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ual character and conduct. Two centuries suggested by the perusal of such works as 2001 estates, according to the proportion which such have gradually deepened the obscurity, those whose titles stand at the bead of this men used to pay, to whom such apparel is suitable

and allowed wbicb involves the minute history of the article. They diifer in character, as weli olden times, and enlarged the shadowy as in the degree of interest which they are

The following, though a quotation from precincts, within which imagination inay likely to excite, but the main object, that another writer, we notice here, as worthy range with that freedom, which is obstruct. of preserving and rendering accessible of the consideration of those, who imagine ed by the dull realities of the present. The what is known of the early history of New that the standard of education is lower, in forms of our fathers loom through the haze England, is the same.

some of our colleges, at this day, than it of antiquity, which rests on the intellectual We have read Mr Hoyt's book with a

was in that of Cotton Mather, because the horizon, concealing the thousand details, great deal of interest, and cheerfully re- professors do not talk Latin fluently and which fetter the energies and chill the ar. cominend it to the public. To the general quote the ancients on all occasions, whether dour of fancy, and presenting only the reader we think it will be more amusing in season or out of it. grander features of the prospect.

than any history of the period with which Sir Henry Saville, in the preamble of the deed The situation and circumstances of the we are acquainted. The style is easy and by which he annexed a salary to the mathematical planters of New England, during the first agreeable; the accounts of various writers and astronomical professors in Oxford, says geomsixty or seventy years of the colonies, are digested in a judicious and pleasing England. The best learning of the age was the were of a peculiar character, and such as manner, while some particulars are sup study of the ancients. take a strong hold upon the imagination. plied, which we believe can be found in no

We cannot agree with the author in his They were stirring times in which our other publication. The writer passes light: defence of the morality and expediency of a ancestors lived, and this peaceable, calculat- iy over many portions of our annals, which bounty on Indian scalps. The effect of such ing, and realizing land was once the very are of a more dry and uninteresting char- a practice on the minds of the scalp-huntcountry of romance.

acter, and dwells at greater length on those ers-the temptation thus held forth to slay, What adventure indeed could be more particulars which are likely to gratify those in cold blood, the captives who were unawild, than that of the passengers in the who read only for amusement. We think, ble to keep up with the victorious party; May-Flower, and what language would therefore, that it will be a popular work, and the example given to the natives, seem have been thought too extravagant to de- and hope the author will enjoy, as we think to us powertul considerations against it. As scribe it, had it been unsuccessful. Such a he deserves, the opportunity of a second a measure of expediency it seems to have project, undertaken at such hazards and edition, to present it to the public freed been feeble. Though the bounty offered with such means, would be looked upon, at from the various typographical errors to for single scalps was occasionally enormous, this day, as utter madness. Indeed ibe which he alludes, and in a more elegant on one occasion, we believe, a hundred Pilgrims themselves considered their suc- form than it is at present.

pounds,—but a small amount on the whole cess as the result of a direct and special After these general remarks, we shall nointerposition of Providence. The first set- tice a few things which may amuse or in barbarous trophies; and we hope, for the

seems ever to have been paid for those tlers did not, it is true, traverse the coun- terest our readers, as they occurred to us honour of human nature, that it was betry with good steed, lance, and brand, in in the course of our perusal.

cause there were few to ask for it. Melansearch of captive knights or distressed dam- Among the collection of laws framed by choly must be the state of that country, sels, but their conduct and their language Ward and Cotton, and accepted by the which has no better defenders than those who was often little less extravagant. Their magistrates in 1641, which were copied al- are ready to hunt and mangle human beings enemies appeared in a different, but scarce- most literally from those of Moses, is the for a price. Much cruelty is doubtless inly a more questionable shape. They were following.

separable from a warfare conducted with not giants, or ogres, ensconced in castles of

Men betrothed and not married, or newly mar. savages. The passions are necessarily exsteel and defended by attendant sprites; ried, or such as bave newly built or planted, and cited to a degree unknown in the technical but savage warriors, swift of foot and subtle not received the fruits of their labour, and such as of mind, lurking in trackless forests and are faint-hearted men, are not to be pressed or and mechanical combats of civilized arforced against their wills, to go forth to wars.

mies and many horrible examples of this swamps, and assisted, as our ancestors most religiously believed, by the devil. Spectres

are in every history of this kind. But the

If these were ever really carried into feelings with which a scalp is stripped from and witchcraft were received articles of execution, it seems remarkable, in the first a dying enemy, to be preserved for barter, belief, and, with the sword in one hand and place, that any person should have been are of another character, and such as we the Bible in the other, our progenitors pressed or forced against his will to go trust were rare in the darkest days of New waged war alike against the visible and in- forth to wars;" and secondly, that if such a England. We have alluded to the bittervisible world.

