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that the pupil must commit almost the whole (medalling, be-ribboning, and be-starring the citizen of Boston, "Where, sir, is the poof the book to memory, or he can profit Duke of Wellington and all his quality, or lice? Every thing here is regular and or. little by it. The study of geography gen- going out of the body with loyal transport, derly ; but how is it effected, and where are erally interests the young, if the facts to as he escorted his most condescending maj- the officers?" We are a wary and calculatbe learned and remembered are not stated esty, George the Fourth, to the various ing people, no way given to holidays, jubiin too naked and abstract a manner; and cities of his empire, he neglected no oppor lees, or uproar of any kind. Our young an elementary work in this science may tunity of sneering at our forgetfulness of and men soinetimes play at ball, it is true, on avoid this fault without exceeding its prop- ingratitude to those illustrious men, who had fast days, and shoot turkies on Thanksgiver compass. We are no advocates for those in times of peril, directed the counsels, or ings, let off a few squibs on the occasion of works which are intended to cheat children fought the battles of this republic. But be- a governor's election, and buro a tar-barrel into learning; but the knowledge present- ing tired at last of vapouring in his holiday- or two in honour of the Fourth of July ; but, ed to them may, and should be so presented suit, and settled quietly down to business, in general, these things are done in a disas to induce and encourage them to scek, on a sudden he is aronsed by the echo of a creet and orderly manner; and it is the by study, for further knowledge. As this nation's shout of welcome to one of its ear- opinion of some of the elders among us, that is intended to be a purely elementary book, liest and dearest friends. Mr Bull puts his the spirit with which they are conducted, as Mr Smiley has done wisely in omitting those pen behind bis ear, looks forth from his well as the enjoyment which they afford, is astronomical notices which are usually pre- counting-room, beholds processions, triumph- gradually diminishing. It is fair, therefore, fixed to Geographies ; children may begin al arches, and illuminations, and hears ora- to presume, that the feeling is deep and to learn geography at an age, at which it tions and addresses. He sees a whole peo- strong, which has aroused such a people, is impossible for them to have acquired that ple crowding to welcome and honour a man, and excited them to unite, as it were, with knowledge, without which they cannot to whom no welcome can be too hearty, and one heart and one voice, in the most, we comprehend the relation between this sci- hardly any honour too great; and what says had nearly said extravagant, demonstrations ence and astronomy and geometry. Ques- he to all this? Why, truly, he says it is demo- of gratitude and joy. We rejoice that we tions are attached to the description of each cratic twaddling. Really, cousin Bull, you live in these days; we rejoice for the honcountry and state, and they are divided in- are hard to suit, and it is seriously to be our of our nation; we rejoice for the honour to two classes, viz. those which may be an- feared, that we shall scarcely ever be hon- of human nature. Let those who can neither swered from the book, and those which com- oured with your approbation, since we have understand nor appreciate the benefits of pel the learner to search the maps ; this so few legitimate objects of glorification. Our revolution, or the services of La Fayette, arrangement is not perfectly new, but it is We have no heroes of Waterloo, no dukes look askance at our enthusiasm, and insinua very good one. Throughout the book, the or duchesses, and, save the mark, no George ate that we are thankful for small mercies. mountains, rivers, and cities are divided the Fourth to reign over us; and as for our We will endeavour to set a just value upon into six classes, according to the height of Presidents, no reasonable person can expect the former, and by every possible method to the first, the length of the second, and the ten millions of people to go mad once in four cherish and proclaim our gratitude for the population of the third; and this classifica- years. In the mean time, whatever our latter. We have other reasons for being tion is carried into the maps by figures, crusty relation may think or say, and prob- gratified by this general display of pational from 1 to 6, attached to each mountain, ably in this matter, as in some others, his enthusiasm. It has added strength to the stream, and city. We believe this plan to bark is worse than his bite, we have every ties that bind our union together. A party be original with Mr Smiley, and it does him reason to be gratified by the reception which of individuals, whom, perhaps, accident bas credit. There is one fault in some parts of General La Fayette has met with in this associated on some occasion of happiness, this book, which a little care might have country. We had heard of the selfishness who have visited together some delightprevented, and may still avoid, if it reaches and cold-heartedness of mankind, and read of ful spot, or passed together some delighta third edition. Some of the statements the ingratitude of republics, till we trembled ful hours, when