« PreviousContinue »
not apply in this. They have their virtues | Journey to the Northern Ocean, and quoted / which I was going. I mentioned the circumstance and their vices, and we see no reason for by Dr Jarvis, in his Discourse delivered be to the chief of the place, and told him that I thought believing that the proportion between the fore the New York Historical Society.
it impossible that we should have rain while the sky
was so clear as it then was, and had been for near good and the bad that is in them, constitutes any very striking difference between them him (Hearne) to kill one of his enemies, who was announced by some signs or change in the atmo
Matonabbee, one of their chiefs, had requested five weeks together, without its being previously and other men. With the utmost good-will at that time several hnndred miles distant. "To sphere. But the chief answered : . Chenos knows to the cause which Mr Buchanan labours to please this great man,' says he, .and not expecting very well what he is about; he can at any time advance, we advise him not to rest upon the that any harm could possibly arise from it, I drew predict what the weather will be; he takes his peculiar excellence of their character, their a rough sketch of two human figures on a piece of observations morning and evening from the river
or something in it.' On my return from this place claims to better treatment at our hands than one of them I drew the figure
of a bayonet, pointing after three o'clock in the afternoon, the sky
still they have hitherto received.
to the breast of the other. This,' said I 1o Maton- continued the same until about four o'clock, when The religious opinions, traditions, and abbee, pointing to the figure which was holding the all at once the horizon became overcast
, and with. rites of the Indians, have been investigated bayonei, 'is 1, and the other is your enemy.' Op- out any thunder or wind, it began to rain, and conwith great care, and many facts have been posite to those figures I drew a pine tree, over tinued so for several hours together, until the ground ascertained and used in support of many tree projected a human hand. This paper 1 gave
which I placed a large human eye, and out of the became thoroughly soaked." theories. That which has attracted mostro Matonabbee, with instructions to make it as pub- of the American aborigines have been
It was not until lately, that the languages attention, identifies these savages with the lic as possible. The following year when
he came studied with great care ; and valuable reremains of the ten tribes of Israel. Mr to trade, he informed me that the man was dead.
sults have rewarded the labour bestowed Adair, whose means of obtaining knowledge Matouabbee assured me, that the man was in perrespecting the Indians, were very great, and fect health when he heard of my design against upon these pursuits. Mr Duponceau, who more lately, Dr Boudinot, have urged with quite gloomy, and, refusing all kinds of sustenance, and whose authority is indisputable, declares
him, but almost immediately afterward became is the best authority upon these subjects, great force, every thing which can be sug- in a very few days died.'
that, the American languages in general gested in support of this hypothesis. Resemblances, some of which seem almost too deavour to confirm this disposition, and ac- cal forms, and that their structure is exceed
Their jugglers and priests, of course, en-are copious both in words and in grammatiexact to be referred to chance, unquestion quire a skill and facility in carrying through ingly methodical and regular. That their ably exist between many rites and religious their impostures, which might well deceive peculiar and complicated forms,—which he customs observed by the Indians, and those which were imposed by divine authority of a juggler thus employed, which Mr all these languages, from one extremity of
a wiser people. An instance of the sagacity calls polysynthetic,-appear to characterize upon the Jews. But it is difficult to ascertain Heckewelder relates, proves at least, that the continent to the other, and that they how far the authority for some of the most important may be relied on; and, without changes in the weather are indicated more differ essentially from those of the dead and adverting to the fatal objections against this of such things would suppose. distinctly and earlier, than casual observers living languages of the old hemisphere. The
polysynthetic construction of language, Mr theory which may be drawn from the physical structure and peculiarities of language drouth happened in the Muskingum country, so that the greatest number of ideas are comprised
In the summer of the year 1799, a most uncommon Duponceau explains to mean," that in which of the natives of this country, it may be every thing growing, even the grass and the leaves in the least number of words.” This is efsafely asserted, that many nations of the of the trees
, appeared perishing; an old man named fected in the Indian languages by constructold continent are as closely assimilated to Chenos, who was born on the river Delaware, was the Jews, by an identity of religious ritual, applied to by the women, to bring down rain, and ing compound words, by interweaving toas are the aborigines of this. Somewhat was well feed for the purpose. Having failed in gether the most significant sounds or syllasimilar ceremonies are practised by nations his first attempt
, he was feed a second
time; and bles of each simple word, in such a manner who have not gone beyond a certain degree obliged me to pass by the place where he was at those ideas which the primitive words would
it happened that one morning, when my business as to excite in the mind immediately all of civilization in all parts of the world. work, as I knew him very well, I asked him at once have singly expressed; and also by combinSacrifices, the worship of the principal what he was doing? I am hired,' said he, '10
ing the various parts of speech, particularly heavenly bodies, and of spiritual powers in a very hard day's work.' various forms, and some measure of vener
