purport of expressions, and and attainments

. Mr Wolf's sincerity can- and love for the Gospel, the character of a man of to translate them exactly from one tongue not be doubted; and his representation of learning and philosophy. into another,—and all this with a zeal and the state and disposition of the Jews in va- The lectures upon Church History occupy four industry, which, were he a mere scholar, rious parts of the world, encourages the years, and yet they only come down to the fourwould ensure bim great fame. But we belief, that a spirit of inquiry, a willing teenth century, Dissertations about celibacy, the may leave the instance before us, which ness to know the doctrines and evidence of holy wars, and the infallibility of the popes, and

reconciling the fallibility of Pope Honorius with has many parallels, and advert to a few the christian religion is beginning to mani- the doctrine of infallibility, take up the greatest part facts of common notoriety. For almost all fest itself among them.

of the history. The professor's prudence surprised that we know of the twelve hundred dia. We do not know that any part of the me, when he lectured on the history of Henry IV. lects of North America, we are indebted work interested us more than those pages the latter against the emperor,

he did it; but when

and Gregory VII. So long as he was able to defend to missionaries. Marshman and Morrison of Mr Wolf's own memoir, which disclose he came to facts mentioned of the pope which he have brought the Chinese language and the actual condition of the papal court, could not defend, he merely read the history, and literature witbin reach of European schol- and makes us acquainted with the internal left us to form our own judgment. I only found ars; the obscure and almost forgotten Cop- economy, the customs, purposes, and prac- one amongst the pupils of the Seminary, who had a tic language is made to yield up its ele- tices of the seminaries and societies of spirit of tolerance, and knowledge of the Bible. ments to the uses of philology; the anoma- Rome. The following extracts are from

I frequently heard the noise of a crowd of people lous signs and exponents of the Chinese this part of the work.

Alocking to the church called Rotunda, and exclaimwords are brought to illustrate the biero- I entered the Seminario Romano the fifth of ing, "The mother of God opens her eyes and works glyphics of Egypt; and there is scarcely a September, 1816, being twenty years of age. I miracles." The clergy send soldiers to guard the corner of the earth so remote or so obscure, received a long violet blue garment, and a triangu- image which represents the Virgin; and to deceive that something of its peculiar dialect may time the vacations of the schools took place, which collects money for the mother of God. lar hat like the other pupils of that college. At this the people, one priest reads mass, and another

It is true not be known by him who wishes to learn continued till the month of November: and I found the greatest part of the clergy said to me that this it. Of oriental literature it is peculiarly not so much edification in the Seminario Romano, was only the fanaticism of the people; but why true, that the study of every department of as in the shops of the German artists. The Semi- does the pope approve such an idolatrous fanatiit is facilitated by the means which mission-nario has, besides the master and vice-master, a cism, and why do they send soldiers to the altar of ary efforts have wrought out, and which, prefect also, who was a priest like the former, but a that image, and why do priests collect money for the but for these efforts, would not probably day in their walks, and when they assist any bishop the altar of

that image, to show respect and honman of no talent. He accompanies the pupils every support of that image, and to celebrate mass before have existed. Again, missionary societies or cardinal, or the pope, in any ceremony. He calls our to it? The vicar-general, in a printed declarahave established presses among ihe princi- the pupils every day for the rosary prayer, and tion, approved the miracles, said to be wrought by pal heathen nations. What incalculable closes the door of the pupils' room in the evening, the image of the Virgin. advantages may be expected from this! and calls them up in the morning. This is the In the month of October, 1819, all the pupils Why may not Asia profit by the exercise month, and his board. When the prefect opens try-house. I saw there the villa of Mæcenas, the

whole duty; he receives for it two crowns per went to Tivoli, where they have a very fine coun. of this wonderful art, almost as Europe has the doors, and awakes the pupils, one of them is grotto of Neptune, the ruins of the barracks of the profited by it? At all events, it is a great obliged to recite the Litany of the Virgin Mary, army of Trajan, and the ruins of the temple of the thing to have put so powerful an instru- and they are all obliged to cry, Ora pro nobis, Sybil; and I read Horace's poetry in one of his ment into operation.