the cares, the selfishness, cannot be understood without an advance for the event of the visit of this benefactor and uncharitableness of the world were ment in knowledge for which this book is to our land. Our alarm bas as yet proved cast behind them and forgotten, and none not at all calculated. For example, on groundless. He has been received, as one but joyous or kind feelings permitted to page 20, it is said, “On the 20th of March whom the people delighted to honour. The appear, will always to a certain degree and 23d of September the days and nights shouts of welcome have resounded from connect these feelings with the presence are equal in all parts of the world, because Maine to Georgia, and from the shores of or memory of their companions. We reat those times the sun passes the equator.” the Atlantic to the valley of the Mississippi. gard the friends of our youth with sentiA child who could perfectly understand The cynic may tell us, that the mob will al- ments, which no after ones can share ; what is meant by the sun's passing the ways shout on any argument. But in these other friends may be more learned, more equator, and how this circumstance causes United States, we reply, and we have British sensible, more estimable, even more amiaan equal alternation of day and night, could authority for the assertion, mobs are rarely ble; but they want the charm which the certainly find many books upon geography seen. These are the peccant bumours, that associations of youthful hope and joy alone better suited to him than this. There are infest the bodies politic of the old world. can bestow; we may admire, esteem, and not many faults of this kind, but there This republic threw them off with the mon- love the latter, but the presence of the forwould be none, if the author were sufficient- archical regime, which engendered them. mer lifts the load of years from our shoully impressed with the importance of mak. The passions of our citizens are continually ders-gives to the mind the feelings of aniing a school-book perfectly intelligible to exhaled through the newspapers, or the mation, which belonged to other days, and those for whom it is intended.
courts of law; their actions are sober and that renovation, which the elixir of Para
deliberate. A foreigner who should peruse celsus, had it been real, could never have Memoirs of General La Fayette. Wilh an cal press, which precede an election, might pens with the individuals of a nation. When
the alarms and denunciations of the periodi- imparted. Something of the same kind hapAccount of his Visit to America, and of conclude that we were on the verge of they rejoice together, they will love each his Reception by the People of the United States ; from his Arrival, August 15th, to election itself, and he will be astonished to merit, they will be proud of each other. To
anarchy and ruin. Let him attend the other; when they unite in paying honour to the Celebration at Yorktown, October 19th, find so little bustle or disorder; and as he a nation, spread over such an extent of ter
1824. Boston. 1824. 12mo. pp. 264. sees successive groups of voters quietly drop- ritory, whose component parts are so variWhen our loving and well-beloved cousin, ping their suffrages into a box, and then go ous, and whose sectional interests and feelon the other side of the water, was filling ing about their usual business, will wonder ings so often conflicting, as our own, every up patriotic subscriptions and building mon- what magic bas stilled the tumult, which he moment which consigns these differences to uments, with all his might, to the praise and had expected to witness, and perhaps in- temporary forgetfulness is a precious one; glory of the conquerors of Napolcon, be- quire, as an English traveller once did of a land 'La Fayette has added one more to the long list of his benefactions to our country, times will do his character that justice which | groundless, and that the republic is safe. by giving us an opportunity to feel and act the times themselves have too frequently de- We have yet among its guardians a few, like Ainericans. The sons of the Pilgrims, nied; and we, who “ from our loop-holes of whose judgment the spirit of liberality could the descendants of the broad-brimmed gen- retreat” beyond the ocean, have “seen the not bias, nor the blaze of merit blind; they eration of Penn,or the broad-hosed burghers stir of the great Babel,” in which he has knew, that although General La Fayette of New Amsterdam, the sailor and the back- been involved, can understand and pay the had lavished his fortune in the service of woodsman, the hunter of the prairie, and the tribute of admiration to a character, such this country, the gift was a free one, and chaser " of the gigantic game on the coasts as the world has not often seen. From that no country is bound to return what of Brazil,” have forgotten every thing on the account of La Fayette by Madame de was bestowed without stipulation or expectthis glorious occasion, but that they belonged Stael, quoted in these Memoirs, after recom- ation; they abhorred the idea of tendering to the same great and happy nation, and that mending the whole of it to the perusal of pitiful trash, to one who has sbown that the one of the last survivors of those who had our readers, we extract the concluding re- only objects of value in his eyes, were the made them such a nation, was before them. marks.