principle was acknowledged, exceptions of ness of the passions, which occasionally The character of the aborigines is now such a nature should have been admitted. prevailed among the partisans of the time. likewise regarded with the interest which it The framers of the code were probably The following is an instance. In Captain deserves. They were once considered as better acquainted with the book of Deuter- Lovewell's battle at Pigwacket, his lieutenlittle better than the brutal tenants of the onomy than the real state and exigencies ant, Robbins, who, by the way, had been a soil; as a race cowardly, treacherous, mind- of the colony. And again.

scalp-bunter, was wounded and we are ful of injuries, but insensible to benefits,

And in war, men of a corrupt and false religion told that whose ferocity could never be tamed and are not to be accepted, much less sought for.

conscious of his fate, he requested his companions their affections never secured. But this

Truly we wonder our ancestors did not to load his gụn, that he might despatch another of was a false representation. More attentive consideration has shown that their ag carry the parable so far as to fight against the enemy, should he return to the spot. Sassacus' fort with ram's horns; it would

We select the following as a specimen of gressions were rarely unprovoked, and

have been little less extravagant, when we our author's manner of writing. We wish that, in the fury of contest, there were consider that those under « a covenant of the story had been more to the credit of some who remembered and repaid fulure

works" were looked upon as men of a the colonial goveroment. benefits. If some of the alleviations of civilized warfare were unknown among corrupt and false religion.”

But prior to the termination of the war Miaytonithem, some of its worst features

There was more worldly wisdom in the moh invaded the Mohegans with nine hundred of his equally absent, and among the anecdotes, sumptuary law, which directed the select- warriors; 1'ncas met him at the head of five hundred

of his men, on a large plain; both prepared for acwhich have come down to us, of the chief men of each town

tion, and advanced within bow shot' Before the tains who figured in those eventful times, to take notice of the apparel of any of the in: conflict commenced, Uncas advanced singly and many may compare with those of Spartan judge 10 exceed their rank and abilities, in the cost ber of men with you, and so have I with me; it is or Ronian greatness.

liness or fashion of their apparel, in any respect, a great pity that such brave warriors should be killConsiderations like these are naturally I especially in wearing ribbons and great boots, at led in a private quarrel between us.. Come like a



lines; and to such of them as have seen it, I love of ordinary mortals, than that which is What though beneath thee man put forth

“ The Ritter Bagno His pomp, his pride, his skill; we presume no apology is necessary for re- expressed in Byron's.

And arts that made fire, flood, and earth, calling to their recollection such finished has been sufficiently ridiculed, so we will not

The vassals of his will;poetry of so bigb an order.

join in the chorus. “ Reullura" is as tame as Yet mourn not I thy parted sway, 'Tis storm, and hid in mist from hour to hour,

the Ritter. The Song—“Men of England" Thou dim discrowned king of day: All day the floods a deepening murmur pour; is more in the style of Campbell's best For all those trophied arts The sky is veiled, and every cheerful sight; efforts than any thing else in the volume,

And triumphs that beneath thee sprang

Healed not a passion or a pang
Dark is the region as with coming night ; and is worthy of a place not far below “ The
But what a sudden burst of overpowering light!

Entailed on human hearts.
Battle of the Baltic."
Triumphant on the bosum of the storm,

Go, let oblivion's curtain fall
Glances the fire-clad eagle's wheeling form ;


Upon the stage of men, Eastward, in long perspective glittering, shine

Men of England! who inherit

Nor with thy rising beams recall 'The wood-crowned cliffs that o'er the lake recline;

Rights that cost your sires their blood !

Life's tragedy again. Wide o'er the Alps a hundred streams unfold,

Men whose uvdegenerate spirit

Its piteous pageants bring not back, At once to pillars turned that flame with gold;

Has been proved on land and flood!

Nor waken flesh upon the rack Behind his sail the peasant strives to shun

Of pain anew to writhe; The west, that burns like one dilated sun,

By the foes ye 've fought upcounted,

Stretched in disease's shapes abhorred, Where in a mighty crucible expire

By the glorious deeds ye 've done,

Or mown in battle by the sword,
The mountains, glowing hot, like coals of fire.
Trophies captured--breaches mounted,

Like grass beneath the scythe.
Wordsworthi's Descriptive Sketches.

