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BURNING A HOLE THROUGH IRON WITH
He asserts, that, although the measure | ridges of high land, in which it is not known creased, as it can then be brought to New or the location of the mineral wealth of the that coal exists; but supposing from this es. York and Boston at much less expense United States is not precisely ascertained, timate, we make the enormous deduction of than at present. Some of our readers may yet it is known, that the coal formation one half, there will then remain five thou- be interested by Mr Griscom's statement within our limits is more abundant than that sand millions of tons, a quantity sufficient to respecting the employment of this fuel in of any other country. Bituminous coal ex. supply New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, furnaces. ists in numerous basins scattered over the (supposing those cities to contain eighty “In an experiment which I witnessed in whole of a vast region, extending from the thousand houses, and each house to consume a blacksmith's shop, a bar of iron about two sources of the Ohio on the north, to the five tons in a year) during a period of twelve inches wide and five eighths thick, was head waters of the Tombigbee on the south, thousand five hundred years! It appears rea- brought to a good welding heat in a comthe valley of the Susquehannah on the sonable, therefore, to infer from data not mon forge in less than three ninutes; and east, and the alluvium of the Mississippi on unworthy of reliance, that the Wyoming a nail rod was sufficiently heated in fifteen the west. The supply of this coal may be and Lackawannock vallies contain a body seconds The best of the coal on the Lackconsidered quite inexhaustible; and the of coal suficient to supply all the wants of awansock burns with considerable blaze. eastern part of the formation is not inac- the eastern and middle sections of the United In the instance just mentioned in the smith's cessible to the principal cities of the north- States, for a period which may be consid- shop, the blaze was eighteen inches high, ern and middle states. But the learned ered as infinite, and also to serve the pur- but the light which it emits is inferior to Professor considers this coal as altogether poses, if needful, of an extensive exportation. bituminous coal. Certificates have been obinferior in value to the harder or anthracite Should the projected intercourse between the tained and published, of the superior value coal. In this he is certainly correct, and waters of the Hudson, Delaware, and Sus- and economy of this coal, from blacksmiths, if he is equally so in bis estimate of the quehannah be carried into complete effect, brewers, distillers, gunbarrel makers, for the quantity of this coal, many ages must pass, and the coal be brought to the Atlantic purpose of rolling and slitting mills, &c. and before we are driven to use the somewhat markets at the prices contemplated, it seems there can, I apprehend, be but little doubt similar, but inferior, coal, which is found in not improbable that the current of European that with fire-places and furnaces properly this vicinity.
intercourse in the article of fuel will be re. constructed, it can be advantageously em“On the eastern side of this bituminous versed, and that instead of importing coal ployed in all cases in which a strong and region exists another coal formation of far from England, American coal will be ex. durable heat is necessary; and, as it burns greater importance than the former, to the ported to France, Holland, or more particu- without smoke, its peculiar fitness for cerimmediate prosperity of the more popular iarly to the countries of the Baltic. tain operations is very manifest.” sections of the union. This is the region “The greatest objections to it as a domesof anthracite coal, occupying an extensive tic fuel, are the comparative difficulty of valley, through a considerable portion of ignition, and its burning without much which flows the river Susquehannah and fame. The former of these, as experience If the following had not received so high ils tributary stream the Lackawannock. has amply shown, is well overcome by the a sanction as that of Professor Silliman, we This variety of coal is here found in great use of charcoal
, or billets of dry wood, for should certainly be inclined to ránk it abundance, and of a finer quality, it is be- the purpose of kindling, and the intense among those statements which are more lieved, than in any part of the world yet glow which a grate of it affords, is a pretty strange than credible. As it is, we may explored. The length of this remarkable good compensation for the blaze of bitumin- be permitted to doubt whether all the circoal field may be taken at more than one ous coal or hickory wood. Its durability, cumstances are told, or, if told, whether they hundred miles, commencing at a point near during combustion, saves two-thirds of the are related with exact accuracy. It is taken Harrisburg, on the Susquehannah, and run- trouble of attendance on fires; and in nur- from a No. of Professor Silliman's Journal ning northeasterly almost in a straight line series, and other places in which a fire of Science and the Arts. to the head waters of the Lackawannock, throughout the night is needful, nothing “ Colonel Evasin, director of the arsenal not far from the borders of Broome county, can be compared with it for safety and of Metz, in a letter to Gay Lussac, states in the state of New York, and comprehend facility of management. So sensible are the the following experiments : ing in its range the highlands at the head inhabitants of the districts within reach of