Q. And, pray, what work?
the verb, so that the various forms and inflec
A. Why, to bring down rain from the sky. tions will express, with the principal action, ation for consecrated periods and places, are Q. Who hired you to do that? always found among the savage nations of Ă. The women of the village; don't you see how moral and physical subjects connected with
the greatest possible number of the ideas of the old world, and have always been among much rain is wanted, and that the corn and every
it. Thus there are many words of these them, if we may trust to the evidence of thing else is perishing? records, and of monuments which go back
Q. But can you make it rain ?
languages, which are made to convey very beyond all record; and they are now ascer
À. I can, and you shall be convinced of it this different ideas by the simple addition or subvery day.
traction of a letter. “Wunachquin” means tained to have existed among all the tribes He had, by this time, encompassed a square of the nut of a tree, the leaves of which reof American Indians. Perhaps the only about five feet each way, with stakes and barks, so conclusion which can be rationally deduced that it might resemble a pig pen of about three feet semble a hand;” and “nadholineen” means
“ come with the canoe, and take us across from these facts, is, that all the religions in in height, and now, with his face uplifted and turned the world had one common origin;--that closely shutting up with bark the opening which between the northern and southern lan
towards the north, he muttered something, then the river.” With regard to the similarity there was a time when the parents of the had been left on the north side, he turned in the inhabitants of the earth knew, from sources same manner, still muttering some words, towards
guages, in respect of grammatical conwhich are now closed, that God is, and what the south, as if invoking some superior being, and struction, we will give Mr Duponceau's
own words. It will be remembered, that He is, and what are the laws and relations having cut through the bark on the southwest cor. which govern and connect the various parts ther, so as to make an opening of two feet, he said : such is the difference between the words of of his creation ;-and that as the weakness the river the sound of setting poles striking against nations of America can understand each
* now we shall have rain enough!' Hearing down these different languages, that the principal and wickedness of men varied in character a canoe, he inquired of me what it was? I told him other no better, than different nations in and measure, this knowledge was lost or it was our Indians going up the river to make a bush perverted in different modes and degrees. net for fishing. Send them home again!" said he ; | Europe or Asia. Perhaps there have been no nations more I told him to let them come on, and speak to them trate the extraordinary similarity which subsists
* tell them that this will not be a fit day for fishing!' I beg leave to adduce one single example to illussuperstitious than the Indians; many in himself, if he pleased. He did so, and as soon as between the languages of the north and south. The stances are known of individuals losing all they came near him, he told them that they must Abbé Molina, amidst a number of compound verbs strength and health, from the anxiety and by no means think of fishing that day, for there in the Araucanian language, instances the verb horror which some unlucky omen or fearful should come a heavy rain which would wet them "iduancloclavin,' 'I do not wish to eat with him.: circumstance had caused, and literally dying in a jocular manner, give us only rain, and we any similar verb in the Delaware, and he immedi
all through. No matter, Father!' answered they I once asked Mr Heckewelder whether there was from the fear of death. A remarkable in- will cheerfully bear the soaking.' They then passed ately gave me n'schingiwipoma, 'I do not like to stance of this is related by Hearne, in his on, and I proceeded to Goschachking, the village to eat with him.' A stronger feature of resemblance
in point of grammatical construction between the languages and antiquities should discover ways of each of these two entrenchments, which lay idioms of nations placed at such an immense dis distinctly their origin and successive condi- within a mile of each other, were a number of large tance from a chother; cannot, I think, be exbibited; tions, or that any record should be any where that wounds, in which the Indian pilot said, were avd with this and the references I have above made, discovered, which would tell them and us bereafter, with Colonel Gibson, call Alligewi. Of I believe I may, for the present, rest satisfied. * * Indeed, from the view which he (Mr Heckewelder) whence they came, and through what these entrenchments, Mr Abraham
Steiner, who was offers of the Lenni Lenape idiom, it would rather changes they have passed. But if these with me at the time when I saw them, gave a very appear to have been fornied by philosophers in their nations have no records, they have tradi- accurate description, which was published at Philaclosets, than by savages in the wilderness. If it tions, and the authority of these traditions delphia, in 1789 or 1790, in some periodical work,
the game of which I cannot at present remember. only answer, that I have been ordered to collect is confirmed by many unquestionable facts.