Navies conquered- kingdoms won!
There is another passage of English

Even I am yon skies
Yet, remember, England gathers

To watch thy fading fire ; poetry which we doubt not owes its origin Hence but fruitless wreaths of fame,

Test of all sumless agonies, to this. We mean the opening of the third If the patriotism of your fathers

Behold not me expire. canto of the Corsair; but no trace of imita- Glow not in your hearts the same.

My lips that speak thy dirge of deathtion is to be found there. Byron was a mas- What are monuments of bravery,

Their rounded gasp and gurgling breathe

To see thou shalt not boast. ter of his art; he did not borrow another Where no public virtues bloom?

What avail in, lands of slavery,

The eclipse of Nature spreads my pall,man's lamp and pour out the oil; but when

Trophied temples, arch, and tomb ?

The majesty of Darkness shall he had caught light from it, the flame which

Receive my parting ghost !
he kindled was his own, and supplied from Pageants !--Let the world revere us
an inexhaustible fountain. We have not For our people's rights and laws,

This spirit shall return to Him
And the breasts of civic heroes

That gave its heavenly spark ; found in Theodric any other passage of such

Bared in Freedom's holy cause.

Yet think not, Sun, it shall be dima palpable imitation as that which we have

When thou thyself art dark ! quoted; but we think that the whole poem Yours are Hampden's, Russell's glory,

No! it shall live again, and shine evinces, that it is the work of one who Sydney's matchless shade is yours-

In bliss unknown to beams of thine,

Martyrs in heroic story, draws sometimes from one and sometimes

By Hiin recalled to breath,
Worth a bundred Agincourts !

Who captive led captivity, from another, without relying upon his own

Who robbed the grave of Victorycollected and concocted resources. Like We 're the sons of sires that baffled

And took the sting from Death!

Crowned and mitred tyranny: all the works of its author, it has passages

They defied the field and scaffold of tranquil beauty. The following descrip

Go, Sun, while Mercy holds me up
For their birthrights--so will we !

On Nature's awful waste
tion is of this kind :
Perhaps the following ode—if ode it be-

To drink this last and bitter cup
and to know her well
exhibits as much power and originality as

Of grief that man shall taste-
Prolonged, exalted, bound, enchantment's spell;

Go, tell that night that hides thy face, For with affections warm, intense, refined, any thing in the volume; but it is difficult

Thou saw'st the last of Adam's race, She inixed such calm and holy strength of mind, to forget, while reading it, some poems of On Earth's sepulchral clod, That, like Heaven's image in the smiling brook, modern date, which we cannot but think The dark'ning universe defy Celestial peace was pictured in her look.

that Mr Campbell remembered wbile writ- To quench his Immortality, Hers was the brow, in trials unperplexed,

Or shake his trust in God ! That cbeered the sad, and tranquillized the vexed;

ing it. She studied not the meanest to eclipse,

THE LAST MAN. And yet the wisest listened to her lips;

All worldly shapes shall melt in gloom, She sang not, knew not Music's magic skill,

A Comparative View of the Systems of Pes

The Sun himself must die, But yet her voice had tones that swayed the will.

talozzi and Lancaster: in an Address

Before this mortal shall assume There are lines in which the author's wish Its immortality!

delivered before the Society of Teachers to snatch, like some of his cotemporaries,

I saw a vision in my sleep,

of the City of New York. By Solyman That gave my spirit strength to sweep

Brown, A. M. New York. 1825. 8vo. “a grace beyond the reach of art,” has be

Adown the gulf of Time ! trayed him into a meanness of expression

I saw the last of human mould, that sorts but oddly with the others around

That shall Creation's death behold,

The title of this pamphlet excited our inthem. Such, for instance, as these :

As Adam saw her prime !

terest to a high degree, but we were not a His ecstacy, it may be guessed, was much.' The Sun's eye had a sickly glare,

little disappointed on being obliged to read

to the seventeenth page before we found • But how our fates from unmomentous things

The earth with age was wan,
The skeletons of nations were

the subject again alluded to. The precedMay rise, like rivers, out of little springs.'

Around that lonely man!

ing part consists of judicious remarks upon “The boy was half beside himself.'

Some had expired in fight,—the brands the importance of education, and the value of the smaller poems contained in this

Still rusted in their bony hands;

of good instructers. The most important volume, none are equal to some which

In plague and famine some!

observations occur on pages 21, 22.