I placed a bar of wrought iron, about of the rivers Schuylkill
, Lehigh, and Lacka- the mines, of these advantages, that they sixteen millemetres in thickness, (six tenths waxen, which empty into the Delaware. Its prefer to use it although their wood costs of an inch) into a common forge, fed by fossil breadth may be safely taken, it is presumed, them nothing. I was credibly informed, coal, and when it was welded hot, drew it out, at an average of three miles, making a sur- while at Carbondale, that some of the in- and applied to its surface a stick of sulphur face of three hundred square miles, or nearly habitants of Montrose sent thither for coal, six tenths of an inch in diameter. In fourone thousand millions of square yards. The though at the distance of thirty miles, over teen seconds the sulphur had pierced a hole thickness of the contiguous beds in several a very rough road, and paid for it one dol- 'through the iron, perfectly cïrcular. Another places where the coal has been wrought, lar and a half per ton, in preference to wood bar of iron, two inches thick, was pierced in exceeds thirty feet, or ten yards; and it is delivered at their doors at seventy-five cents fifteen seconds. The holes had the exact well known, from examination of a section per cord! At Wilkesbarre it is the princi- form of the sticks of sulphur employed, of the whole formation, in places where, by pal fuel, being used in both parlors and whether cylindrical or prismatic. They a disruption of the waters, the various beds kitchens; and the fires, in many instances, were, however, more regular at the side at are exposed, that the thickn ss of the sev- are not allowed to expire through the win which the sulphur came out, than on that on eral workable strata exceeds forty-five feet, ter; for by the addition of fresh coal on which it was applied. or fifteen yards; but assuming ten yards as going to bed, the fire is found in full ac- 1 Steel bars, formed of old files welded tothe medium thickness, the whole number of tivity in the morning. Its adaptation to the 'gether, were pierced more quickly than cubic yards within the district above speci- purposes of the smith, is abundantly ac- iron, and presented the same phenomena. fied, would be ten thousand millions. knowledged by its universal employment Cast iron, heated nearly to the melting
" It is easily proved by calculation, that a in places where it can be obtained without point, underwent no alteration, by the apcubic yard of this coal weighs rather more too great cost.”
plication of sulphur to its surface. The sulthan two thousand two hundred gross weight We can bear testimony to the correct pour did not even leave a mark. I took a for unavoidable waste, there will be as many ness of some of Mr Griscom's remarks as to piece of this cast iron and fashioned it into tons as cubic yards, namely ten thousand the domestic uses of this coal ; and if the a crucible, and put it into some sulphur and millions within the ascertained region, sup- works intended to make a communication iron. On heating the crucible, the iron and posing the strata to be continnous through- between the Delaware and North River are sulphur were quickly melted, but the cruciout. This, however, is not to be imagined, completed, the economy of using it here, in ble underwent no change. as the region is in several places broken by preference to other fuel, will be greatly in- An. de Chimie, Jan. 1824.
edge of those tongues [the French and / with Questions for examination, with addiItalian), and an ignorance of our own." tional Notes and Illustrations, a Frontis
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JUST PUBLISHED, ular rule or principle by which nearly eve- The Elements of Arithmetic, by James ry individual correction is to be made. Robinson, jr.: an appropriate work for BY R. P. & C. Williams, 79 WashingGreat care and vigilance have been exer- the first classes in schools.
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while Lord Umberdale returns to England
We drop these intimations, upon the with the willow. Tales of an American Landlord; containing principle of the economy of preventive Such is a general outline of the story, Sketches of Life south of the Potomac. measures, for the benefit of our imaginative which we cannot think very interesting. New York. 1824. 2 vols. 8vo.
