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THE UNITED STATES LITERARY GAZETTE.

Published on the first and fifteenth day of every month, by Cummings, Hilliard, & Co. No. 1 Cornhill, Boston.-Terms, $5 per annum, payable in July.
VOL. I.
BOSTON, MARCH 16, 1825.

No. 23.
REVIEWS.

published in this country sooner or later, / ferent places abroad, a paraphrase of Horace's Art and as Mr Dallas shows satisfactorily, that of Poetry, which would be a good finish 10 English

Bards and Scotch Reviewers. *** He seemed to Recollections of the Life of Lord Byron, either to the family of Lord Byron, or to dertook its publication, as I had done that of the

they are not of a kind to be offensive, promise himself additional fame from it, and I unfrom the year 1808 to the end of 1814; the good taste or feelings of the commu- Satire. *** I looked over the Paraphrase,

which I -- exhibiting his Early Character and Opinnity.

bad taken bome with me, and I must say, I was ions, detailing the Progress of his Literary Career, and including various unpublish

The origin of this work is thus described. grievously disappointed. *** In not disparaging

this poem, however, next day, I could not refrain ed passages of his works.

Taken from

Having been in habits of intimacy, and in fre- from expressing some surprise that he had written Authentic Documents, in the possession of quent correspondence with Cord Byron, from the nothing else ; upon which, he told me that he had the Author. By the late R C. Dallas, dence about that period ceased, Mr Dallas had many stanzas in Spenser's measure, relative to the Esq. To which is prefixed an Account of many times heard him read portions of a book in countries he had visited. They are not worth the Circumstances leading to the Suppress- which bis Lordship inserted his opinion of the per troubling you with, but you shall have them all ion of Lord Byron's Correspondence with sons with whom he mixed. This book, Lord By: with you, if you like. So came I by Childe Harthe Author, and his Letters to his mother, ron said, he intended for publication after his death; old’s Pilgrinage. He said it had been read but by lately announced for publication. Phila- riod, adopted that of writing a faithful delineation and much to condemn; that he himself was of that delphia. 1825. 8vo. pp. 222.

of Lord Byron's character, such as he had known opinion, and he was sure I should be so too; but We believe that some have entertained an him, and of leaving it for publication after the he was urgent that the . Hints from Horace should incorrect opinion respecting this work. It probability of Lord Byron's surviving himself, he have done. How much he was mistaken as to my has been supposed that its publication was meant the two posthumous works should thus ap- opinion, the following letter shows. *** Attentive prevented in England by a chancery in- pear simultaneously: Mr Dallas's work was com as he had hitherto been to my opinions and sug. junction; and that it therefore probably pleted in the year 1819; and, in November of that gestions, and natural as it was, that he should be contained matter offensive to the relations year, he wrote to inform Lord Byron of his intend swayed by such decided praise, I was surprised to ed purpose.

find that I could not at first obtain credit with Lord of Lord Byron, or such as was, for other

The event proved the fallacy of human probabili- Byron for my judgment on Childe Harold's Pif. considerations, improper to be published. ty-Mr Dallas lived, at seventy, to see the death of grimage. It was any thing but poetry—it had The truth is, that certain letters only, Lord Byron, at thirty-seven.

been condemned by a good critic*-had I not my. which originally formed a part of it, were Much, however, of the contents of the self seen the sentences on the margins of the manforbidden to be published by the Lord original manuscript is said to be omitted in uscript ?'*** He at length seemed impressed by Chancellor; and the question concerning the present work, for obvious reasons. The my perseverance, and took the poem into consider these seems not to have been, whether or author of it, Mr Dallas, sen., died soon any of the stanzas, but they could not be published not they were improper, as containing per- after the settlement of the legal question; as they stood *** (and be afterwards) undertook to sonal or criminal allusions, but whether the editor is his son, who is in holy orders. curtail and soften them. *** I did all I could to they were the literary property of the pub

These Recollections do not throw much raise his opinion of this composition, and I suclisber. The law on this subject, as laid new light upon the character of their sub-ceeded; but he varied much in his feelings about down by Lord Eldon, is as follows.

it, nor was he, as will appear, at his ease until the ject; nor do they tend to alter the opinion world decided on its merit. He said again and If A writes a letter to B, B bas the property in we expressed of his Lordship in our review again, that I was going to get him into a scrape that letter, for the purpose of reading and keeping of Captain Medwin's book. The author was with his old eneories, and that none of them would it, but no property in it to publish it.

a very different person from the Captain, rejoice more than the Edinburgh Reviewers at an Mr Dallas contends that most of the let- to be sure. He was a relation of the poet, opportunity to humble him. ters in question were addressed to Lord and, as such, was proud of his talents, and Mr Dallas found it nearly as difficult to Byron's mother, and given to him by bis a little vain of being connected with him. persuade the booksellers to undertake the Lördship, to dispose of as he should think He was deeply interested in his character publication. best. Whatever passed between them on and conduct, and laboured with commenda