Earth's cities had no sound nor tread, Campbell has heretofore written ; several

And ships were drifting with the dead

The difference between these two systems of of them were first published in the New To shores where all was dumb!

Pestalozzi and Lancaster, I have said, is greatMonthly Magazine. Some of the contribu

greater, perhaps, than we have been accustomed to tors to that Magazine are, however, better

Yet, prophet-like, that lone one stood, . imagine. In the one, (that of Lancaster) where a

With dauntless words and high, poets than its editor, if we may suppose

multitude of words are read, and perhaps commit

That shook the sere leaves from the wood that the poetry there published, and not re

ted to memory by the pupil, a great quantity of the As if a storm passed by,

signs of ideas is acquired; while the ideas them. published here, was the work of others. Saying, We are twins in death, proud Sun, selves, and the things of which they are the images, The love songs are about as good as love

Thy face is cold, thy race is run,

are totally unknown. If words were the natural songs commonly are. They are more true

'Tis Mercy bids thee go;

signs of things, or even the natural signs of ideas, to nature than Moore's, and the feeling

For thou ten thousand thousand years the case would be reversed; but so long as language
Hast seen the tide of human tears,

consists of conventional and artificial signs, having which they express is much more like the That shall no longer flow.

no analogy with thoughts or things, a mere reliance

pp. 24.

It may



upon books in elementary instruction, will be little a degree of disgust which proves a great im- the developement of the mental powers. He reIn the other system, on the contrary, where books pediment to the acquisition of knowledge in Hected, that in those ancient days,

the art of prineare introduced only to embody the elements of sci- any way. The best part of all that children ing was yet unknown, and hence, that the diffusion ence, and where able teachers are employed to learn, is caught in casual moments, when of Aristotle and Plato, of Socrates and Pythagoras

, illustrate, to amplify, to infer; to elicit thought and facts happen to be illustrated in a familiar among the Greeks; some of whom removed to Italy, excite reflection; to encourage inquiry and engage and interesting manner, and especially when in order to disseminate among the Roman youth, curiosity; to teach practice, and explode theory, they chance to see a simple truth explained the knowledge they had gained in Egypt and the the senses, or their appropriate ideas are excited in by being applied to its proper

use. the mind, by the aid of analogous images already be said, that this is all the knowledge that pher, after comparing all the data derived from there, and the mere words which signify the one scholars can obtain, which is legitimate. history, resulted in the conclusion, that the great and the other, follow of necessity. In this case we Whatever is not so acquired, is unaccom- diversity of elementary books employed in the secure the reality, instead of the transient shadow panied by love of knowledge for its own schools of modern times

, is destructive of the best which fits across the mind only to leave it in sake, or the proper use which it is designed interests of early education; especially when those short: the one system imparts IDEAS, and the other to effect. It is altogether factitious; and books are voluminous and prolix-calculated to when the spurious motive which excited the enlighten, and expand the mind.

burden, perplex, and stupify, rather than exhilarate, mind to the exertion by which it was ob. The character of those elementary treatises which In the statement of the difference between tained, ceases to operate, then all interest were employed by ancient instructers, he was enathe two methods of teaching, the author is in the knowledge ceases, and it is generally bled to infer from a single splendid example which perfectly correct; but we regret that he did forgotten.

had survived the conflagration of the library of not exclude less important matter, and give The acquisition of knowledge is not in barians in the Western Empire. This was the

Alexandria, and all the ravages of the Gothic bara more full exposition of the Pestalozzian itself unpleasant to any mind. A love of Geometry of Euclid, the preceptor of the Ptolesystem. We know of no other subject so knowing, a pleasure in receiving informa- mies : -a book which has been found so complete important to all who have any concern tion, is proper to the nature of all children; in itself; so free from redundancy and defect;. so with the business of instruction--from the and there is always something which is pre- perfectly inclusive and exclusive, ihat no geometrimother who sows the seed, to the instructer cisely adapted to ihe capacity of every child, can in any age, has been able to add or diminish, of ripening youth, who aids in the expansion and in which he will feel a strong interest only are the books which Pestalozzi and his followof the branches, the leaves, and the flowers, when it is presented to his mind. To obtain ers believe to be suited to the minds of youth. and prepares the tree to bring forth fruit. what is now suited to the state and powers But this philosopher ventured even farther, and We do not ascribe to Pestalozzi the sole of the intellect, will infallibly prepare the suffered himself to conjecture what was the characmerit of reviving the system of analytical way for the truth next in order; and the ter of those instructors to whom the Egyptians, instruction. It is a striking characteristic mind may advance by this regular gradation their children. He was able to demonstrate, beof the present age, that men are unwilling towards the illimitable measures of eternity. yond contradiction, that many of the first names to believe any thing on authority; it must