If these traditions are believed, they still and ascertain facts, not to build theories. There it is known, by the character of their lan
leave the earlier history of these tribes una remains a great deal yet to be ascertained, before guages, that the inhabitants whom our we can venture to search into remote causes. fathers found in possession of the vast re: the origin of other nations. There seems
known. But the same obscurity enwraps The peculiarities of the Indian languages gions of this continent, may be arranged sufficient reason for supposing that the are considered, by those competent to de- in three principal divisions, vizs the more American Indians are all a kindred people cide upon the subject, as decisive against civilized Indians in Middle and South with the Asiatic aborigines ; and that one the hypothesis of their Hebrew origin. We America, as the Mexicans and Peruvians; overflow from the heart of Asia poured into would only remark upon one fact, which the Lenni Lenape with their kindred tribes; America the ancestors of that people who seems to us to suggest an argument that we and the Huron or Iroquois nations. Besides do not recollect to have seen urged. The these, there are the Esquimaux in the north, were afterwards driven south, by hordes of Jews were separated from the nations for and many smaller and disconnected tribes in savages who escaped from the opposite conthe sake of the Scriptures, which were to the south. The mounds and barrows in tinent when it bad again become too crowded be given them; a characteristic of these North America authorize the belief, that for all its inhabitants to remain there and
live. Scriptures is, that they teach the absolute other nations once dwelt here before those existence of the Deity. Now this is a truth who were found here. The Lenni Lenape Clinton, in his Discourse delivered before
This hypothesis was advanced by Mr which no Indian language can express. An have a distinct tradition to this effect, -that the New York Historical Society, in 1811, Indian cannot speak of being, without also many hundred years since, they resided far describing the mode of being; he cannot to the westward of the Mississippi. That,
and supported by no less eloquence than say, “I am walking,” but “I walk,”—“I having begun to migrate, after a long jour. ingenuity; Since then, Mr Heckewelder's am eating,” but “ I eat;" there is no word ney, they reached the Mississippi, and found Historical Account has brought in confirmayet discovered in any Indian language, the Mengwe or Iroquois, who had likewise tion of it many traditions and facts of rawhich answers to the verb to be. It is emigrated from a distant region, and struck rious kinds, which Mr Clinton could not
anticipate. therefore a singular fact, that the phrase this river somewhat higher up. They had which may be called the definition of God's ascertained by their spies, that a powerful an's work, much cannot be said. It is merely
Of the literary character of Mr Buchannature given by himself, “I am that I am,” | people, who had many large towns, dwelt cannot be, as far as is yet known, precisely on the eastern side of this river. This peo without much method or purpose. Of the 371
a compilation from well known writers, made and adequately translated into any language ple were called the Talligewi or Alligewi, not of European origin, which is spoken on and the Alleghany river and mountains were pages which his book contains, an Appendix, this circumstance, in a note to a part of his Lenape and Mengwe, they were generally Report, both inserted entire, fill 100 more ; this continent. Mr Duponceau speaks of named from them. When attacked by the consisting wholly of extracts, occupies 59; Report on the Languages of the American defeated; their fortifications were taken, and of the remainder, Mr Heckewelder supIndians.
and they were obliged to migrate to the Molina, in his Grammar of the Othomi language, south leaving the invading tribes in pos; and speeches, mostly reprinted from very
plies a large portion, and Indian treaties gives the conjugation of a verb, which, he says, session of the countries in which they had corresponds to the Latin sum, es, fui ; but I am in- dwelt. We suppose that these Alligewi
common books, make up almost all that is clined to believe that he is mistaken, and that this became the Mexicans and Peruvians. The left
. We do not think that Mr Buchanan verbuansesers or, he se sto face in the other American Lenni Lenape often call themselves by the can point out fifty pages of his own writing, used in conjunction with an adjective, and that to generic name of Wapanachki, or “Men of and those which appear to be his, are cerexpress, for instance, I am rich, the adjective takes the East;" and, unless we greatly misrecol- tainly not the most valuable parts of the the form of a verb, and is itself conjugated, as in lect, Humboldt mentions a common tradi- work. From the Preface, we had expected Latin, sapio, 'I am wise, frigeo, 'I am cold.? Nor tion among the Mexicans, that their fathers
a somewhat different course; he says, is it ever used as an auxiliary in the conjugation of
I had abandoned all intention of placing myself applied in its mere substantive sense. In the Mexithat the Lenape bave pointed out some of in the summer of 1820, having casually spoken of other verbs. Therefore I do not see how it can be had come from the north. It would seem before the public ; but upon my arrival in London can language, Zenteno acknowledges that it is abso- the forts or mounds which have excited so the interest I had taken in the present state of the lutely wanting, and that it is impossible to translate much wonder, as the fortifications of the North American Indians, it was suggested, that from into that idiom the I am that I am,' of the sacred Alligewi. We extract the following from my observations and researches, which extended to writings. (Arte Mexic. p. 30). I have in vain
other tribes than those more particularly noticed by endeavoured to obtain a translation of that sentence Heckewelder's Historical Account.