I carried it to Miller, and left it with him, enthis subject, however, was verbal and unwit- ble zeal to make him a good, as well as a

joining bim the strictest secrecy as to the author. nessed, and on that account not sufficient great man. Though his Lordship appears in a few days, by appointment I called again to to take the case from under the law. The to have regarded him with some gratitude know his decision. He declined publishing it. He letters, therefore, could not be published and respect, Mr Dallas' attempt to improve noticed all my objections; his critic had pointed without the permission of the executors, bis moral and religious character was, as is them out; but his chief objection he stated to be Messrs Hobhouse and Hanson,—and this well known, completely unsuccessful ; and the manner

in which
Lord Ælgin

was treated in the permission was refused.

soon after the period, when these Recol- Next to these I wished to oblige Mi Murray, *** If we understand the case, the work be. I lections terminate, that is, about the year I now had it in my power, and I put Childe Harfore us is the same, or nearly the same, as it 1816, it was relinquished in despair. old's Pilgrimage into his hands. *** He took some would have been if no injunction had been

The most curions part of this book is the days to consider, during which he consulted his abovementioned. This omission was a matter which we shall extract several portions, view. That Mr Gifford gave a favourable opinion granted, with the omission of the letters literary history of the Childe Harold, of literary advisers, among whom, no doubt, was Mi of necessity in England, but it appears, from endeavouring, as far as possible, to give in 1 afterwards learned from Mr Murray himselt; but the observations of the editor, that it was this way au abridgment of it, as here relat- the objections (religious and political) I have statpublished in Paris in its original form. We ed. On the first interview between Mr ed stared him in the face, and he was kept in sus think, therefore, that the American pub- Dallas and bis Lordship, on his return from pense by the desire of possessing a work of Lord lishers would have found little difficulty in his travels in 1811, the latter observed tion. We came to this conclusion; that he should giving us the whole, which would have that been much more acceptable ; especially as He believed satire to be his forte, and to that he

* It does not appear who this critic was. We there can be no doubt that they will be had adhered, having written, during his stay at dit- think he would hardly wish to be known.

print, at his expense, a handsome quarto edition, , ings of the author of these Recollections, 1 soon lose his wreath, but there are none the profits of which I should share equally with and we cannot but sympathize, in some de- who deny the great excellence of his prose him, and that the agreement for the copy-right

This noble composition. His style is remarkable nom should depend upon the success of this edition. gree, with his indignation. *** While Childe Harold was preparing to be property was a grant from Henry VIII. to its vivacity and directness; the fervour of put into the printer's hands, Lord Byron was very the ancestors of the poet, and the estate composition is never quenched, never abatanxious for the speedy appearance of the imita- had ever since descended regularly in the ed; he understands himself well, and, as it tion of Horace, * * which I was nevertheless family. It was valued at more than half a must be with those who think clearly and most desirous of retarding at least, if not suppress- million dollars. Moreover, it came to his are in earnest, his language is perspicuous ing altogether.

Lordship in the line of collateral descent, and strong. He appears to write with great Mr Dallas' perseverance was well re- he being only grand-nephew to the former facility ; to throw off his thoughts as they warded. The first edition of the Pilgrim- proprietor, while he left behind him a arise, and in the garb which they volun. age was sold in three days, and its author, cousin to inherit a barren title. As re- tarily assume, as if it were an unnecessary who, before its appearance, had become less publicans, indeed, we must “ abhor a per- and unworthy toil, to labour upon mere anxious for that of the “ Horatian Hints,” petuity," and congratulate ourselves that expressions. No doubt, his style is often at last consented to suppress the latter al- our laws and customs alike prevent the en- elaborated with great care, and his finest together. A singular circumstance attend- tailment or continuation of estates, undi- passages owe probably as much of their exed the publication of the Childe Harold. vided, through a series of generations ;- cellence to his industry as to his ability. It was announced for the first of March; but opposing in this respect the natural feeling, But be is artful enough to conceal his art; circumstances prevented its appearance, which leads individuals to desire such per- for no writer appears, especially to readers as intended, to the serious vexation of Mr petuities in their own particular cases. who do not read to criticise, to labour less, Dallas, whose review of it in a periodical Yet, as men, we cannot but entertain a or to abandon himself more entirely to the journal did actually appear on that day. mean opinion of the heart, which was either innpulses of bis heart or inagination. There Luckily the subject of it was issued so soon so destitute of that feeling, or had so far are scholars, wbo are men of fine sense and after, and excited so much admiration, that diminished its power by yielding to the in- much general ability, but are not gifted with no one thought of ridiculing the review, Auence of debasing passions, as to be will the power of fluent and varied expression. which in fact proved an excellent adver- ing, without urgent necessity, to set a price They are poor in words; and this poverty tisement for the poem, which was deliver- upon a mansion which had been the “bome of language, whatever may be thought of it, ed as fast as it could be put up in sheets. of his forefathers” for three centuries. But has an injurious intluence, if not upon the