We know that this theory, when pre- which history has transmitted, were teachers of the be explained and illustrated so that it can sented definitely, still appears to most per- youth of their country: and he found no trifling be understood. The mind revolts from a

sons wild and extravagant. The truth is, we number of examples of a fact still more to his purdogmatical mode of teaching. We love to

can form no idea of this orderly, analytical pose ; that young men were sent from remote feel that we are free and rational agents, arrangement of the facts or truths in sci- Hence he very logically inferred, that the most

countries to be taught by these great masters. as weli while acquiring, as while using, ence, because we were not thus instructed approved instructors were MEN of learning, expeknowledge.

All our knowledge consists of truths ob- rience, and character. All the causes which have combined to tained with little regard to method, and By this process of investigation, corroborated by produce this character in the present age; stored in the mind with almost no reference tradition among the descendants of these two nahave tended equally to introduce that method to orderly arrangement.

tions, resident in the mountains of his country, of instruction which Pestalozzi bas done so The greatest difficulty which this system ciquity could supply, and reduced to practice in his

Pestalozzi gathered all the assistance which an. much to illustrate and recommend. The presents, is that of determining the proper native Switzerland, the result of his inquiries. His Reformation, the works of Bacon, of New arrangement of the several sciences. Prob- plan has been successfully pursued in Europe and ton, of Franklin, and many others, and all ably it should be different with different America; and the institution of Fellemburgh in that has been done to encourage and culti- scbolars. In any single science, there is Switzerland, and the Polytechnic school of France, vate experimental science, have contributed no great difficulıy in arranging the truths

have given celebrity to his principles. to the same end. The tendency of the analytically. We mention, as examples, and in perfect harmony with the philosophy of

These principles are at once natural and simple, whole, is to abolish the system of dogmati- Euclid's Elements in Geometry and Col- Franklin, to practise much, and trust little to cal teaching, and to substitute for it a sys- burn's First Lessons in Arithmetic. Upon theory.' The simple elements of science are pretem of learning, a system by which the some other occasion, we may endeavour to sented to the learner, and he is led to all the minute scholar shall, at all times, have that pre- show, that the same system of arrangement ner the pupil is induced to confide little in a mere sented to his mind which he is capable of can easily be applied to the other sciences; tenacity of memory, but to repose with all its powers comprehending, and of applying to some and shall conclude this notice with an ex- on the decisions of an active understanding.

This is the way in which all real tract from the Address of Mr Brown, which Lancaster, on the other hand, was desirous of knowledge is obtained, and it is because contains some just observations respecting hazarding a mere experiment, without the least auour elementary books and our common the systems he is comparing.

thority from the practice of any age or nation. modes of instruction are so imperfect, that

A philanthropist, no doubt, he desired a more so very little is done at school to improve the best inethod of inculcation, those of Pestalozzi of the poorer classes of the community, in every

Among the variety of suggestions in relation to general diffusion of knowledge than the condition memory. The memory is continually stuffed public consideration. But while cach has found its on books, with the bare rehearsal of lessons to those with natural images, while the affections are advocates, no ewo systems are more diametrically who were ignorant of their meaning, he hoped that uninterested in them, and the understanding opposed.

such children as were deprived of higher advan

Pestalozzi seems to have reverted his eye upon tages, might receive, at least, tolerable instructakes no cognizance of their application or Foreign motives—as fear of punish- and, after admiring the perfection of the respective the brightest pages of Grecian and Roman bistory, tion.

In England, where this system received at first ment and hope of reward—must be contin, languages of these two august nations, to have in considerable patronage, it has sunk into general ually urged in order to encourage the mind quired into the causes of their literary and intel neglect; and in these States, where Lancaster to this almost useless mode of acquiring lectual greatness. By a natural mode of argument, travelled long, and laboured with indefatigable inknowledge. We call this species of knowls from effect to cause, he was led to suspect, that the dustry to impress the public mird with the sense of edge almost useless, because it proves of eminent historians and poets, orators

and statesmen
, the importance of his

new discovery, the schools compíratively little practical advantage, states, must have acquired the first rudiments of the and must eventually share the fate of their predeand the acquirement of it is accompanied by sciences under circumstances peculiarly adapted to cessors across the Atlantic. I have witnessed the





living pranks of very few of these monsters; but of its nearest approximations. Theirs has they have detected motive, where other have attended during the funeral obsequies of sev been a study of human experience in its men have only been taken with the coneral, in different states, and have seen their remains, varieties and causes. The distinctions they duct. They thus take us in their works to unattended by a solitary mourner, committed to have made, have proceeded out of the ac- the deep springs of human action, and show everlasting forgetfulness.

