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INDEFINITE IMPROVEMENT.

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some with whole coats, some with ragged

adopting the best part of her knowledge ones, and others with none at all, with

and institutions, and compounding them small-clothes, to which even courtesy could

NEITHER individuals, nor nations, become with her own, was enabled to leave behind hardly give the name, garterless stockings, suddenly enlightened and corrupt. The bounds which Greece could not pass; Rome and all the etceteras of Irish tatterdema- young consult and imitate the old. The old also declined, -and, after a long period of lions. The most respectable one wore a

are subject to the wisest; and these derive commotion and darkness, when, by the procoarse blue jacket, with a silver badge their superiority from study and reflection, mulgation of Christianity and the incursewed upon the sleeve about as big as the corrected by experience. The influence sions of the barbarians, a new order of palm of one's hand. We detained him to of the aged and of books over the growing things had taken place, the knowledge of carry the vessel in, and as the others lin- young gradually decreases :--they who en Roman literature and institutions was regered, Capt. M- inquired what they gage in active pursuits, become occupied vived, and the improvements and discovewanted. The fellow's hat was raised with by business and domestic cares; conversa- ries of the European nations have carried the back of the right hand, the fingers be- tion and reading fill only small intervals in them beyond their predecessors. Thus the ing the while employed in gently scratch- their life ; their stock of wisdom is circulat- state of civilized society in one period is ing his curly pate, which was a little in- ed, experience increases their knowledge superior to its state in a preceding period, clined towards the left shoulder; he an- of its uses, and augments its value :--they, and, though one nation rises and then falls, wered, with unutterable brogue, “ Pork and who are not called to active life, and who it is only that another may exult in an highrum." While these were preparing, he do not abandon themselves to idleness or er elevation,-it is only because the perbegged a glass of grog to pass away the pleasure, are occupied in enlarging their fection of the former could not be greater time, drank it off with great gusto, and de- capital of knowledge, by study, reflection, than the existing state of things admitted. voutly hoped that “sorrow might never go and speculation. When these two classes The analogy then between the moral and so near his heart as that did.” The knights have become old, the speculations of the material worlds is slight: the poet may of the ragged small-clothes at last left us to one, corrected by the experience of the speak of the maturity and decay of a sin continue our sail along the shore of a highly other, make both better instructers of the gle empire, but not of civilized society. So cultivated country covered more and more young than their predecessors.

the analogy between different periods of thickly with villages, churches, &c. The

To what then shall it be attributed, that national existence and the hours of the sky was, during the afternoon, occasionally wisdom and experience secure not individ- day, or the seasons of the year, is sufficient veiled by fleecy clouds, through the inster- uals from mistake, nor

nations from decline ? merely to supply expressions denoting the stices of which the rays of the sun every now Error frequently assumes the garb and the vicissitudes of a single nation's existence, and then streamed out upon some spot of office of truth-the wisest and most expe- but cannot be extended to the civilized nathe land, contrasting it richly with those in rienced are liable to generalize from im- tions collectively, for they have neither the shade. As we entered the bay we perfect views, and to adopt false principles noon nor night, summer nor winter. came in sight of the Pigeon-House, hill of -an undue proneness to system and simpli. When we talk, then, of the Alexandrian Hoth, and other spots renowned in novels. fication is found among them, as among the age of Grecian glory and literature, of We had a smart squall for a short time as ignorant--and it is not till evils have accu- the Augustan age of Roman magnificence we entered, but it soon passed over, and as mulated to oppression, that they are traced and learning,—when we lament the debasebefore we reached the light-house, the tide to their source : but errors rectified, are ment of Greece, and the darkness which turned, we were obliged to cast anchor out- decided advantages; they give greater se- followed the dissolution of the Roman emside of the mole. Thus we handed our curity to society,for each corrected er- pire,- let us reflect that Rome, “ take her topsails just twenty-three days since we

ror is an obstacle removed from the path of for all in all," excelled Greece, and that ber hoisted them in Boston harbour. We did improvement. Presumption also retards superiority was accelerated, if not caused, not regret the delay; for the prospect progression. Plans presenting brilliant by the degradation of Greece ;-let us also around us was so delicious, we were unwill prospects, and promising rich results, are consider that the downfal of Rome has ing to go on shore. The sky was neither deliberately investigated and accurately un- been succeeded by another age, more gloclear nor cloudy,--the air was just not derstood, before they are adopted-oppos- rious, more learned, more philosophical

, calm, and the water gently rippled, or en- ing prejudices are slowly overcome, and and more useful to mankind. By compretirely smooth. We were nearly surround- much time elapses before they take full hensive views let us convince ourselves that ed with fields, crossed with hedge-rows, effect, and then it is that brilliant pros civilized society becomes, by the vicissicheckered yellow and green with various pects become dazzling reality. But the tudes or transformations of individual civcultivation, dotted with neat little build- splendid consequences of a cautious execu- ilized nations, more susceptible of perfecings, or embossed with magnificent edifices; tion of one plan are apt to generate pre- tion, and constantly improves. We are too and this scene, exquisitely beautiful as it is sumption as to the adoption of another, apt to look upon what we call the degenerain itself, rendered still more so to us by the and cause a stop or retrogradation. Thus cy or degradation of empires, only as efcharms of novelty and contrast.