It is unnecessary to speak of the adulation this is not the worst. He had given his mind, at least upon its literary creations. which was immediately lavished upon Lord solemn and written promise to his mother, The attention is diverted from the thought Byron. But Childe Harold's Pilgrimage and pledged his honour repeatedly to Mr to its exponent; words must be sought with brought at once glory and ruin to its author. Dallas, that Newstead and he should be effort, and labour bestowed upon them, Among other gratulatory epistles, he re- ioriver inseparable.

which might be employed otherwise to adceived one from a lady, beginning with I have heard [says Mr Dallas] that the pur- vantage ;-—but there is a greater evil yet; “Dear Childe Harold,” enclosing a copy chaser means to remove the Abbey as rubbish, and when the march of thought and imagination of verses, and concluding with the assur- lo build a modern villa upon its site. It may be as is stopped at every moment, while the reance that though she should be glad to be well for the poet's fame ; for though his genius luctant memory yields up the

necessary acquainted with him, she can feel no other might mantle every stone from the foundation to words, it must be difficult to urge the mind

, emotion for him than admiration and re

forward with such torce and activity, that gard, as her heart is already engaged to and we agree with him entirely.

its owo motion may enkindle it, and give to

In the course of this work we noticed its emanations brightness and warmth. No another.”

This, as the editor observes in another many circumstances which tend to confirm impediments lie in the path of Mr Southey; place,

the opinion which we expressed, in a pre- his affluence of language is limited only led immediately to the most disgraceful liaison of of the Conversations of Captain Medwin. his words come not unwillingly. He seems

ceding number, of the general authenticity with the reach of bis native tongue, and which he has not scrupled to boast. There was something so disgusting in the forwardness of the The author seems to have imagined that to deliver himself up to his subject; and, person who wrote, as well as deterring in the enor his Recollections would tend, on the whole, though often eloquent, pathetic, or even mity of the criminal excesses of which this letter to place the character of Lord Byron in a sublime, there is a naturalness in the most was the beginning, that he should have been rous. more favourable point of view than it has splendid and powerful passages, which comed against such a temptation at the first glance. hitherto enjoyed. We differ from him in this pels the reader to believe, that his loftiest blown upon him, and having raised him in its particular, and are rather afraid that the flights are reached almost without consciouswhirlwind above the earth, he had already begun more we learn of his Lordship’s feelings and ness, and always without effort. There is to deify himself in bis own imagination; and tnis conduct, the less we shall like them.

too in the very harmony of his diction, someincense came to him as the first offered upon his altar. He was intoxicated with its fumes; and book by remarking, that the band of the ally carried quite too far, as there are pas

We shall conclude our observations on this thing of the same character; it is occasionclosing his mind against the light that had so long book-maker is rather too obvious, and that sages which cannot be read without the through every transparent part

, he called darkness all which is really interesting to the Ameri- regular cadence of measured rhythm; but light, and the bitter sweet, and said peace when can public, at least, might have been com- it seems to be the result, not of artifice, but there was no peace.

prised within a much smailer space. of the willing obedience by which a throngIt may be observed that the copy-right

ing multitude of words acknowledge the of this poem, as well as of some others, was

sway of a tuneful ear. given to Mr Dallas by his Lordship, who The Book of the Church. By Robert Southey, made a principle, at that time at least, of

Esq. LL. D. Poet Laureate. Honorary works of this author must be interesting in

It might well be expected, that all the not receiving any thing for his literary

Member of the Royal Spanish Academy, no common degree; and the “ Book of the

&c. &c. &c. From the Second London Church” is eminently so. Few readers will performances. A copy of Lord Byron's maiden speech

Edition. In two Volumes. Boston. 1825. lay it down until they bave gone through it, is here given. It is eloquently written,

8vo.

and few, we think, will wish it had been and was well received, but according to Mr Southey is unquestionably one of the less. It has, however, faults of a serious Mr Dallas, his delivery was bad, resem. best prose writers of this day. There are nature ;—which will lessen its usefulness. bling that of a school-boy repeating from various opinions respecting ihe merits and with all readers, and its interest with those memory:

character of his poetry; the Laureate of who require that a work, the end of which But the sale of Newstead Abbey seems England, if bis rank were to abide the is instruction, should be characterized by to have been the unkindest cut to the feel- / judgment of some powerful critics, would due regard for truth and impartiality. “The Book of the Church” is intended to be, and is, , lent party, who identify church and state, father's throne, and acquire greater power than any a panegyric upon the Church Establishment and cling to them as if they formed indeed of the Anglo-Saxon princes nad possessed before of England. The author distinctly avows their rock of temporal salvation. Now what him; and he asked of him, in requital for these

happy fore-tidings, that wben they should be ful. his purpose. He conceives that so inany of proof can be so cogent, as to force upon the hilled, he would listen to instructions which would his countrymen would not be insensible to, belief an absurdity so great, as that Mr then be offered to him, and which would lead him and ungrateful for, the benefits which they Southey, in composing this work, felt and into the way of eternal life. This Edwin readily derive from their church, if they knew how wrote as a strictly impartial historian. On promised; with that the stranger laid his hand upon many and how vast these benefits are, "and the other hand, he knows well, that the the head of the royal exile, saying, When this sign

shall be repeated, remember what has passed beat how dear a price they were purchased for sources of information to which he must tween us now, and perform the word which you our inheritance; by what religious exertions, resort are accessible to all; that the facts have given. what heroic devotion, what precious lives, upon which he must rely are seldom obscure