Mr Heckewelder, together with extracts from such into Delaware from Mr Heckewelder, and I believe Many wonderful things are told of this famous parts of his useful and interesting volume, as tend to it cannot be literally rendered into any American people. They are said to have been remarkably confirm and illustrate the facts I had collected, or language.
tall and stout, and there is a tradition that there the views I had taken of the subject, the public Strong proof is requisite to make a rational were giants among them, people of a much larger might be presented with a work, in some degree mind believe, that the Hebrew language size than the tallest of the Lenape. It is related that calculated to facilitate the adoption of measures in
they had built to themselves regular fortifications favour of the Indians. could be so changed by any circumstances, or entrenchments, from whence they would sally as that, while it became greatly improved out, but were generally repulsed. I have seen
Upon the whole, while we acknowledge in soine important respects, it should have many of the fortifications said to have been built by that Mr Buchanan may do some good, by lost the power of conveying an idea, or them, two of which, in particular, were remarkable. helping to spread the knowledge of facts, rather a proposition, which, in its original One of them was near the mouth of the river Huron, which have been long before the public, we forin, it expressed with wonderful force and north side of that lake, at the distance of about add to the information which other writers
which empties itself into the Lake St Clair, on the are compelled to say, that his endeavours to exactness, and upon which depends every wenty miles northeast of Detroit. This spot of thing which gives to that language a value ground was, in the year 1786, owned and occupied had given, have been wholly fruitless. or sanctity.
by a Mr Tucker. The other works, properly enThe early history of these tribes is prob- trenchments, being walls or banks of earth regularly Conversations on Natural Philosophy ; in bly lost forever. It seems almost upreasonon the Huron river, east of the Sandusky, about six
which the Elements of that Science are faable to hope, that further inquiries into their or eight miles from Lake Erie, Outside of the gate. miliarly explained, and adapted to the comprehension of Young Pupils. Illus- the answers to the questions, it will be isting state of society. Such excellencies trated with Plates. By the author of necessary to read, and read carefully, the or defects of character are exhibited as “ Conversations on Chemistry,” and “Con- whole of the context; this, we conceive, is are common to many in these days, and versations on Political Economy.” Im- all that is necessary to be done. The sys- they are rewarded by a recompense of proved by Appropriate Questions for the tem, indeed, of arranging school books by good or evil, for which reality may afford Examination of Schools; also by Illustra- questions and answers, is by no means new, sutficient precedent. But in the Crusaders tive Notes, and a Dictionary of Philo- and we were induced to make these re- she goes back to the 12th century, and desophical Terms. By the Rev. J. L. Blake, marks, because we have heard doubts start- scribes persons and events which can now 8ć. Seventh American edition. Boston. ed with regard to their utility.
be only imagined. We are not so well 1825. 12mo. pp. 252.
The position of the plates in the present pleased with this tale as with most of its
edition is better than it is in the former; predecessors. It does not seem to us so We avail ourselves of the opportunity af
we think they would have been still more successful in its purpose of usefulness ;forded us by the publication of a new
edi- improved had they been constructed so that the lessons which it teaches are not taught commend it, not only to those instructers who they might be unfolded and placed immedi- so impressively ;-the advantages of integ
ately under the eye of the learner while rity, courage, and perseverance in good may not already have adopted it, but also generally to all readers who are desirous reading the explanation in the text. Mr conduct are inculcated, but it is by exam
Blake has also added many Notes which ples which cannot be realized. Some of of obtaining information on the subjects of
illustrate the passages to which they are our readers may thank us for a brief abwhich it treats. The book itself has been long before the public. Mrs Bryan, the appended, and the Dictionary of Philosopb- stract of this tale. ical Terms is an useful addition.