which they do mechanically, and without devotion! own country houses. I went one day, with the Joseph Wolf was born in 1796, in Wei- After that, they go into the private chapel, and read ouber pupils, to the church of the Friars of that

a meditation taken from the book of the Jesuit town. They were then celebrating ie festival of lersbach, in Bavaria. His father was a Seyneri, which contains some good things, together St Franciscus Assissi. AU the monks of Rome Rabbi; and intending his son to be a very with Mohammedan notions and abominable super. are accustonied to preach sermons on the day of orthodox Jew, he educated him according- stitions. The description of hell and paradise here their patriarch, which they call Panegyrica. I ly. But Joseph was disposed, while yet

a given, is the same 1 once read in a superstitious heard the panegyricum of si Franciscus of Assissi, boy, to become a Christian; when seven- Alter meditation they go to hear mass in another all the miracles of St Franciscus, and all the pains teen years old he was baptized, and three private chapel, and then breakfast;

and in the days of his body, where they observed the five wounds years after he entered the Seminario Ro-1 when public lectures are given, they are obliged to of Christ. And, after the acconnt of these mira.

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their several errors in opinion and in lan-, and, in a word, admirably suited, I think, which not only debases that, but which guage, and rectifies the whole matter in an to make easy, pleasant, and intelligible the will also throw its tinge of gall over all intelligible manner. The utmost paiņs are highly important subjects of his inquiry. I the honourable ambition and enterprise of taken to cultivate in the pupils the habit of know of few American specimens in didac- our lives. Our elementary instructers expressing their opinions freely; and, under tic writing superior to it. You will see it, should look carefully to this. The rod is a the tuition of a competent and faithful in- by a single glance over any of the pages, to much better corrective of indolence, than structer, how can they avoid learning to be of the author's own composition. And it is bad passions are. Indeed the latter remedy converse with ease and propriety on the deserving of the greater praise in Mr Park- is incomparably worse, on all accounts, numerous topics which will be introduced hurst, because he is evidently a devoted than the disease can possibly become. in the course of a regular education? How admirer of Dr Brown's Lectures on the You will observe that I confine my refew persons ever learn the art of conversing Philosophy of the Human Mind, which are marks here to the use of emulation in early well; and how little is done by common in their style extremely wordy, prolix, and intellectual education. It is because i modes of education to cultivate it. It can- repetitious,-faults, however, much more would not banish it from the system entirenot be doubted, that the method adopted by excusable in that mode of composition than ly. Very noble, generous feelings are Pestalozzi is admirably calculated to im- in any other.

sometimes awakened and brought forth by prove this faculty,-a talent which, as social When I have said thus much in favour of it. There is scarcely a single gañe of beings, is the most important with which we the book, I am sorry to add, that it is the skill or of ingenuity, or of any interesting are endowed.

greatest and perhaps the only encomium it yet honourable competition, where it does

deserves as a whole. There is very little, not prevail. It forms the mainspring of Elements of Moral Philosophy : comprising if any, original matter in it. The reason- some of our most innocent social amuse

the Theory of Morals and Practical ings and conclusions, and indeed the order ments, where nothing but the kindest moEthics. By John L. Parkhurst. Con- and arrangement of Brown and Paley form tives can have play. They owe to it, incord, N. H. 1825. 12mo. pp. 257. the great body of the work. Copious ex- deed, all their value, all their delight.

tracts are made continually from those Higher purposes too, have, without doubt, (We sent this volume to a lover of moral phi- highly popular writers. Page after page, been generously accomplished by it. The lososphy for a Review, and in answer to our reo nay, chapter after chapter are taken from classical scholar will scarcely be willing to quest he wrote us the following private letter, which them almost entire; and you will scarcely believe that the rival competitors at the we have since obtained leave of him to lay before open the volume casually without lighting Olympic games secretly envied and haled our readers.)

upon some quotation or reference to them, each other. And perhaps I may say gen

or without perceiving that the author's re- erally that comparatively late in life, when