Edwin afterwards subdued his enemies, consumed in pious labours, wasted away in and uncertain, and that he will be watched dungeons, or offered up amid the flames.” by those, whose ability and zeal it must be recovered his kingdom, and married a chrisHe has written his work, and now offers it difficult to elude. One would suppose, there. tian princess. One day, while he was medito fathers, and all who with parental feel fore, that he would lean strongly to the side tating in solitude, Paulinus, a missionary ings discharge parental duties, because a of his church; that his statements would be from Rome, entered the room, knowledge of these things

coloured, and a few obvious facts and prin- and laying his hand upon the king's head, asked might arm the young heart against the pestilent ciples overlooked, and a little ingenuity him if he remembered that token ? Startled at the errors of these distempered times. I offer, there exerted in its favour. But it could

not be appeal, as if a spirit was before him, the king fell

at his feet. •Behold,' said Paulinus, raising him fore, to those who regard with love and reverence expected, that he would go beyond the de- up, thou hast, through God's favour, escaped from the religion which they have received from their bateable land, which bounds the region of the enemies of whom thou wert in fear! Behold, fathers, a brief but comprehensive record, diligent- strict historical accuracy, nor withhold all through God's favour, thou hast recovered thy kingthey inay put into the hands of their children. the truths which make against him, nor ad- dom, and obtained the pre-eminence which was Herein it will be seen from what heathenish delu- vance any argument which should not be promised thee! Remember now thine own promise, sions and inhuman rites the inhabitants of this plausible, nor any assertion which could be and observe it; that He, who hath elevated thee to island have been delivered by the Christian faith; said and proved to be a downright false- eternal misery, and take thee to live and reign with

this temporal kingdom, may deliver thee also from in what manner the best interests of the country bood. A perusal of the work would realize himself eternally in heaven! Edwin, overcome as were advanced by the clergy even during the dark such expectations.

is by miracle, hesitated no longer. He called his est ages of papal domination; the errors and crimes

The narration begins with the religion of chiefs to council, that, if they could be persuaded tions were at the worst, the day-break of the Refor the ancient Britons. Some account is then lized at the same time : and when they were asmation appeared among us: the progress of that given of the religion and philosophy of the sembled, he required them each to deliver his Reformation through evil and through good; the Romans, and of the doctrines and rites of opinion concerning the new religion which was establishment of a church pure in its doctrines, the Danes and Anglo-Sasons. The history preached among them, and the propriety of receivirreproachable in its order, beautiful in its forms of the introduction and establishment of ing it:

Coifi, the Chief Priest of Northumbria, was the verse and in prosperous times, alike faithful to its christianity into England, is exceedingly first who spake : - As for what the religion is, which principles when it adhered to the monarchy during interesting. Unquestionably many circum- is now propounded to us," he said, “0 King, see a successful rebellion, and when it opposed the stances of that period, related by the monk. thou to it! For my part, I will assert

, what I cermonarch who would have brought back the Romish ish historians of a later age, are to be con- tainly know, that that which we have hitherto held, superstition, and, together with the religion, would sidered as resting upon slight authority is good for nothing. For among all thy people, have overthrown the liberties of England.

Enough, however, is certain, to astonish gently to the worship of our gods than 1; and yet Sectarians will of course be governed by one with the rapid progress and wide spread many have received greater benefits, and obtained their respective partialities in judging of the of christianity in its earliest ages. Perhaps higher dignities, and prospered better in whatever merits and character of this work. They who no single instance is more striking than the they undertook. But if these gods had possessed love and venerate the Church of England, conversion of the king and people of North- any power, they would rather have assisted me, who will regard it as a candid, eloquent, and umbria. Edwin had been driven from his have endeavoured so carefully to serve them. If, irreproachable history of their church ; throne in childhood, by Ethelfrith, and died ceived that these new things, of which we are told,

therefore, after due examination, you have perwhile the dissenters, whose “ pestilent er- to Redwald, king of East Anglia, who, after are better, and more efficacious, let us, without derors” it is intended to beat down, will be protecting him for some years, was about to lay, hasten to adopt them.' disposed to bring against the author a heavy comply with the demand of Ethelfrith, and

Another speaker delivered an opinion, more charge of guile and falsehood. Our opinion give him up.

creditable to his disposition and understanding lies between these; and is precisely that

than that which had been given by the Chief Priest :

This resolution was taken at night-fall, and im- .O King, the present life of man, when considered which a consideration of Dr Southey's mediately communicated to Edwin by a faithful in relation to that which is to come, may be likened character, condition, and avowed object friend, who went to his chamber, called him out of to a sparrow flying through the ball, wherein you would have led us to form, if, we had never doors, exhorted him to fly, and offered to guide him and your chiefs and servants are seated at supper, seen his book. He stands forth the cham- to a place of safety:

in winter time: the hearth blazing in the centre, pion of his church ;-and it milst be remem- petual danger and anxiety of a wandering life. To and rain or snow; the bird flies through, entering at