rights of mankind. They knew, that he We have arisen as one man, and stood firm
Since the departure of M. de La Fayette for had long since become a citizen of these and united, and the friends and enemies of America, now forty years ago, we cannot quote a States, and they conceived him to be fully our confederacy may alike be taught by our single action or a single word of his, which was entitled, with the citizen soldiers of his conduct, that occasion alone is wanting to not direct and consistent. Personal interest never time, to the valuable privilege of serving call forth the same spirit of union, whether blended itself in the least with his public conduct: his country without reward. They had seen it be needed to welcome a benefactor or advantage ; but they claim the attention of the his- the petition of the veteran officers of our trample on an assailant.
torian in spite of circumstances, and in spite of revolution lying on the table of congress, In order to appreciate justly the moral faults, which may serve as a handle to his oppo- year after year, and session after session, grandeur of the character of La Fayette, nents.
till the dwindling list of its subscribers was and the merits of his claim to the gratitude Besides the claim of General La Fayette at last hidden under piles of road bills and and adıniration of the people of these United to all the honour which it is in the power of draughts of canals; plans of fertile townStates, it is necessary to be acquainted with the American people to bestow, he had anoth- ships, manufacturing memorials, modificathe history of his eventful life, from the er upon that treasury, which, once so low as tions of tariffs, and maps of the interior of moment when he engaged in our service, to need the assistance of a private individ- the earth; and they beheld it in imaginaat the age of nineteen, to the present time; ual, is now, as we are annually informed by tion disinterred, and the spirit again hauntand in the volume which is the subject of our chief magistrate, beginning to overflow ing the splendid hall, which they had hoped this article, we find this faithfully and very with accumulating millions. Such a claim was laid forever; they bebeld the whiteagreeably related. We do not intend to could not be considered without alarm by the haired remnants of the last century creepgive any particular analysis of it, as we ex- friends of that economy, which has ever been ing out once more from their retreat, and pect that it will be in the hands of all our the distinguishing characteristic of our gove heard again the appalling sounds of deprereaders, quite as soon as this article. They ernment, gaining the hearts of the careful ciated currency, funded debt, bounty lands, will learn from the details of the life of La men of these realms, and extorting the reluc- and five years' commutation. They felt Fayette, to admire the singular consistency tant admiration of Europe. They had reas- likewise on this occasion, what every true of his character. His speeches and writings, on to regard with anxiety the session of a patriot must feel, that the security of our as well as his actions, in every period of it, a congress, so lately collected from the union is debate; and that our liberties can evince the same enthusiastic and inflexible crowds that hailed the arrival of this illus- never be impaired till our representatives regard to civil liberty and the unalienable trious person, their ears yet tingling with shall cease to talk. Their hands and their rights of mankind, and the same undeviat- the sounds of rapturous welcome; and their voices therefore were uplifted against reing opposition to any government which had hearts yet warm with the remembrance of funding; what they could not prevent, they not this for its object. In the war waged the dinners they had eaten to his honor. at least delayed, and history will forever by these Colonies, in support of these prin- It was to be feared that they would forget, preserve the names of those, who retained ciples, he lavished his fortune, and risked to a man, that tender regard to the people's their coolness amid the enthusiasm of a nahis life, with a spirit belonging rather to the money, which we cannot sufficiently praise, tion, and reasoned when others only felt. age of chivalry than any more modern pe- and vote by acclamation the payınent of the riod. In his own country he soon after ap- the only part of our debt, which can ever be peared among the leaders of a revolution, liquidated; and that some furious member, Escalala : an American Tale. By Samuel which professed to have the establishment in a paroxysm of frantic liberality, would
B. Beach. Utica. 1824. 12mo. pp. 109. of the same principles for its object; but empty the treasury with a motion, and re- This poem exhibits some talents, but does when his companions and countrymen be. duce it again to that state from which La not exhibit them to advantage ;-the image. gan to carry the work of demolition beyond Fayette had formerly rescued it. It was ry is occasionally quite good, and the verthe limits which necessity and justice marked to be feared, that no civil courage, how. sification is often excellent, but there are ont, La Fayette was no longer with them. ever tried, could resist the impulse of that many unpardonable offences against good His uniform adherence to these principles mornent; and no soul could be so independent taste, both as it respects thought and exhave procured him the hatred alike of the of circumstances, as to be untouched by such pression, and the story is exceedingly derulers and reformers of the old world; the as those, no heart so firm as not to be fective. despots immured him in their dungeons, softened; no voice so loud as to make its It must be known to most of our readers, and the demagogues denounced his name, prudential accents heard amid the uproar of that numerous mounds and barrows exist confiscated his estates, and threatened his gratitude. That even be, that old man vigi- in the interior of North America, the origin life ; amid the fierce struggles and corrupt lant, from whose “ wakeful custody, the of which is wholly unknown.