Theodore, the hero, is educated in obauthor, is advantageously known by her
scurity by a woman of humble rank, who treatises on Chemistry, and on Political Economy, both of which are so excellent | Theodore, or the Crusaders. A Tale for passes for his aunt. While attending a in their kind, that they are in general Youth. By Mrs Hoffland, author of « The tournament, given in honour of the nupuse in our schools and colleges; and unless
Son of a Genius," " " The Daughier of a service to the bridegroom, and is invited
tials of a neighbouring noble, he is of some we are much mistaken, this work has also Genius,” and other Tales for Young taken its place as a text-book in many of People. Boston. 1824. 12mo. pp. 180. by his father to accompany him to the Holy
Land. He goes, endears himself particuour literary institutions. But it is not so It is seldom that authors meet with more larly to king Richard, is taken prisoner by much our purpose to add to the general decided success than has attended Mrs Saladin, and resists every endeavour to voice, in commendation of the work itself, Hofland's later productions. She has obey- shake his faith and convert him to Islamism. as to call the attention of the public to the ed the spirit of the age, which calls upon Upon the peace, which Richard concluded present edition of it.
The editor has in- gifted minds to use their strength in the with Saladin, he recovered his freedom, troduced some valuable improvements, and service of the young. She has imagina- and after being instrumental in procuring thrown it into a form that particularly re- tion, knowledge, good taste, industry, and the release of Richard from the German commends itself to the instructers of youth. all other qualities, if any other there are, prisons, he returns with him to England, Any one who is conversant with these sub- which may encourage an author to hope for and soon after discovers that he is of high jects, cannot but have observed, that in fame, and to seek it; but she has sought rank, and heir to large estates, and recogcominitting lessons for recitation, the pupil and found something better. Her name nises in his mother a captive whom he had is very apt to select those passages which will not go down to posterity, as one who known at the court of Saladin. are most easily committed, and which are entertained or deeply interested the read- It must be obvious, from this slight not generally those expressive of the more ing world, and made large and lasting ad- sketch of the story, that it affords opporimportant facts; and all the urgings of the ditions to the literary treasures of the age, - tunity for introducing many interesting master, in whatever shape they may be but she will be remembered by parents scenes. That which represents Cour de conveyed, are found insufficient to lead who love to give their children books which Lion, upon his trial for the murder of the them to select for themselves those parts of will profit while they amuse them, and suc- Marquis of Montserrat, before the emperor the sentence which convey the principal cessive generations will recollect in their and princes of Germany, is particularly information. Under such circumstances, maturer years, with grateful acknowledge- well drawn. This tale will be the more the next resource of the instructer is to meni the pleasure which they owed to herin useful from the author's faithful adherence point out to the pupil, viva voce, the lead- earlier days. It is impossible that her tales to historical truth in all the principal charing facts to which particular attention should not interest all who are capable of acters and events. must be paid, and in which he will be chief- understanding and enjoying them, or that ly examined. After all his labour and use they should fail of doing good to those less exhaustion of lungs, the only point whom they interest, if they are capable The Badge. A Moral Tale. By the author gained may be, that the pupil has selected of improvement. They are professedly and
of the Factory Girl, James Talbot, c. as worthy of peculiar attention, another actually written for children; the moral
Boston. 1824. 18mo. pp. 33. part equally unimportant with that from of each one of them is distinct, obvious, Tue writer of this tale is favorably known which he has been driven, and equally re- and never forgotten; the incidents and to the public as the author of several little quiring new explanations, new urgings, characters all refer to it; and not only the stories. We had occasion to notice one of and new recitations; till the instructer, general result of the story, but every part them, “ The Factory Girl," in a former numwearied by these repeated and fruitless at- of it, is made to enforce the useful truth, ber. The story now before us has the same tempts, has recourse to his pencil, and which the whole is intended to inculcate. good objects in view with that, but is designmarks between brackets those definitions Still, the didactic character of her works ed for a rather younger class of readers. and explanations of which particular ac- interferes so little with their power of amus- The Badge seems to us, to perform all the count must be given. If he does this, the ing and their general literary merit, that promise of its title page ;-it is truly a moral probability is, that those only which are mature and cultivated ininds may and do tale ; and its morality is not only pure and ihus marked will be the parts committed. read them with pleasure.