But Edwin would not again encounter the per. and the viands smoking, while without is the storm bered, that he is enthusiastic, and wants, in hy, he said, would be a breach of confidence on his one door, and passing out at the other; he feels not bis valour, its better part, and often merges part; be had trusted to the Uffinga Redwald, who, the weather during the little minute that he is withhis judgment in his feelings, and is the same as yet, bad offered him no wrong; and if he were in; but after that minute he returns again to win. man now, as when, at the age of twenty-one, uffinga himself than by an ignoble hand. And, Such is the life of man; and of what follows it, or

to be delivered up, better that it should be hy the ter, as from winter he came, and is seen no more. he wrote Wat Tyler, and, after his years indeed, whither could he betake himself, after hav- of what has preceded it, we are altogether ignorant. were doubled, wrote and published a letter ing, for so many years, in vain sought an asylum Wherefore, if this new doctrine should bring any to a member of parliament, in defence of through all the provinces of Britain? Resolving, thing more certain, it well deserves to be followed' this most miserable farce. He is the cham- therefore, to abide bis fate, whatever it might be, The rest of the assembly signified their assent to the pion of the church, and its enemies are his he sate down mournfully upon a stone before the change; and it was then proposed by Coifi, that enemies; the “ungrateful” and “ disaffect- palace, when a venerable person, in a strange habit, Paulinus should fully explain to them the nature ed” to the hierarchy are also disaffected to fore he was sitting there, and keeping watch at an to receive. When the prelate had concluded his

is said to have accosted him, and inquired where of the new religior, which they were called upon him, and do what in them iies to stain his hour when all other persons were asleep? Edwin discourse, the Chief Priest exclaimed, that he had good name, by the expos're of all his errors omewhat angrily, replied, that it could be no con- long understood the vanity of their old worship, beand faults. Moreover Dr Southey is hon cern of bis whether he chose to pass the night with cause the more be sought to discover its truth, the onred by the institutions incorporated with that he knew the cause, and bade him be of good tars and temples of the idols, and the sacred inclo

in doors or without. But the stranger made answer, less he found; be proposed, therefore, that the althat church, and his temporal interests are cheer, for Redwald certainly would not betray him; sures in which they stood, should be overthrown strictly the same with those of that preva- he assured him further, that he should regain his and burnt. The king demanded of him who ought

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to set the example of violating them, and the priest | long descent which even tradition and fable, the primate are imputable, because he was in poshimself offered to begin. He asked the king accord can scarcely measure, has stricken them session of great part of the sequestered lands. He ingly for arms and for a horse ; gint a sword to his deep into the natures of the people who supplied soldiers enough to overpower the knights the people beheld him, they thought that he was cling to them. But we think there are other bury, if resistance should be attempted. They enseized with madness, because in bearing arms, and circumstances of great moment, which Mr tered the city in small parties, concealing their riding on a horse, he broke through the prohibitions Southey does not duly consider. One of arms, that no alarm, might be excited. The abbot attached among them to the sacerdotal office. He these is, the unity of doctrine and ritual of St Augustine's, who was of the king's party, rehowever, rode resolutely towards the temple, and then existing in christendom. A missionary ceived them into his monastery, and is said to have the enclosure; his companions then, as he exhorted of that day spent no part of his time in un joined counsel with them. About ten in the morn

ing, they proceeded with twelve knights to Beck. them, set fire to it. The scene of this memorable doing the work of his brother; nor was the et's bedchamber ; his

family were still at table, but event was a little east of York, upon the river Der- willing neophyte perplexed by seeing men, he himself bad dived, and was conversing with went, at a place then called Godmunddingaham, the all claiming to be christians with equal pre- some of his inonks and clergy. Without replying home of the protection of the gods. The village which tension, accusing each other, with equal :0 his salutation, the y sat down opposite to bim, on other change than that of a convenient abbreviation zeal, of dreadful falsehood. It is not easy Fitzurse said they came with orders

from the things to see how this bindrance can be wholly and asked whether he would hear them in public from five syllables to three, Godmundham.

The new converts acted with indiscreet zeal in avoided, however honest and zealous indi. or in private? Becket said, as it might please him thus destroying what appears to bave been the most vidual missionaries may be,-while chris- best, --and then, at his desire, bade the company noted place of heathen worship in Northumbria. It tians of all denominations live among the withdraw; but presently apprehending some viothat the Anglo-Saxou temples should not be demol principal pagan nations, and most established them in again from the antechamber