countrymen and countrywomen; desiring We are too well experienced in the conWe read American novels, and indeed them in a friendly way, to lay it to heart, trivances of novelists, to be much enterAmerican works of any kind, with a deter- especially the latter. We are indeed too tained by complicated plots and incognito mination to be as well pleased, and to think chivalrous, knowingly, to war with the fair heroes. With respect to the individual and speak as well of them as our taste and sex; but the ladies, in these cases, do not characters, we think Colonel Berkley's conscience will permit, and hold it but a always favour us with their names, and we, conversion improbable, while his son is at venial error, to allow ourselves to be a little on our part, make no pretensions to the best an object of very cool approbation. unduly biassed in favour of home manufac- spirit of divination. Thus, it may chance, that Mrs Belcour manœuvres, as the mother in tures. We feel reluctant, therefore, to pass in belabouring some offending wearer of the the novels of all ages has manæuvred, but an unfavourable judgment on the work be- cloak of darkness our lashes may fall upon with little spirit and little ingenuity; the fore us. We think the author has read and forms no way calculated to endure them, and daughters are good girls enough, but nothadmired the novels of the Scottish Unknown, shatter nerves which nature never strung ing more; Mr Courtal is a very unsuccesstill he has persuaded himself (no uncommon for rude encounters. We advise the fair ful attempt to imitate Counsellor Pleydell; mistake, by the way,) that he is able to write authors, therefore, in all cases, to let a little and the clergyman is a caricature, which something of the same kind; but, if we may of the blue investment peep out from beneath bears as much likeness to life as caricatures judge by this specimen, he has assuredly the sable coverture ;-just to make patent generally do. mistaken his vocation. It is not enough to so much of an azure instep, as will enable But the principal objection to this work, Il be delighted with the works of the novelist us to account satisfactorily to our readers, is the perpetual and undisguised attempt at of the North, nor even to have them by for our mansuetude in the cases supposed imitation. Almost every sentence is framed heart. There are many readers in the same The leading characters, in these Tales, so as to remind us of the god of the author's case, who have never suspected themselves are Colonel Berkley, a profane man of the idolatry. We mean every original sentence, of possessing the ability to imitate the ob- world; his son George, a religious young for we might almost call the work a cento, jects of their admiration; as there are others, man; an old methodist preacher; Mrs Bel- so abundant are the quotations from Scott, who, notwithstanding a secret feeling, that cour, and her two daughters, Maria and Shakspeare, and others. It should have they are not altogether inadequate, content Eliza; Lord Umberdale, an English noble- been considered, that, though an occasional themselves with imagining the case of an man; Mr Arley, his brother, a dissipated quotation or allusion, like a jewel judiciously attempt which they never have, por ever spendthrift; Mr Courtal, a lawyer; Colonel placed, may set off what would be agreeable will make, and live and die in the conscious- Hopewell, an old soldier; and Marmaduke without it; a profusion of ornaments adds ness, that they could astonish and delight Scott, a Scotch clergyman.
nothing to beauty, and renders homeliness the world, if they would.
Miss Eliza Belcour is contracted by her only more remarkable; and that, while Now and then it happens, however, as parents, in her ipfancy, to George Berkley, memory may assist talents, and reading in the present instance, that the amateur whom she has never known, and of course minister to invention,—they can seldom shakes off that wholesome disposition to dislikes. She falls in love with an unknown conceal their defects, and never supply procrastination, which has protected the young gentleman, who turns out to be George their places. reading community from many a volume, Berkley, in time to reconcile her duty and We object further to the offence against which, like Basil's Journal, only waited inclination. Her sister, in like manner, poetical justice, in the dénouement of the for to-morrow ; sbuts bis eyes to the gives her heart to the Honourable Mr Arley, tale; Lord Umberdale is despatched in sordangers, which lurk behind the periodical who, having disencumbered himself of his row, and Arley carries off the prize, for presses of the time; ventures to put forth property in England, and, flying from the which both contended. Whether marriage, his twin volumes in fair paper covers, blue, terrors of the law at bome, appears in with the object of one's affection, be the most yellow, or marble, as the case may be, and America under the assumed name of Percy, valuable blessing and reward offered in this waits, in trembling anxiety, to see from associates himself with a gang of sharpers, sublunary scene, or not, is a question about what quarter the critic is to spring upon and lays siege to the affections and fortune which opinions differ materially. The afbis literary offspring. In general, the of Miss Belcour. Some remains of honour firmative, however, is pretty