There they intrigues of Europe, his opinions and actions guarded gold” of these United States has so are, but none living can say what hand have been unintelligible anomalies; and seldom passed without opposition, would re- built them or how many ages have rolled how could those of a disciple of Washing- lax his diligence, and swell the vote of his over them,—for what uses they once serva ton be otherwise ; contending steadily and fellows, heedless of the twinges of prudence, ed, or what deeds or names they were inundauntedly for the cause of reason, right, and careless of coming regrets. With such tended to record. The Indians who are and justice, he has been almost uniformly in fears, did the unbending patriot-economists of around them, know as little about them as the ranks of the weaker party. His zeal and our land await the doings of the greatcouncil we. Before our fathers came here, all activity have been a perpetual terror to the of the nation; and accordingly, no sooner had knowledge, all tradition of their beginning usurpers of unlawful power, and bis exam-. the logocracy assembled, than rumours of re- was lost, and the shadow of their memory ple a perpetual rebuke to the unprincipled muneration began to issue from the capitol. had faded away, Mr Beach thinks that aspirants after it; but the history of these. The event has proved that our alarms were every one may solve a mystery so deep as
Tasted life's joys with richer zest,
And soul of more elastic powerthis, just as he pleases ;-in this he may be
Were more contented, or inore blest.
More bland, more bright, in blissful hour, right; but he also appears to think that it is
More stern, relentless, undisinayed, impossible for the story of a poem to oppose In peace they dwelt; the Indian, wild,
When danger roused or passion swayed obvious probabilities too violently ;--and in Bland nature's free but simple child,
Ne'er found in male or female breast, this he is clearly wrong. It is said by, or
Beheld, with terror and surprise,
Since time began, congenial rest.
Their race increase, their cities rise, for some Norwegian historian, that Nad
Though in her form you might not trace And bid him in some wildwood glen ;
The nice proportion, or the grace, dohr, a petty chief of that kingdom, flying
Deeming the gods had left the skies
Which shone in love's all-beauteous queen, from Harold Honfager, who had subdued To tabernacle there, like men.
When erst by Trojan Paris seen; him and his brethren, discovered and colo
Accordingly the king and his nobles Yet such—so vigorous, yet so freenized Greenland ; and in one of his voyages feasted and hunted after
the fashion, which
Such beauty twined with majesty, to that country, was supposed to have per- their ancestors had brought from Norway,
Were chaste Diana's; when she came ished by shipwreck. Our author rescues and during the festival the "scalds” “ in
To Tempe's vale, with quivered reed,
Bent bow, and hounds of heavenly breed, him from a fate so undesirable, places bim voked the muse, the rites to aid ;"—that is To rouse the sylvan game. near the junction of the Ohio and Missis. to say, one of the bards relates an anecdote
Far from bei wooted haunts, the maid, sippi , and permits him to found a colony of the witch of Hesleggen, and another
Intent upon her sport, had strayed, there, which, under the ninth “ of Nad- tells a pleasant tale of diablerie concern
And wearied, turned to trace again
Her homeward course across the plain; dohr's royal pedigree,” amounted to six ing the Ocean Queen. In the second can- Just as the din, so wild and drear, hundred thousand souls. Scania is the
to the hunt begins; they ride on gallant Of that gay hun.-- from bound and horn, name of this singular nation, and Gondibert steeds very furiously, and go through woods
On Echo's thousand voices borneis their king. The poem is introduced by where they had never been beiore, and
Burst on her unaccustomed ear. some lines about America and Americans, kill a great deal of game. We would re- Ruric carries off Escalala, and in the which are pretty good and nothing more. mark, that the dogs and horses used upon next canto, Reta relates the circumstance In the first canto we are told that
this occasion, demonstrate the care with to Warredondo. It chanced that TeondeGondibert, in pride of place, which Naddohr provided himself with ade. tha, to wbom Escalala, just before she went Stern king of Scania's powerful race, quate means for the maintenance of ancient a fishing, had promised to be married the Summoned his nobles, near and far,
customs,—or perhaps we may rather infer, next day,—was with Warredondo at the . To grace the pomp of sylvan war.