, and cold the ished; but that he and his fellow-missionaries should sects make exertions to spread their tenets - Barons, that whatever they had to impart might be cast out and consuine the idols, and then purify the and Papist and Protestant, Calvinist and delivered in their presence. Fitzurse required him buildings themselves with holy water; and erect al. Arminian, Trinitarian and Unitarian, con- to absolve the suspended and excommunicated preltars and place relics there, in order that the people scientiously believe, each that his opponent ates: He returned the old evasive answer, that it seeing its rites performed in the fanes which they the nations of the heptarchy were converted ensued, in which Becket insisted that the king had might be better disposed to receive the new religion, holds dangerous, if not fatal, errors. When was not he who had passed the sentence, nor was been destroyed, a wooden oratory was hastily erect to christianity, the whole diposable force of authorized his measures, in telling him he might

by ed in York for the ceremony of the king's baptism, christendom, so far as that force was avail- ecclesiastical censures, compel those who had diswhich was performed there on Easter-day, A. D. able for the purposes of proselytism, was at turbed the peace of the church to make satisfaction; 627. A church, of stone, was immediately com- the control of the sovereign pontiff

. The this, he affirmed, had been said in Fitzurse's presIt was conferred upon Paulinus, as his see, and he church of which he was the supreme head, to that purport;-and indeed Becket himself musí superintended the building. The king's example drew into its bosom the finest and strongest have koown that if such permission had ever been was readily followed by the people; and Paulinus spirits; it offered not only the best asylum given, it certainly was not in the latitude which he is said to have been employed six-and-thirty days, for the meek, but the highest rewards for now chose to represent. from morning till evening, in baptizing the multi- the able and ambitious, and the widest scope quired, that he, and all who belonged to him, should

The four Barons then, in the king's name, retudes who flocked to him at Yevering. Oratories for the efforts of the active. The extract depart forthwith out of the kingdom, for he had the converts, therefore, were baptized in rivers, by which we have just quoted, shows us the broken the peace, and should no longer enjoy it. immersion, according to the practice of those recompense-it may or may not have been Becket replied, he would never again put the sea ages.

the object-of Paulinus. The missionary between him and his church.' Their resolute manMr Southey devotes a chapter to the con- pilgrim, after he had won his bishopric, ner only roused his spirit, and he declared, that if sideration of the causes which promoted the might stretch forth his hand for the cardi- any man whatsoever infringed the laws of the Holy success of christianity among the Anglo-Dal's hat, and hope for the papal tiara. It who he would, he would not spare him.' In vain, Saxons. Contrasted with the slow, imper- was a necessary consequence of this state said te, do you menace me! if all the swords in fect, questionable success of the missionary of things, that a large proportion of the England were brandished over my head, you would efforts of these days, it seems indeed mirac- moral and intellectual energy of that age He upbraided those of inem who had been in his ulous. We cannot give even an abstract of was devoted to the work of prosely tism. Mr Southey's views upon this subject. Some, The history of the church in England, monks to guard him, saying, they should answer

service as chancellor. They rose, and charged the perhaps all, of the causes that be assigns for during that stormy period while the popes for it if he escaped ; the knights of his household the different results which have attended and their ministers were perpetually con- they bade go with them, and wait the event in efforts for a similar purpose in different pe- dicting with the civil government, and al- silence. Becket followed them to the outer door, riods, operated with great force; but we most always subduing it

, is very interesting saying, he came not there to fly, nor did he value

their threats. We will do more than threaten!' think there were other causes, of which he in itself, and loses nothing in the hands of

was the answer does not rightly estimate the efficiency. No this author. He chooses to relate it by fix- Becket was presently told that they were arming doubt the missionaries prevailed the more, ing upon prominent individuals, and narrat- themselves in the palace-court. Some of his serbecause they came from Rome, the heart ing their lives with great minuteness. Dun- vants barred the gate, and he was with difficulty of the civilized world, -the sovereign city, stan, Lanfranc, Anselm, and Becket have persuaded by the monks to retire through the cloiswhose name was still great upon the earth, each many pages given to them. The biog. had now begun. He ordered the cross to be borne

ters into the cathedral, where the afternoon service and whose majesty survived in the inherited raphy of Becket occupies one hundred before him, retired slowly, and to some who were feelings and opinions of men, long after her pages. At his death,—we may say by bis endeavouring to secure ihe doors, he called out, actual supremacy had departed. Certainly, death,--the papal power triumphed. We forbidding to do it, saying, : You ought not to make too, these missionaries were favoured, in that have never seen the particulars of his assas- without being shut; neither did I come hither to the paganisin they were called to combat, sination parrated so circumstantially as in resist, but to suffer. By this time the assailants, was not deeply rooted in the hearts of the this work; taken in connexion with some after endeavouring to break open the abbey gales

, people. The Druids had been chased from passages of his life, they almost compel one had entered, under Robert de Broc's guidance, their sacred groves by the Romans, whose to believe, that this turbulent, ambitious, through a window, searched the palace, and were religion, if religion it was, ere many ages, and obstinate rebel, actually believed him- now following him to the cathedral. He might still

have concealed himself, and not improbably have encountered the horrors of that Scaldic self labouring and dying in a good cause.

escaped. But Becket disdained this : with all its mythology which the Danes brought with