generally adAmerican author escapes easily. The public protect her from the consequences of this mitted in Utopia, of which country the read and forget, his friends praise, and the plot, and it is afterwards discovered to her characters, and, by courtesy, the writers reviewer lays a patriotic and gentle hand by an accident, which consigns Mr Arley of novels, must be considered citizens. To upon the harmless ephemera. These are to temporary confinement. In the mean this reward, therefore, the nobleman, who is halcyon days for poets and tale-tellers; but time, Lord Umberdale appears on the stage, represented as uniformly virtuous, had the they should remember, that they hold their seeking his dissipated brother. In the course clearest title, and it is at once contrary to privileges by a precarious tenure; that the of his search, he meets, and becomes enam- the law of the land alluded to, and in opposinationality of critics is but a broken reed to oured of Maria,—who transfers her regard tion to the dictates of the moral sense of any rest upon; that the nature of these animals to him, with a facility which can hardly be land, to award it to one, whose only claim is not longsuffering; and that, however excused by his personal likeness to her for- is founded on good feelings whose dictates gentle and playful they may appear in mer suitor. Before an actual declaration have been generally disregarded, and a particular circumstances, their disposition takes place, circumstances bring the broth- recent conversion which may possibly be to rend a hapless scribbler, is a too well crs in contact; a reconciliation is the result; permanent. We mention another objection authenticated trait in their character, to Mr Arley repents, reforms, and marries with considerable hesitation. It is founded
on the religious character of the work. We gun' my horse, who, I assure you, has taken a purely mental; and that, with regard to allude to this with reluctance, because there sweepstakes in his time, limped as if he had been the mind and its operations, people were are few things more suspicious than a zeal shot. It was enchantment—it could not be else.' against supposed mistaken opinions in reli- Percy, laughing, what necromantic sage hath different to the analytic method, as if Ba
"Can you form any rational conjecture," said content to grope on in the old way, as ingion. An attack upon forms sometimes played you so foul a trick?'
con had never thought nor written. But conceals, and, what is nearly as important, "Yes, truly,' replied Mr Courtal; “some sage nothing, we presume, would strike this is often supposed to conceal an unfriendly Urganda, who had erewhile been the guardian of father of experimental philosophy with feeling, or at least a want of regard to the Amadis de Gaul, or Don Belianis of Greece, or substance. Our remarks on this head must the mountain--fellows that went about righting of common consent, his method had been ex
Fleximarte of Hyrcania, or haply Beldonivos of more astonishment than the fact, that, by therefore be brief, and, we trust, will not be wrongs and redressing of grievances, and behanged cluded from the process of instruction; misunderstood.
to them, without submitting the cases to trial by that where he might have expected his We are of opinion, that one of the objects jury-envious of the happiness of one, whose vo- views to be best appreciated and most of this work is to recommend certain relig- cation it is to stop, such unlawful and irregular readily embraced, and where they could ious views and feelings, concerning the bene. modes of administering justice-hath pla, ed me this prank.'
most speedily and effectually have accomfit and ultimate tendency of which, men think * But be serious, Mr Courtal,' said Maria, and plished a revolution in the history of human very differently; and that works of imagina- tell me how you lost sight of me.'
knowledge, they had been treated with the tion are out of their place on such debateable *If I were to be as serious as a man with a gray utmost neglect. ground. There is a great deal, and we hope mare in his house-(out upon all gray mares, I say,
To be satisfied that our statement of the it is the most important part of our religion, of my tale. My horse went unaccountably lame, case is no exaggeration, one has but to about which the wise and good of all sects and on entering the wood I found I had lost you cast a glance at the method of instruction and parties are agreed, and the necessity A young cockatrice of a boy-(I trust I may see the adopted in most of our schools, and develand benefit of which should be enforced, or lying limb of Satan before a grand jury some day or oped in most school books. With a few insinuated, in any way that has any chance other)--gave me a wrong direction, which led me, exceptions, very lately introduced, the of being effectual; but we think it a ques-erede was aware, to a piece of isaampi sound learner is first presented with a general or tionable policy to diminish this chance, by In short, after having been stained with the varia- synthetic view of the science he is study: shackling what is undisputed, with any tion of an hundred mudholes, I at length got through, ing, and afterwards with the particulars of thing, of which the utility is matter of and by mere good luck made my way to this house which it consists; a course which comserious controversy.