tual differences of things. What such men to us all its sources, whether pure or im

were or thought years ago, or yesterday, in pure, however wickedly selfish, or honour. MISCELLANY.

regard to the great questions of human con-ably disinterested. These men are authors, cern, they would be, or think to-day. They for they are eminently producers; for when have taught us what, and how they are; they have written, the world has got some

and if they have seemed different beings to thing which it had not before. These are AUTHORS never die. The good and the us at any time, the change has most proba- rare men. Ages have passed away without evil they do, alike live after them. The bly belonged to our own minds, not to them. When they have appeared, it has body may be dead, but the mind lives; on theirs.

been sometimes accidentally, and the world earth too; and will live. Men's minds, as Such men are inestimably valuable at all has not known its own; and they have had others know them, are known by what they limes, and in all ages. They are especially so no other reward but the incommunicable say, do, and write. We have had men to our own. We are in a stirring world, and one, which a fine mind always has, and alamongst us who never wrote any thing, but are for turning it upside down. The change, ways must have, in the noble company of who, nevertheless, acted widely upon others even for the worse, is not altogether the its own thoughts. The works of such men by conversation alone. They thought as matter of doubtful choice it was once thought have been a legacy to all posterity. And deeply, and as accurately, and talked with to be; or we are willing to change what is how sacred has been the entail; how carethe same precision and order, as if they were well, for the chances of the better. Some ful have we been of the patrimony, and how thinking for writing, or were actually writ- of our most gifted talkers have taken the jealous lest its fame should become the ing. Their opinions were sought for, where word of the time, or put it into the time's property of another. they might be useful, and were as accessible mouth, and little now is, but what is not. The authors of whom we write never as if they were on the bookseller's counter, or in the men of whom we write, there was a repeat themselves. Let characters or inin the library. These were strictly authors. saving leaven of human prudence. They cidents be as nnmerous as they may, a real They are, however, necessarily short-lived. had learned caution in the experience of individuality is preserved every where. You Their records are not permanent. They every hour. They had learned it as well in constantly perceive that the various beings are not the property of the whole, and the slow and wise progress of nature, as in created are conscious of their own identity, which the whole will find a common pride their profound observance of human con- and act in consequence of it; and that the and interest to preserve, and to preserve duct. They talked deliberately, as if in distinctions between them belong as natuunadulterated. They are the property of a barmony with this progress. I have known rally to this consciousness as they do to the few, which the few will appropriate, and instances of peculiar melody of voice among same thing in actual life. Shakspeare was may alter and deform without mercy, and these men, as if moral beauty, and a fine in- pre-eminent in this character of original without fear. It is melancholy to see the tellect, gave character to their expression. anthorship. His dead, and equally his living, mind thus dying to its own age, and to the If these were in any degree taught caution never appear again when he has done with future. If we have felt safer while such a and wisdom from nature, by the operation them, either to push us from our stools, or mind was with us and near us, when danger of its ordinary progress upon their ininds, jostle us in our way. The ghost of Banquo was abroad, or anticipated, we have lost they were especially taught the self-same appears indeed to the disturbed imagination much when we have lost it. We have ac- by its occasional deviations. They had seen of his own Macbeth ; but it had no form or quired a habit of dependence, and have felt ruin in the track of the storm, and in the being to Shakspeare's mind any more than it to be the direct and useful product of the flood of intolerable light from the clouds of it had to the vision of the royal guests. greater and better power of another. It heaven. They had seen the fair face of When Hostess Quickly tell us that Sir John has been a useful dependence, for its quality earth smiling in the calm sunshine, and its is dead, and how he died, the association of has been to make our own minds stronger best fruits in the safe shower.

the winding-sheet, the coffin, the pall, and and better. There has been an advantage But these men have not written. They the grave, is inevitable, and we no more to us, perhaps, that these men have not gave their minds to perishing records, the look for his return on earth again, than we written. Their honest and sound views memories of inen. A few years, and it will should for an acquaintance, or accustomed have not been submitted either to vulgar be difficult to remember their faces. If we neighbour, after he is buried. impertinence, or party malevolence. The remember their thoughts, it may not be to Some writers who have been once origisharp, and sometimes effective, criticism of better our own, or to act by them.