that valuable breeds of these animals were moment of Reta's arrival, and immediately Three days, his royal will decreed once indigenous to this continent, but are summoned his friends and followers to go To urge the chase with hound and steed;
now well nigh extinct. After they have with him in pursuit of Ruric, who in the And on the fourth, the gathered spoil Of all their sport and all their toil,
hunted awhile, they stop to rest and make mean time was riding slowly home without In one vast quarry to array
merry ;-in furtherance of which pleasant any apprehension of injury or danger. And thence, with pious care, convey, object, Ruric, the king's son and heir ap
While thus along their dusky way Of every kind, the fairest nine
parent, relates a most melancholy dream, Sauntered the chiefs, in loose arrayAnd offer them at Odin's shrine.which
Sudden as bursts from cloud-wrapt skies 'Twas an old custom, which bis sire
The bolt of death
-checked their mirth, and sunk their tone Who fled, long since, from Harold's ire,
Was heard such hissing, in the air,
As though ten thousand snakes were there,
With brandished tongues and fiery eyes
And poisonous breath. For Scania's sons-though fabling pride But the next day they hunt again, and 'Twas loud and sharp, like wintry blast; Their lineage to the gods alliedRuric's dream is accomplished.
But with such volleying speed it passed, Were the descendants of the crew
That scarce the startled ear believed
It chanced, on that autumnal morn,
Its impulse; each uncertain knight
Deemed it some viewless insect-flight
Which, with its hum, his sense deceived.
Again it hissed-again-again!
And Ruric's steed, with sudden bound,
Plunged violenuy, as from pain Through many a wild and trackless waste, The loveliest, from her female train
Inflicted by some deadly wound;
And Albert, from his lofty horse,
Fell head-long down, a breathless corse.
Then, well those gallant chieftains knew Richer than Araby the Blest.
The shrill, familiar sound;
It was no insect hum, that threw
Such fearful warnings round;
But arrow-flights, from twanging bows,
Of vigorous, but secret, foes.
That Indian maid-than whom the sun And thousand flowers, of varied hue,
" Halt!—form!" the word was passed, obeyed; Fresh from their birth and moist with dew, Ne'er looked upon a lovelier one,
Soon was such active band arrayed,
And flashing bright, each battle-blade
Leaped lightly from its sheath ;
Each dexter arm was quickly bared, On earth, an antepast of heaven; Of the fair progeny which blessed
Each throbbing heart beat high, prepared
For victory or death.
Now comrades, on the covert foe!
What though the blush with deeper hue
Stern be the dint and sure the blow
Flushed her young charms? it woke as true
Which makes such dark assassins know And there, the wanderers stayed their feet Came with as warm, as ready flow,
A Scanian warrior's energy"-
Scarce from the prince the mandate fell
When, from the shrubbery, rose a yell
As wild, as though the fiends of hell
Were howlithere, in agony:
And from the thicket burst, amain,
Brave Teondetha and his train.
Through her swart cheek and eloquent eyes, Ruric was overpowered and nearly slain, From present bliss, to point and linger
Her soul, unclouded by the guise V'er friends, home, kindred, far away
Of that slight drapery, beamed as bright
when Aldobrand, whom his father had sent Not Eden's tenants, ere their shame
As the wild flash of magic light
to meet him, attacked and slew Teondetba. And guilt, by the Destroyer, came,
Which evening throws o'er arctic skies. Then Warredondo sends to Gondibert to
We have in our commonest pursuits, and tion, than we have done, of its origin. For The wet drift wood is collected on the equally in our rarest, been supported by hu- this would look like a defence, or an apolo- banks of the river, or the evergreen cut man sympathy. In our retirements from gy, where neither is required.