elevated, but is adapted to the comprehenTo Mr Blake then are instructers as well In the work now before us she has de- sion of children, and presented to them in a as pupils much indebted. By questions ar- parted somewhat from her usual course. manner which must be attractive. The ranged at the bottom of the pages in in her former tales some individual whose story is interesting; and it is written in a which the collateral facts are arranged, he character and condition belong to her very free, animated, and graceful style, and directs the attention of the learner to the country and to this age, is made to pass with a simplicity and good faith which many principal topics; and a slight inspection will through a variety of circumstances which authors of more ambitious fictions might make it apparent, that in order to get at are not at variance with the actually ex-envy. It is evidently the production of one 296 familiar with the character and habits of to tempt men into enterprises of great haz- real harmony in its compound being ;-when children, and their peculiar modes of think-ard, which have been repeatedly made the mind proposes to itself, a great object, ing and speaking, and of one who feels a without success, and which have not un- beset with difficulties, all of which are to deep interest in their welfare. We are frequently terminated in the death of a come into contact with, and to act upon frequently reminded of Miss Edgeworth by greater or lesser number of the party im- the body. the unaffected graces of expression ; by the mediately concerned. The experience in Some of the best examples of this are felicity with which the most suitable occa- Africa is most commonly adduced in an- voyagers and travellers. Other men will sions are seized upon for inaking a moral im- swer to this inquiry, and surely there is find others. The armies and navies of the pression upon the youthful mind; and, above enough in that experience to make the world may be looked to for them, and, all, by the fascination of truth and nature, heart sink, though it may not settle the without doubt, admirable ones might be so hard to be analyzed, but which ever question. What are the notives, it is ask found in both. These, however, are not claims the attention to the passing page. ed, to these undertakings; and do the ends instances precisely of what we have now in Children, however, are of course the best justify the means? Is it a contingent or view. They are not parallel cases. The judges of what interests them; and the voices a certain good you have in view, and is life motives of all are pot alike, and their of all whom we have questioned upon the ever to be jeopardized by a mere contin objects are far different. They differ prin subject, are unanimous in favor of the Badge. gency? Shall we minister to enthusiasm, cipally in this; that while one of them has
The following letter is so charming and when death is in its progress; or patronize a specific object in view, and pursues it faithful a representation of the feelings of genius, when the road it makes for itself with tried means, the other has an object boyhood, that we cannot deny ourselves the has in and about it a reality of horror and to find, and feels his means to be purely pleasure of giving it to our readers. danger, which could hardly be equalled by contingent. This last lays his account M*****, Oct. 22, 1824.
its wildest imaginings ? Shall we tempt with conjecture at best, and goes without MY DEAR BROTHER,
men from the safety and comfort of home, the poor meed of buman probability, where As I can't write joining hand yet, Mrs Mason to the desolate and waste places of the human nature, as he has known it, has nevsaid if I would tell her the words I wanted to send earth, and be made happy and famous our- er been ; nothing remains with him but the to you, she would write them down. First then, I selves, by the only half-voluntary misery of consciousness of his own identity, and the thank you for your
letter, and dear mamma for the others? These, and many similar questions sustaining persuasion, that if he has deserthere; I have got a beautiful play-ground, it is all have been asked, by the readers of travels ed the works of man, he is still among the even, and the grass is very green ; and I can begin and voyages. As abstract questions, they works of God. The motives of these two at the front door with my horse or wheelbarrow might be answered negatively. It is wrong classes of men are widely different. A and run all round the bouse without any fence to to furnish means for enterprises which are warrior is moved by something foreign to stop me ; and then at the side of this great yard always dangerous, and frequently fatal, and himself. there is a hill-if it was winter I could coast down the accomplishment of which may be un- with the occasion or purpose of his acting;
He has no necessary concern but to have you come. But oh, Charles, yesterday important however successful. But this is He has a prescribed field of duty, and something happened—I hate to come to that—but ! not the kind of reasoning which is at all though it may be wide and responsible, it must tell you about my poor paroquet. When applicable to the present case. Voyages has limits, which others have fixed. He came home from school Mrs Mason gave me a seed and travels are noi necessarily more dan- meets his fellow, though it may be only to he would not come forward to take it; he stood on gerous than many other, and far more com- kill; and is social though cruel. The men his perch, and looked dull, and would not speak a mon pursuits. And when we consider the of whom we speak are moved by the imword; presently his head shook a little, and then he character, the whole intellectual state of pulse of their own mind. They owe nothfell right down on the bottom of the cage. I believe those who undertake them, and follow them ing to circumstances such as ordinarily afcried very loud, for Mrs Mason came, and she took in the path of danger, and mark their un- fect men. Opportunity is all they require. Pinky out of the cage, and she said he had a fit; he subdued endurance of evil in all its forms They can learn but little, if any thing, died. Oh Charles, I cried a great deal; and I feel and in almost all its degrees, we trust them from others; for the peculiarity of their vodull now, and I almost wish mamma would come for fearlessly and hopefully wherever they may cation consists in this, that it generally nie. But I will try to stay as long as she wants me go. Nor is the want of success to be urg. calls them where other men have never to. My dutiful love to dear Father and Mother; ed against these pursuits. They are never been. If they learn any thing, it is to and give my love to your paroquet; and send me entirely unsuccessful. If nothing new is foretell the misery that probably awaits me laugh now when I think how smart he looks discovered about the earth, something new them. when he hollows out, "Charley is a good boy." is learned of the mind. It is showed to us, We know of no beings who excite so inWhy cannot you teach him tu say, “Eddy is a good in these instances, in new aspects and un- tense an interest as these voyagers and trav. boy." Poor Pinky had almost learned it when he der new circumstances. It seems in them ellers. Their histories, or journals as they died. Your affectionate Brother,
an irresistible power, and we come at better and more truly call them, have an EDWARD EDGERLY.