nal, seem to have fallen in love with their lesser minds, or the encounter of as strong, Men, in the third place, are known by first fine conception, and ever after banker differently, and, it may be, less prudently what they write. This remark wants large for it as for a first love. Let now the variety directed, has not hurt our faith, or dimin- qualification. Writers are authors by ein- be intended to be never so great, and names, ished our confidence. We have reposed phasis, in common speaking. But all who ages, and temperaments differ as they may, delightedly and usefully beneath the pro- write are not so. Few men give us what we always detect some limb, some feature, or tection of a fine mind, and, it may be, for others have not given us before. Other some peculiarity of the first, given or transthe time, have not been disquieted, that we nen's thoughts have passed through their fused into all its successors. Their minds have had so few with us. The influence that minds, it is true, but they have come out as are like the philosopher's stone, whatever has been so limited and personal, however, as they went in. It is rare that they get is touched becomes gold. might have been felt every where. In its even a new costume, and if they do, how Great authors have, finally, a property iu degree perhaps less vividly, but in its amount frequently are they only deformed by it. their own minds, which other men have not. far greater. Above all, if these men had These are writers. An author is one whose Other men, and their thoughts and doings, written, they would have survived the mind has not been the highway of others and all external nature, it is true, have their grave,

men's thoughts, but a soil into which they effects upon them. But they have minds Men are known, it was said, by what they have been cast, like seed into the good too, and in virtue of the very superiority of do. The men about whom we have written, ground, and where they have died in the these over others, bring more to pass of a were known in this way, and a wide and upspringings and full harvest of higher strictly original character, than ibe comuseful influence was exerted by their ac- and brighter thoughts. The observation of bined suggestions, and other operations, of tions. It is a property of such minds to be men and of nature has done the same thing. all the matters of mere observation. consistent with themselves. They have An affinity, if the term be allowed, has, in Writers have been divided into various been cautious in their decisions, and what these men, subsisted between their own classes. We have spoken of two ;-those is truth with them, is not unfrequently one minds and the minds of other men. And who are authors and those who are not

There is another class we mean to glance one original character, developed and varied in this, and while the future continues in
at. This embraces writers who are honest, by the operation of a very few agencies. It futurity, we would class ourselves among
and writers who are not. We have no con- is a mind, however, of vast capacity, and the faithful.
cern with the purposes or motives of men the causes which are brought to operate Sometimes, however, this vast and remote
when they' write or print, for a bad book upon it are of great power. We are not future seems to approach nearer than it
may not have proceeded from a bad motive, surprised to find this character at times' a should upon the borders of the present, and
or a useful one from the best. Honest au- wandering misanthrope, feeling deeply the sometimes our writers and talkers seem to
thors are not so to themselves only, but to power of nature, and of man as he now is, think, and to feel that it has actually
their age, and to their country. There is a and man as he has been, in the remote and reached us, and that we are now what a
real weakness in a written bypocrisy. A strange times of antiquity. It is not strange few centuries may make us. In this there
man may walk before us, and talk before us to us that he should now appear deep in the may be great evil. If our legislators get it,
too, and be nothing he seems. But the mind toils of love; now recklessly cruel, and now they may legislate for what is not; chang-
and the heart of the whole community stir ardently attached. We do not wonder to ing and overturning what belongs to us, to
at the false histories of the writing author. find him grossly licentious and ingenious make way for what belongs to Dobody. Our
And this they do, whether the falsehood be in his ribaldry; now discoursing about financiers may get it, and we may be taxed
found in the glozing of sin, in excessive moral distinctions, and now losing or de- in advance, and be called wealthy, because
panegyric, or in caricature vice.

spising the whole of them. At one moment every body may be hereafter. It would
The purely imaginative, and the satirists he spurns our sympathy, and in the next we sometimes seem that the inspiration of our
too, have not unfrequently been the faith- should be ashamed of his company. This writers was getting transfused into the mass,
fulest authors, and the truest historians. character has been pronounced to be his and that we are living in the future, whether
Who reads Humne, Gibbon, or Robertson own, at least in an early period of its bis- we will or no. We are getting at last at
for a true history? Nobody. But who does tory. This, however, he has denied. But abuses, which have been the protection and
not read Shakspeare with a saving and a if it be in any measure so, bis works to that happiness of our fathers and ourselves, but
safe faith. He wrote truly of all ages, for extent at least are autobiographical, and will which will never be tolerated in the times
he wrote truly of his own, and knew what go down to succeeding ages for their veri- to come. A strange sort of benefaction is
was in man. To be honest, was not the less similitude alone. They are not histories of thus to be substituted for present good, the
unwise in his time, in the construction of a his time, for they do not give us what an incalculable good of a vast future.
villain, than it is now.