The result of Henry's counsel was the legal and errors, his was an heroic mind. He was ascending them. Thus the heathenism of the Saxons proper measure of sending over three Barons to the steps of the high altar, when the Barons, and was fluctuating and uncertain; of various arrest Becket. These messengers were too late. their armed followers, rushed into the choir with origin, and sanctified by no long and uni- The ministers of vengeance, who were before them, drawn swords, exclaiming, "Where is Thomas à versal tradition. It is otherwise with the landed near Dover, and passed the night in Ranulf Becket? where is that traitor to the king and kinga

de Broc's castle, one of the persons whom Becket dom? No answer was made; but when they called superstitions with which christianity must had excommunicated on Christmas-day, and to out with a louder voice, Where is the Archbishop? cope now; ages have rooted them, and a / whom interested motives for his marked enmity to he then came down the steps, saying, Here am 1;

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no traitor, but a priest; ready to suffer in the name command that the body should be honourably buried; , these observations are equally honourable
of Him · ho redeemed me. God forbid that I should for, though the primare had been his enemy while to his candor and to his good sense.
dy for fear of your swords, or recede from justice.' living, he would not persecute him when dead, but
They required him, once more, to take off the cen- remitted to his soul whatever offences he bad com- The corruptions, doctrinal and practical, of the
sures froin the prelates. “No satisfaction has yet mitted against him and his royal dignity. This

was Roman Church were, in these ages, at their height. been made,' was the answer, 'and I will not absolve acting as became him, convinced as he was, that in They are studiously kept out of view by the writers them.' Tben they told him he should instantly die. the grounds of the dispute he stood justified to his who still maintain the infallibility of that church; Reginald,' said he to itzurse, 'I have done you own heart, and to his people. If he did not per- and in truth, that a system, in all things so unlike many kindnesses; and do you come against me severe in this dignified and becoining course, it is the religion of the Gospel, and so opposite to its thus armed ?' The Baron, resolute as himself

, and because a sane opinion may be subclued, though spirit, should have been palmed upon the world, and in a worse purpose, told him to get out from thence, insanity is invincible when the world appears com established as Christianity, would be incredible, if and die; at the same time layiug hold of his robe. bined against it.

the proofs were not undeniable and abundant. Becket withdrew the robe, and said, be would not As the pope had authorized and enjoined prayers

The indignation, which these corruptions ought move. “Fly, then,' said Fitzurse, as if at this mo- to the new saint, that he should intercerte with God properly to excite, should not, however, prevent us ment a compunctious feeling had visited him, and for the clergy and people of England, Henry, either from perceiving that the papal power,

raised and he would have been glad to see the intent frustrated, from prostration of mind, or in policy far less to be supported as it was wholly by opinion, must originin which his pride, more than his oath, constrained excused, determined to implore his intercession in ally bave possessed, or promised, some peculiar and him to persist. Nor that either,' was Becket's an- the most public manner, and with the most striking manifest advantages to those who acknowledged its swer; if it is my blood you want, I am ready to circumstances. Landing at Southampton, he there authority. If it had not been adapted to the

condi. die, that the church may obtain liberty and peace : left his court and the mercenaries whom he had tion of Europe, it could not have existed. Though only, in the name of God, I forbid you to hurt any brought over, and set off on horseback with a few in itself an enormous abuse, it was the remedy for of my people.' Still it appears, that in some, at attendants for Canterbury. When he came within some great evils, the palliative of others. We have least, there was a wish to spare his life : one struck sight of its towers he disiounted, laid aside his but to look at the Abyssinians, and the Oriental him between the shoulders with the flat part of the garments, threw a coarse cloth over his shoulders, Christians, to see what Europe would have become sword, saying, " Fly, or you are dead! And the and proceeded to the city, which was three miles without the papacy. With all its errors, its cormurderers themselves, afterwards declared their distant, barefoot over the flinty road, so that in many ruptions, and its crimes, it was, morally and intelintention was to carry him prisoner to the king; or places, his steps were traced in blood. He reached lectually, the conservative power of Christendom. if that was impossible, put him to death in a place the church trembling with emotion, and was led to Politically, too, it was the saviour of Europe; for, less sacred than the church; but he cling to one of the martyr's shrine; there, in the crypt, he threw in all human probability, the west, like the east, the pillars, and struggled with the assailants. Tracy himself prostrate before it, with his arms extended, must have been overrun by Mahommedanism, and he had nearly throwr

. down, and Fitzurse he thrust and remained in that posture, as if in earnest prayer, sunk in irremediable degradation, through the per-
from him with a strong hand, calling him pimp. while the Bishop of London solemnly declared in nicious institutions which have every where accom-
Stung by the opprobrious appellation, Fitzurse no his name, that he had neither commanded nor ad- panied it, if, in that great crisis of the world, the
longer hesitated whether to strike. A monk, Ed- vised, nor by any artifice contrived the death of Roman Church had not roused the nations to an
ward Grimes, of Cambridge, was his name, inter- Thomas à Becket, for the truth of which he ap- united and prodigious effort, commensurate with
posed his arm, which was almost cut off by the pealed to God; but because his words, too incon- the danger.
blow. Becket, who had bowed in the attitude of siderately spoken, had given occasion for the com- In the frightsul state of society which prevailed
prayer, was wounded by the same stroke in the mission of that crime, he now voluntarily submitted during the dark ages, the church every where ex-
crown of his head. His last words were, ‘To'lod, himself to the discipline of the church. The monks erted a controlling and remedial influence. Every
to St Mary, and the Saints, who are patrons of this of the convent, eighty in number, and four bishops, place of worship was an asylum, which was always
church, and to St Dennis, I commend