length to be more, far more surprised at interest with us akin to that of works of
failure than success. This story in some few passages betrays
fiction. There is a high poetry in all their marks of haste and carelessness in the com
The exercise of human power is most conceptions. They have the widest field position. It seems to us also that the author striking when the body, as in these cases, for the imagination in the scenes of their has not succeeded in giving a very distinct is made immediately the agent of the mind. fearless choice ; and, as if there was a resemidea of patriotism. But these defects de- When the body must suffer to the farthest blance, between the conceptions of a bold tract but slightly from the merits of a work, point of human endurance, and live. We mind, and the realities of unknown regions, which cannot but prove highly agreeable
are accustomed to look upon the pure, un- we find coincidences which sometimes asand instructive to those for whom it is de- mixed labours of the mind, as upon the tonish and always delight us. Their jour. signed.
greatest results of the exercise of human nals, the faithful records of what they daily power. The poet and the moralist are the see and daily suffer, though made up of
exception and the example, when we would little more than human experience in an MISCELLANY.
contrast ages, or illustrate them. But in unknown region, have the power of a work these instances the mind has been alone in of the fancy. We have a hero who is inits labours, the body has been at rest, and deed one of ourselves, and who powerfully
it inay be, has fared sumptuously every day. teaches us what we should in like circum" Cælum et animum."
They have hardly sustained their human stances surely feel. The difficulty with us
relations to each other, and we have talked is to reconcile what we read with the noIt has been seriously questioned whether of the men as divine, nay, called them so tions we have of human sufferance derived governments or individuals have, in strict Human nature is in its perfect proportions, from our own experience in ourselves. We morals, any right, by bounty or otherwise, / when it furnishes us with an instance of have never been out of the human race.
TRAVELLERS AND VOYAGERS.
We have in our commonest pursuits, and tion, than we have done, of its origin. For The wet drift wood is collected on the equally in our rarest, been supported by hu- this would look like a defence, or an apolo- banks of the river, or the evergreen cut man sympathy. In our retirements from gy, where neither is required.
down, and the fire blazes cheerfully. The the world, which have been but short and In reading this narrative of Franklin, teakettle boils in the shower of rain or few, and a relaxation instead of a pursuit, and the same is true of all similar works, snow,-the snow-drift is removed and a we have seen that which our fellows have we cannot fail to be struck with the vast place for sleep prepared the prayers for
We have never been alone. Our effects which are produced under the most the dead are read, in addition to the evenprivations have been all voluntary; and unfavourable circumstances, by a very few ing service, over the grave of the murdered when a little more severe or annoying than individuals. This is contrary to coinmon friend. At Fort Enterprise, in Franklin, common, the most they have demanded or observation and experience. We constant- where the extreme of illness was added to received has been a fretful exclamation ; ly see men acting together, and upon each all other physical suffering, the courtesies, and if there bave been others with us, our other. The strong and ardent intellect, nay the decencies of common life, are obefforts have done little more than to divide which gives the plan, or merely states the served in a manner as affecting as incredithe feelings of impatience or disgust. principle, has in ordinary cases accomplish- ble. What makes this instance more strik
Now in the men, about whom we write, ed its main purpose; and every degree and ing is, that hope had preceded the travelthere is nothing of all this to be found. kind of human power, and circumstance, lers to this melancholy post, and it was There is a patience so bold and indomita- which may be necessary, comes naturally there all blasted. ble, that we at last become more astonish- into requisition, to carry out and make ef- It was said that the individual was ened and surprised at its failure, than at its fective, what the individual has newly grossed by bis own wants. That the misery continuance. Franklin's Narrative* fur- started. We every where see men acting is too great to the individual, too personal nishes an instance of this, and explains our together, and in large masses, dividing la- to himself, to allow him to go farther. meaning. After having followed this trav. bour upon a pin as definitely as upon an Were this to be taken as set down, we eller through an unbroken series of per. empire. Men depend upon, and wait for should be ashamed to have written it. sonal sufferings, and wondered and admired each other; and he who seems the freest, Here would be common selfishness, vulgar at the unexampled self-possession he has has always settled with himself how the enough in all its expressions, but far more every where shown,- having seen the tur- responsibility shall be divided, if a division vulgar in this than in all others. We bulent, and the vicious yielding to a per- should become necessary. This is all well, would not wrong these men for the world. sonal authority, powerful and irresistible and just as it should be. The effect cor. We would do honour to our own nature, in by its very mildness alone, we at length responds with the means, and a great the testimony we bear to its dignity and suhear an expression of impatience from one amount of comfort is produced by this con- premacy in the individuals about whom we of the party, and then a tone of irritation cert of the crowd. These would seem the write. The case of the individual in these mingled with ill-temper; and for a moment only terms upon which men could at all instances was emphatically the care of the we wonder that men, who have borne every live quietly together. If, like our “trav- whole. He who saved his own lise, conthing, as nothing, could have found, in any ellers," the individual were so much by and tributed largely and truly to the preservakind of circumstance, an evil which could for himself, it would be but a poor worlation of his comrades. It might almost be for a moment have conquered them. Our indeed.