down, and the fire blazes cheerfully. The the world, which have been but short and In reading this narrative of Franklin, teakettle boils in the shower of rain or few, and a relaxation instead of a pursuit, and the same is true of all similar works, snow,-the snow-drift is removed and a we have seen that which our fellows have we cannot fail to be struck with the vast place for sleep prepared, -the prayers for
We have never been alone. Our effects which are produced under the most the dead are read, in addition to the evenprivations have been all voluntary; and unfavourable circumstances, by a very few ing service, over the grave of the murdered when a little more severe or annoying than individuals. This is contrary to common friend. At Fort Enterprise, in Franklin, common, the most they have demanded or observation and experience. We constant. where the extreme of illness was added to received has been a fretful exclamation ; ly see men acting together, and upon each all other physical suffering, the courtesies, and if there have been others with us, our other. The strong and ardent intellect, pay the decencies of common life, are obefforts have done little more than to divide which gives the plan, or merely states the served in a manner as affecting as incredithe feelings of impatience or disgust. principle, has in ordinary cases accomplish- ble. What makes this instance more strik
Now in the men, about whom we write, ed its main purpose; and every degree and ing is, that hope had preceded the travelthere is nothing of all this to be found. kind of human power, and circumstance, lers to this melancholy pust, and it was There is a patience so bold and indomita- which may be necessary, comes naturally there all blasted. ble, that we at last become more astonish- into requisition, to carry out and make ef- It was said that the individual was ened and surprised at its failure, than at its fective, what the individual has newly grossed by his own wants. That the misery continuance. Franklin's Narrative* fur started. We every where see men acting is too great to the individual, too personal nishes an instance of this, and explains our together, and in large masses, dividing la- to himself, to allow him to go farther. meaning. After having followed this trav- bour upon a pin as definitely as upon an Were this to be taken as set down, we eller through an unbroken series of per- empire. Men depend upon, and wait for should be ashamed to have written it. sonal sufferings, and wondered and admired each other; and he who seems the freest, Here would be common selfishness, vulgar at the unexampled self-possession be has has always settled with himself how the enough in all its expressions, but far more every where shown,-having seen the tur- responsibility shall be divided, if a division vulgar in this than in all others. We bulent, and the vicious yielding to a per- should become necessary. This is all well, would not wrong these men for the world. sonal authority, powerful and irresistible and just as it should be. The effect cor. We would do honour to our own nature, in by its very mildness alone, we at length responds with the means, and a great the testimony we bear to its dignity and suhear an expression of impatience from one amount of comfort is produced by this con- premacy in the individuals about whom we of the party, and then a tone of irritation cert of the crowd. These would seem the write. The case of the individual in these mingled with ill-temper; and for a moment only terms upon which men could at all instances was emphatically the care of the we wonder that men, who have borne every live quietly together. If, like our “ trav- whole. He who saved his own life, conthing, as nothing, could have found, in any ellers,” the individual were so much by and tributed largely and truly to the preservakind of circumstance, an evil which could for himself, it would be but a poor worlation of his comrades. It might almost be for a moment have conquered them. Our indeed.
allowed us to say, that in these extreme wonder, however, ceases with its expression. In travellers, we see human beings un- cases, there is but one mind, but one inWe learn in a moment the whole history. der new aspects. They are few in num- dividual. The desolation is alike around The mind at last is yielding to the body. ber, and removed from common influences. all. The cold and the hunger would as Hunger and cold have the mastery. The Each individual in so small a community surely reach him who might, by unworthy night is no longer comfortable, nor the feels his personal importance. Each mind means, seek to protect himself, or supply sleep refreshing with the thermometer at is constantly kept in action for one's self, bis own pressing wants, as him who boldly 50° or more below zero,—the acrid mosses for there is little room for its wider opera- yielded his personal share to the common and burnt bones have at length ceased to tion. The mind does not expand here at stock of suffering, and who, under its heavy be palatable. The body will no longer least, with the remote and the uncertain, pressure, found bis irresistible motive to bear all this, and the mind is growing con- the solitary and the unbounded. Danger help others as well as himself. Where scious that existence on such terms is not is abroad every where; and if this were there is no escape, there must be a common worth preserving. The mind grows weak less distinct, there is a pressure of the feeling. Distinctions are lost in such a with this consciousness, and men who were present, which keeps the mind and the mass, and all are felt for in one's own feelabsolutely living upon the sustaining influ- heart at home. Suffering, in its extreme, ing. Here we find the explanation of what ences of each other's minds, are peevish which is alike personal to all, which pecu- is otherwise unaccountable to us who yield and 'unkind to each other. This is the | liarity of constitution and temperament so readily, and are so little pleased with most melancholy, the saddest moment in alike yield to, is here. There is no hope, the best that is done for us. We underthis whole history. We cannot feel, in any for there is no time nor room for it. Pres- stand how life may be preserved, and the shape, the circumstances, we can under- ent want must be supplied, present danger mind be preserved, where there are apparstand perfectly its effects. How dreadful averted, and with present means too, where ently no present means for doing either. was the situation of these men, when they there seem to us no means. There is no It may be that the mind gets new strength, could be unkind to each other. Theirs despair. These brave and glorious med by this continued contact with physical was not the resource, if any such there be, are equally beyond this, as without hope. suffering, as the magnet is said to do by unwhich we are taught to find in the world They may fall by the way and die, or the disturbed contact with iron. New circumwhen friends grow cruel. There was noth- human' savage, or the wild beast may kill stances make it what we find it, and we ading for them but the miserable consciousness them, but this enters not into their account mit, and understand too, its novel and vast of a common suffering. The misery could for a moment. They are like enchanted effects. only be added to, by its being felt, and men in the tales, and whether they next The aspect is new in which we see men complained of, as individual. And this did find a palace or a grave, has been no mat- in these instances, in another regard. In at last happen. It is unnecessary to tell ter of theirs.