myself
, and abbots, and other clergy who were present,

were respected by the law, and generally even by law less the church's cause!' The second blow brought him provided each with a knotted cord; he bared his violence. It is recorded, as one of the peculiar to the ground, on his face, before St Benedict's altar; shoulders, and received five stripes from the prel- miseries of Stephen's miserable reign, that during he had strength and composure enough to cover ates, three from every other hand. When this se those long troubles, the soldiers learned to disregard himself with his robes, and then to join his hands vere penance had been endured, he threw sackcloth the right of sanctuary. Like many other parts of the in prayer, and in that position died under their re- over luis bleeding shoulders, and resumed his pray. Romish system, this right had prevailed in the peated strokes, each pressing near, to bear a part in ers, kneeling on the pavement, and not allowing a heathen world, though it was not ascribed to every the murder. Brito cleft his scull; and an accursed carpet to be spread beneath him; thus he continued temple. It led, as it had done under the Roman man, the subdeacon, Hugh of Horsea, known by all that day, and till the midnight bell tolled for empire, to abuses which became intolerable ; but the appellation of the Il Clerk, scattered the brains matins. After that hour, he visited all the altars of it originated in a humane and pious purpose, not over the pavement from the point of his sword. the church, prayed before the bodies of all the saints only screening offenders from laws, the severity of No single circumstance shows more clear-who were there deposited, then returned to his de- whích amounted to injustice, but, in cases of private

votions at the shrine till day-break. During this wrong, affording time for passion to abate, and for ly how deeply the fetters of Romish super- whole time he had neither eat nor drank ; but now, the desire of vengeance to be appeased. The cities stition had sunk into men's souls, than the after assisting at mass, and assigning, in addition to of refuge were not more needed, under the Mosaic terrible penance which Henry II. under- other gifts, forty pounds a year for tapers, to burn dispensation, than such asylums in ages when the went for his hasty utterance of feelings, perpetually before the martyr's tomb, he drank administration of justice was either detestably inwhich were certainly justified, if any meas

some wa'er, in which a portion of Becket's blood human, or so lax, that it allowed free scope to

was mingled. He then set off for London, where individual resentment. They have therefore genure of provocation can justify anger. His he found himself in a state incapable of exertion, erally been found wherever there are the first rudienemies did not pretend that he wished to and it was necessary to bleed him. The believers ments of civil and religious order The churchsuggest the assassination of Becket, or that in Becket have not failed to remark, that on the yards also were privileged places, whither the poor the death of this prelate did not deeply af- morning when Henry completed his reconciliation people conveyed their goods for security. The flict him. He was the actual, but the invol. with the canonized martyr, the king of Scotland was protection which the ecclesiastical power extended defeated and taken.

in such cases, kept up in the people, who so often untary, cause of his death; and for this offence, a powerful monarch, who was, to

The tenth chapter gives a “View of the lachment to the church. They felt that religion

stood in need of it, a feeling of reverence and alsay no more, no way deficient in intellect Papal System,” and no part of the work had a power on earth, and that it was always exor moral energy, suffered thus.

appears to have been composed with more ercised for their benefit.

We regret that the limits which the The civil power was in those ages so inefficient When the news reached Henry, he was at once nature of the work imposed, prevented Mr for the preservation of public tranquillity, that when alarmed for its consequences. At first, he broke Southey from enlarging upon a fact in the was liable to be disturbed by private wars, indiout into loud and passionate lamentations, then history of religion of much interest, which viduals taking upon themselves the right of decidseemed to be overpowered and stupified by the bas lately been much illustrated. We meaning their own quarrels, and avenging their own violence of his emotions; he put on sackcloth and the obvious and direct derivation of a large wrongs.

Where there existed no deadly feud, ashes, and for three days was incapable either of part of the ritual and practices, and not a pretexts were easily made by furbulent and rapavice of those who, meantime, had consulted what few of the tenets of the papal church, from cious men, for engaging in such contests, and they

were not scrupulous whom they seized and imprismight best

be done in these unexpected and most the classical paganism which it supplanted. oned, for the purpose of extorting a ransom. No critical circumstances, an embassy was sent to the But a part of two paragraphs is all that is law, therefore, was ever more thankfully received, pope, and messengers to Canterbury. The latter given to this subject. Before he speaks of than when the Council of Clermont enacted, that, were instructed to inform the

clergy of that church, the defects and abuses of this system, he from sunset on Wednesday to sunrise on Monday. how deeply the king grieved for the death of Becket

; makes an eloquent admission of its vast in every week, the truce of God should be observed, attached to him for worde rashly

spoken in his anger, usefulness, and remarks upon its adaptation offensive and peaceable part of the community it might best be expiated by their prayers; and to i to the state of society in which it existed; (always the great, but in evil times, the iner, and

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care.

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