allowed us to say, that in these extreme wonder, however, ceases with its expression. In travellers, we see human beings un- cases, there is but one mind, but one inWe learn in a moment the whole history. der new aspects. They are few in num- dividual. The desolation is alike around The mind at last is yielding to the body. ber, and removed from common influences. all. The cold and the hunger would as Hunger and cold have the mastery. The Each individual in so small a community surely reach bim who might, by unworthy night is no longer comfortable, nor the feels his personal importance. Each mind means, seek to protect himself, or supply sleep refreshing with the thermometer at is constantly kept in action for one's self, his own pressing wants, as him who boldly 50° or more below zero,—the acrid mosses for there is little room for its wider opera- yielded his personal share to the common and burnt bones have at length ceased to tion. The mind does not expand here at stock of suffering, and who, under its heavy be palatable. The body will no longer least, with the remote and the uncertain, pressure, found his irresistible motive to bear all this, and the mind is growing con- the solitary and the unbounded. Danger help others as well as himself. Where scious that existence on such terms is not is abroad every where ; and if this were there is no escape, there must be a common worth preserving. The mind grows weak less distinct, there is a pressure of the feeling. Distinctions are lost in such a with this consciousness, and men who were present, which keeps the mind and the mass, and all are felt for in one's own feelabsolutely living upon the sustaining influ- heart at home. Suffering, in its extreme, ing. Here we find the explanation of what ences of each other's minds, are peevish which is alike personal to all, which pecu- is otherwise unaccountable to us who yield and unkind to each other. This is the liarity of constitution and temperament so readily, and are so little pleased with most melancholy, the saddest moment in alike yield to, is here. There is no hope, the best that is done for us. We underthis whole history. We cannot feel, in any for there is no time nor room for it. Pres- stand how life may be preserved, and the shape, the circumstances, we can under- ent want must be supplied, present danger mind be preserved, where there are apparstand perfectly its effects. How dreadful averted, and with present means too, where ently no present means for doing either. was the situation of these men, when they there seem to us po means. There is no It may be that the mind gets new strength, could be unkind to each other. Theirs despair. These brave and glorious men by this continued contact with physical was not the resource, if any such there be, are equally beyond this, as without hope. suffering, as the magnet is said to do by unwhich we are taught to find in the world They may fall by the way and die, or the disturbed contact with iron. New circumwhen friends grow cruel. There was noth- human savage, or the wild beast may kill stances make it what we find it, and we ading for them but the miserable consciousness them, but this enters not into their account mit, and understand too, its novel and vast of a common suffering. The misery could for a moment. They are like enchanted effects. only be added to, by its being selt, and men in the tales, and whether they next The aspect is new in which we see men complained of, as individual. And this did find a palace or a grave, has been no mat- in these instances, in another regard. at last happen. It is unnecessary to tell ter of theirs.
leaving society, they have left its rules bethe reader that this state of things did not But in the midst and pressure of all this, hind them; and we find in their place a last long, or to offer any farther explana- we find human power true to itself, and ex- new code in true, but terrible harmony
erting itself in a minuteness of detail with all the circumstances. Necessity has * Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Po- which can hardly be credited. The daily been said to have no law. But here it belar Sea, in the Years 1819, 20, 21, and 22. By record is made, whether of a new suffering; comes a law itself. In Franklin, we desJohn Franklin, Captain R. N., F. R. S. and Com- a new plant, or mineral; a dip of the pised the men who broke to pieces the mander of the Expedition,
needle, or a fall or rise of the barometer. I canoes, which our own foresight showed us