leaving society, they have left its rules bethe reader that this state of things did not But in the midst and pressure of all this, hind them; and we find in their place a last long, or to offer any farther explana- we find human power true to itself, and ex- new code in true, but terrible harmony
erting itself in a minuteness of detail with all the circumstances. Necessity has Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Po- which can hardly be credited. The daily been said to have no law. But here it belar Sea, in the Years 1919, 20, 21, and 22. By record is made, whether of a new suffering; comes a law itself. In Franklin, we desJohn Franklin, Captain R. N., F. R. S. and Con- a new plant, or mineral; a dip of the pised the men who broke to pieces the mander of the Expedition,
needle, or a fall or rise of the barometer. I canoes, which our own foresight showed us mnents of religion, we think it would have tific parts were written by Mr Edgeworth., world will be determined by our conduct been greater. She has stretched forth a That it may not be inferred, that I require in the present. We do not say that it is powerful hand to the impotent in virtue; more than could be reasonably expected necessary to inspire into the minds of our and had she added, with the apostle, • In the from the general design of the work, it is children a superstitious dread of the horname of Jesus of Nazareth,' we should al- necessary to say, that the authors profess rors of retributive justice, for we believe most have expected miracles from its to treat of every thing that is important to that mankind are every day becoming touch.”
children, as will appear from p. 311. more capable of acting from enlightened Respecting the importance of incorpora- “ Though we have been principally atten- principles,-of seeing the reasons why virting religion with morality, he adds the tive to all the circumstances, which can be tue produces happiness, and vice, misery; following remarks. The influence of this essential to the management of young peo- and thus of maintaining a regard for the “ extends to every order in society. It is ple during the first nine or ten years of right, because it is rigbt, instead of acting not the fountain, which plays only in the their lives, we have by no means confined from fear of punishment or hope of reward. garden of the palace, but the rain of heav- our observations to this period alone; but But we see little reason for expecting a en, which descends alike on the enclosures we have endeavoured to lay before parents period-and certainly none for saying it of the rich and the poor, and refreshes the a general view of the human mind (as far has arrived-when we may dispense with meanest shrub no less than the fairest flow- as it relates to our subject), of proper meth- the sanctions, while we inculcate the law. er. The sages of antiquity seem to have ods of teaching, and of the objects of ra. The grand christian principle, that, in a believed that morality had nothing to do tional instruction.”
future state of existenee, our destiny will with religion; and Christians of the middle The plain question now is, whether they be determined by our character, and that ages, that religion had nothing to do with have performed this task with any reasona- every one shall be rewarded according to morality. But at the present day, we ac- ble degree of fidelity. By referring to a his works,” is absolutely essential to form knowledge how intimate and important is few chapters we shall find a satisfactory our minds after the image and likeness of their connexion. It is not views of moral answer. The chapter on “ Truth” affords God. An external morality, however exfitness, by which the minds of men are at a fair specimen of the moral character of act it may be, which has within it no soulfirst to be affected, but by connecting their the book. Its object is to show by what no reference to God and eternity, cannot duties with the feelings and motives, the methods children may be made to acquire abide the judgment of Him, “who searchhopes and fears of Christianity. Both are the habit of telling the truth. Most of the eth the heart;" and by teaching our chil
. necessary, the latter to prompt and invigo- directions that are given, are worthy of at-dren to tell the truth because it is useful, rate virtue, the former to give it the beauty tention. They may do much ; but much without alluding to any other than temporof knowledge and taste. It is heat, that will still remain to be done, unless we ac- al good, we are doing nothing for them, but causes the germ to spring and flourish in company our exertions with other modes to encourage them to live with devotion to the heart; but it is light that imparts ver- and other principles, than are here describ- the world—to seek its good things by the dure to its foliage, and their hues to its ed. The fact, that lying is forbidden by most effèctual means, and to be prepared flowers.”