March, 1825. marks are based altogether upon their the moral character is cast, or at least when DEAR Sır,

maxims and principles. So striking is this the feelings have acquired decisively a I happened to be out of town when in fact, that it appears at first sight rather kind, social, affectionate tendency, it may your little volume was left at my room, and designed for a compilation, or an abstract always be introduced with much advantage, it was not till last evening that I had an with a commentary upon them, than for an and made a very powerful incentive to inopportunity of cutting the leaves, and read. original work itself. It is true, very gen- dustry and enterprise. It is rather a fault ing it, or rather of running it very hastily erous credit is given in the mean time. in Mr Parkhurst, I think, that he makes no

The author seldom takes without acknowl- distinctions of this sort, but wishes the prinIt is not in my power to give you a prop-edging to the full amount of his obligation. ciple banished altogether. His reasonings er review of it at present. The innumera- This is but a poor apology however. His upon the subject are indeed able and in- ' ble reflections which always crowd upon readers will scarcely excuse him for calling genious. would advise you to take into the mind whenever a subject in ethics or on them to read over again such long, de- your review large extracts from this chapmental philosophy is fairly presented to it, tailed, elaborate discussions of other phi- ter, as much the most favourable specimen I have no leisure now to digest and arrange, losophers, after the promise he makes to of the writer's talents and good feelings, and if I were to pour them out to you in de them on his title-page.

and excellent taste in the didactic style of tail, they would probably overflow your There are two or three honourable ex. composition.* pages, and you must publish a number of ceptions to the censures I have just now Generally, however, when Mr Parkhurst your Gazette extra, -and extra tedious, I past,-exceptions which prove the author Indeed, it seems to me quite im- to have resources within himself, and

* The following are the concluding remarks of possible, within the narrow limits of a pub- must make us lament the more that he

the excellent chapter above referred to.

VII. Concluding remarks. lication such as yours, to do any thing like should choose to throw himself so 1. Emulation, in every degree and in every justice to a theme of this magnitude. The tirely upon those furnished him by other form, is criminal, and ought never to have a place subject is altogether too large for its grasp. people. I have now in my eye particu- in the breast. This is evident from what has alIt is most grand and comprehensive,-em-larly the chapter on “Emulation,” in the ready been said; but the importance of the subject bracing the greatest number and variety of part which is beaded “ Practical Ethics." will justify us in bringing it more distinctly into questions, all equally interesting to every This is very excellent. The nature and

Emulation is a selfish principle ; and is inconclass of your readers, and yet all to be dis- origin of that feeling,-its union with sistent with the exercise of pure and universal becussed in an abstract, refined, and some pride, vanity, hatred, and low ambition,- nevolence. If it were an innocent or a benevolent what metaphysical manner. I shall at- its dangerous tendency ;-that it leads to, principle, a failure of success in striving to excel, tempt nothing of this sort now. All you awakens, and gradually brings into action desire and seek our own bappiness; but it is not

would not produce envy and hatred. It is right to must expect from me is my idea of the gen- the most malignant passions of our nature, right to do this with feelings which can prevent us eral character of the book you have sent and that, by its violence and exclusive from rejoicing in the happiness of others, even me. Perhaps this may save you the trouble occupation of the mind, it frequently de- when they are more successful and more happy of reading it so attentively, though I ad- feats its own great purposes of improve than ourselves. That emulation is inconsistent vise you, as my friend, to burn up these ment and supremacy,--are here in these with benevolence, is a proposition, which is capable remarks, take it in hand, and give it a pages finely set forth and demonstrated. certain station, in respect to talents, knowledge, thorougb examination yourself.

Certainly this principle is used injudicious reputation, and usefulness. To see others inferior But to the work itself. And, in the first ly in our own common systems of early in to him in these respects, gives a pleasure, which place, the author deserves a great deal of tellectual education. If the head is en- ceases as soon as they are raised to an equality praise for the style in which he offers it to lightened, it is at the expense of the heart. with him, and is converted into pain as soon as they the public. This is pure and classic,-sim- We can hardly pronounce knowledge to all the while, remains the same. The pleasure ple and unaffected, -rich, without being be a source of enjoyment when thus ac arises from seeing others destitute of a good which encumbered with superfluous ornaments ; quired. There is an alloy mingled with it, I he enjoys ; ceases as soon as the same blessings

over.

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