age, especially his own, makes of the mass If this be in any measure true, if we are Pope was no traducer of his species as he of men, with whom he was born. They are to realize prophecies, or are realizing them found it. His age made him, as the age strictly individual, for they all tell us about already, we should look to it, and very semakes every body. His harmonious, and, the same being. Give these works any riously. Human life is getting longer, it is not upfrequently, grossly indelicate satire, other character, admit for a moment that said, than it used to be, but it will hardly has its quality from his time. It was the they were intended by the author as a true carry us as far as our writers are disposed current selfishness which made its passage history, or a dramatic sketch of his times, to do. We may be losers in the bargain, and through his heart, and a fine intellect fol- and he becomes at once the veriest and what is thus lost to us, will be lost to our lowed in its tide. Pope, however, is tem- vulgarist libeller. As it is, he is the most successors, however remote, or however nuporary and local, for he is confined, and remarkable egotist, if one at all, that bas merous. They were safe prophets in the hemmed in by an artificial society both of ever lived. He industriously brings to the British parliament, who foretold the liberty fashion and letters.

We have dispensed surface, and keeps there, what other men and prosperity of America, for we had one with the hoop-petticoat, and pretty much more industriously have hidden in the deep- of these already, and could not long want with the heroic couplet. But he is true to est recesses of their own hearts. This sin the other. Prophets are not safe now howwhat he saw and felt, or to his age, and is gle fact explains a thousand anomalies in ever, our prophetic writers; for we have o far no libeller.

his works; and among these, the strange both liberty and prosperity, and it is for Byron is still more local than Pope. He selfishness which could love deeply the in- these, and for these alone, we should give is almost individual. His variety is more dividual and hate the species; or regard the our minds in the fulness of their best powin name than in thing. His writings seem whole with one sweeping abhorrence, dis- ers; and if we are true to our best interests, to be the efforts of a very few agencies upon gust, and contempt.

those which have been long proved, and his own vast mind. A review of some of We have spoken of authors who have found so, our posterity will be blessed withhis poems, which by his own title of them, been true to their own character, to their out prophesy. really belong to his infancy, was one, and age, and to the world. There are other probably the earliest of these. This review classes; we have room to speak of but one annoyed him dreadfully. He did not con- This class is peculiar to our own sider that he had strayed from his nobility country. It has in a measure been made

No. I. into the republic of letters, and was igno- by the country, its institutions, and prosrant that the constitution of this wide re. pects, and deserves to be named. It be

The Author. public, guarantees to all its citizens the longs to us; and however little we have

Me dulcis saturet quies. privilege of abusing, as well as praising been allowed to appropriate of letters,

Obscuro positus loco, each other. His nobility went in company we may safely claim this. If we should

Leni perfruar otio. with his genius, a legitimate association name it, we should call it the prophetic class

Chorus ex Thyeste, enough in his case, and they were equaily of authors. This will serve to distinguish I am a wayfaring man in the literary annoyed by the reception they met. Disgust them at once from all writers within a world, and in humour and out of humour to the whole British empire soon followed, reasonable antiquity, and will surely distin- with its inhabitants, have come and gone and the Curse of Minerva appeared a few guish them from all the moderns. Our wri- from place to place, and as yet have left no years after English Bards and Scottish Re- ters, whether imaginative or historical, are memory behind me. I have always shunviewers. A still more personal annoyance prophetic. They go habitually before the ned ostentation, even in the vehicle that at length drove his lordship from England time. They live in the future of their own has carried me, and turning aside from the forever, and then we had Don Juan, or, with minds. They are with a population which busier marts of literature, have loitered in other things, English manners, and English cannot be numbered. The blessings of our its green alleys and silent avenues. To society, under the similitude of Eastern institutions are upon all. A mass of intel- men in the higher walks of letters nature sensuality.

lectual power and physical strength occu- has made known the warm intellectual As an author, and it is in this character pies the distance, to a degree at times al- springs, whence issue those vast concepLord Byron now lives, his lordship is almost most oppressive to us, who are comparatively tions, that are too wide for the embrace of entirely exclusive. He has given us but | few and powerless. Now there is no harm inferior minds :--and we of bumbler birth



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