God, is not even alluded to; nor is it inti- to die the death of brutes. If in any work we might expect a distinct mated that integrity is to be preferred to In the chapter on Vanity, Pride, and Amrecognition of the authority of revealed falsehood, because one is in itself virtuous bition, the first two are classed among virtruth, surely none could have bigher claims and the other vicious. Indeed we do nottues. They are, however, considered as to it, than a treatise on Practical Educa- find in the book the idea, that any actions vices, when they are excessive, and when tion. Miss Edgeworth obviously saw that are wicked in the common sense of the excited by unworthy objects. I am well an apology would be required for the omis- term. In general, those actions which are aware, that the terms vanity and pride can sion, and she has given the following in the commonly denominated wicked, are disap- be so defined as to denote virtues; but in preface.
proved; but they are not represented as ordinary language, they signify vices. There “On religion and politics we have been opposed to the laws of God nor is their has been so much contention on this subject silent, because we have no ambition to gain effect on the future state any where recog- among metaphysicians, that I must endear. partisans, or to make proselytes, and be- nised.
our to clear away the mist they have raised, cause we do not address ourselves exclu- That truth is to be preferred to false in order to make myself understood. sively to any sect or to any party." bood, because it is more useful, might be a The desire of receiving the approbation
Had this been given by any one but Miss competent reason, were we always compe- of others, may proceed from benevolence, Edgeworth, it would be regarded as too fee- tent and always disposed to judge rightly of or from self-love. For example; the artisan ble and contemptible to deserve notice. Be- what is most useful. But the simple fact, may be gratified by the praises bestowed on cause it is not her object to make proselytes that the Scriptures reveal sanctions to the his works because he knows them to be to any sectarian dogmas, is the very spirit divine law, proves that our judgment of truly valuable, and loves to have others any life of religion to be disregarded ? Was utility is not always to be trusted. There rightly estimate them. If this be the only it necessary to avoid every allusion to the can be no question, in the abstract, that cause of his pleasure, it would be equal, if Sacred Scriptures as containing the light of integrity of character is more advantageous the works were the fruit of another's skill life, and to draw every motive for good con- than duplicity and falsehood; but whoever and industry. He may be pleased with the duct from merely temporary considerations? has learned how prone his corrupt affec- commendation, because he perceives that The essence of religion is common to all the tions are to blind bis judgment,- how fre- the laudable objects of his pursuit are prochildren of God; and Christians of every de- quently he acts with reference only to the moted, such as the maintenance of his family. nomination may be referred to the Bible as present, and how often the present allures In these cases, it is obvious that his pleasure their spiritual directory, without regard to him by deceptive appearances of utility, arises from the gratification of good affecthe peculiarities of their several views. and causes him to mistake the gratification tions; and no one has any question What, but an indifference to religion itself, of evil concupiscences, for the essential the purity of such a love of approbation. can prevent a teacher from doing this ? Lest and eternal good of his soul,—such an one, But the artisan may be gratified by the we make our children sectarians, shall we surely, needs not to be told, that in order praises bestowed on his labour and skill, avoid giving them any religious principles? to preserve the mind at all times within the because he considers them as distinguishLest the sanctions of religion should be path of rectitude, it is necessary to impressing him above others, -as magnifying his misused to strengthen some error, or justify it deeply with those truths, which teach us importance; and not from any regard to some bad feeling, shall we utterly forget that there is an all-sceing eye, from whose the good of others. The desire of approor desecrate them?
ken nothing is secret; that we are amena- bation, so far as it proceeds from these selfIt will be seen then that I impute to Miss ble for every thought, affection, word, and ish affections, is commonly regarded as evil; Edgeworth all the faults in the moral char- action to the judgment
of an unerring tri- and it is what, in ordinary disconrse, we deacter of this work. Only the more scien- I bunal; and that our state in the future nominate vanity. There is little difference