pelted indeed by the pitiless storn-but, finding you pletely inverts the order of our quotation Our readers may expect, after this long safe, most incomparable lady, I have only to add, from Bacon. discussion, that we should offer some illus
begone, my cares, I give you to the wind.”. tration of our opinions in the shape of ex
The words marked by italics, in this ex- for our own part, no hesitation in avowing
Let others think as they may, we have, tracts. With this demand, however reason- tract, which many of our readers will recog- our conviction, that, in the business of inable, we find some difficulty in complying, dise as those of Counsellor Pleydell, are struction, days and years of valuable time since our objections are of such a general not distinguished in the novel by marks of are commonly mispent in following the nature, that their force is to be estimated quotation. This liberty can only be de
course prescribed by systematized error, by a perusal of the whole, or a large part fended by considering the Scottish novels and that the true method of teaching is but of the work, rather than by that of insu- as standing on the same ground with Shak- dawning upon us. We are sanguine enough, lated portions. One selection, however, we speare, or other acknowledged classics-an however, to believe that the light which is shall make, as it serves to illustrate our assumption which we can hardly admit, at now glimmering upon this subject, will criticism on the character of Mr Courtal. so early a period of their immortality.
soon cast a fuller radiance; and when this The reader will understand that Miss Bel.
shall be, what improvements, what discovecour has been run away with by a mare,
ries in science, may we not expect from whom the lawyer had incautiously pur- Suggestions on Education; relating partic- minds which, from their first glimpses of chased, and still more incautiously recom
ularly to the Method of Instruction com- knowledge up to their highest acquirements, mended for her riding. She has been monly adopted in Geography, History, have been trained and formed by the disrescued from a perilous situation by Percy,
Grammar, Logic, and the Classics. New cipline of analysis? with whom she is found in a cottage by Mr
We would not, however, be understood Courtal; who expresses his relief at the “ We should then have reason to hope well as saying that the synthetic method is usediscovery in strong terms, to which she re- of the sciences, when we rise, by continued less, far from it. Synthesis is an excel. plies as follows.
steps, to inferior axioms, and then to the mid- lent, an indispensable thing in its place; 'I am safe, quite safe,' said the young lady, dle, and only at last to the most general.” that is to say, as the best method of recascarcely less affected than himself, at beholding an We have repeatedly intimated our belief, pitulating and reviewing what we have emotion so unexpected : ‘I was so fortunate as to that the spirit of this remark of Bacon's was learned, -pot however as the best way to leap off at a spot where I found this gentleman, intended, by its illustrious author, to have an acquire knowledge. Every treatise intendby whose polite attention I have escaped exposure application coextensive with human knowl- ed for the communication of knowledge to to this storm.'
"The gentleman,' said Mr Courtal, endeavouring edge. He never meant that analysis the young, should no doubt contain a synto recover his usual manner, was in luck. Well, should be restricted to the science of mat-thetic view of its subject; but this view this is his day-another may be mine. He will ter, and excluded from that of mind. Could should follow, and not precede the analysis, mark it, I doubt not, with a white stone : though I that venerable lawgiver in philosophy rise - it should be found at the end, and not at the never yet knew these speluncam Dido, dur et from the stillness of his grave, and look beginning of the book. For a specimen of There are no limbs broke, yet there may be a upon the occupations of scientific men of this arrangement, we might refer our readbreaking of something else-eh, Percy!
our day, he would, we imagine, be fully as ers to the Latin Grammar, published by the Mr Percy said, with gravity, he hoped there was much puzzled as pleased. He would find author of the pamphlet now before us, and nothing to apprehend. • Oh, I dare believe, on second thoughts, there is extolled to the highest, his track in the In that work, an analysis of every depart:
that, whilst his method of investigation was reviewed in the Gazette for October 1st. find a heart that will break as a glass that will not: paths of science professedly followed with ment of Latin grammar is first given; and,
Mr Percy made an unsuccessful effort to smile undeviating constancy, his name adorned at the end of every part, and at the concluat this sally, and then asked how it happened Mr with every epithet of human eloquence, sion of the whole, is an interrogatory syk. Courtal lost sight of the lady. * By enchantment,' said Mr Courta! ; 'which, if authority was really acknowledged in but led order of the mind, in the acquisition of
and his memory almost worshipped, his thesis. This is the natural and untramelappeal him to the combat. Why, sir, when the one department; that, whilst his sway was knowledge. The subject is, in the first witch of a mare which Miss Belcour rode, Alew undisputed in natural science, there was place, reduced to its simplest parts: these away, as Pindar says, “ light as a bullet from a the utmost aversion to it in whatever is are studied, one by one ; and when the