At sun

the nations-each, perhaps, occasionally fects; we do not take in the whole extent set a boat came off from Dunleary, bring- advancing a great way and occasionally of events; we look upon them as constituting a little ragged, waggish-looking boy, falling back a little,—have ever been pro- ing many chains; we ought to regard them about the size and, except his dress, the gressing ; and, if there is a limit to man's as constituting one great chain, whose end exact resemblance of He had a improvement, there is no other destiny for man cannot see, but whose beginning may small bag-pipe, and with the bellows under him than Alexander's, to weep that there be traced to God; viewed in this light, one arm and the bag under the other, came are no more surmountable evils, no more each event is good and necessary, and each along side playing “ Daintie Davie” with exertions to make, “no more worlds to is better than the preceding. might and main. We were prepared to conquer."

We need review but cursorily the histoenjoy every thing, so we invited the piper An analogy may be discovered between ry of the world to perceive that it has ever on board, and improved the opportunity af- the material and moral worlds ; to it, we been improving. For a long period only forded by the first level surface we have must refer the opinion that civilized society one nation was distinguished among its controd on for three weeks, for performing a has its infancy, maturity, and old age,—that temporaries; as one eminent nation fell, few reels, with much less grace than either as plants germinate, ripen, and wither, so another rose, not to take its place, but to zeal or agility. The Irish pipe is rather an society must be subject to the same law. rise beyond it-at a later period, we shall agreeable instrument in the open air, and Assuredly history furnishes no proof of this. find two or more nations contending for the for a promoter of lively dancing is far su- Egypt was once preeminent above all the palm of merit--and the number of rivals perior to any I have ever met with. To nations ; she declined, and Greece, borrow- has been gradually increasing, until, at the morrow we go up to Dublin.Farewell. ing all that was useful, exhibited superior present day, we find continents contending

R.

excellence; Greece declined, and Rome, with each other for a preeminence in worth

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wisdom, liberty, and true glory,-in every | ures changed with my age, though I founded their civil institutions. It was the siathing that exalts man,-and both exhibit- myself often retiring to the same place, Igle determination of every man, to subing an approach to perfection which past ascended part way up the hill, and instead mit his religious sentiments to no tribunal ages never saw.

of my fishing-rod, took with me a book but to that of God and his own conscience, From what has been, we have every the plaything of more advanced childhood. which finally produced the republican form reason to infer that the world shall improve This spot had become in some measure the of government. Say not, then, there is no until all the nations shall become civiliz- home of my leisure or my listless hours. union of church and state ; for there is a ed,-each a rival to its neighbour, and eve- But my familiarity had not rendered me union of the heart, though not of the hand. ry one striving to obtain the superiority in insensible to its beauties; it had rather en- That there is this union, let the example of excellence-all shall improve, yet the deared them to me. I had not been here France testify. Had there existed in that world never reach what it will continue to long, before I was addressed by a man, ap- country the same sense of religion that is approach, -perfection.

W. parently about the age of forty, whom 1 | found in yours, she would not, in her zeal Cambridge, Oct. 11.

saw not until he spake to me. I never in to be free, have laid the hand of violence my life remember to have seen so much on liberty herself. She would have wooed,

decision without harshness, and dignity not ravished. She would have resembled the To the Editor of the U.S. L. Gazette. without reserve. For him to instruct, and good man, standing forth in the steadfast de MR EDITOR,

for me to listen, was a thing so natural, fence of his rights; not the felon broken from A few nights since, after reading a recent that he replied rather to my thoughts than his prison. She would have stood omnipopublication respecting this country, which interest to my words.

tent, with justice for her cause, heaven her ed me considerably,

• In what,' said he would you be in- protection, and wisdom her law; and not -I had a dream, structed ?"

have wasted her strength in the impotent That was not all a dream ;

I cast my eye from the eminence on efforts of madness. The peculiar characBut such as it was, if it will help you to fill a page, which I was, to the surrounding objects be- teristic of thy country which has marked you and your readers are welcome to it.

INDICUS.

neath me; I would learn, I replied, some- her progress, is religious liberty; the cause

thing of the future prospects of my coun- and the effect of religious principle. This A DREAM. try.

must prevail throughout the world. Think of I retired to rest weary, though not fa- You know,' said he, the fruit, from the its effects on the civil institutions, the laws, tigued. I was not in that frame of mind, seed that is planted. You may see the habits, and customs of other nations, and which demands sleep, as the victim of in- character of your country, in that of the measure, if you can, the influence of thine temperance seeks the draught which will few men who first stept on its shores. They own, the centre from which it emanates. extinguish care or lassitude in forgetful- were full of the divine intentions of Heav- You desired to know something of the funess; but the day had already ended; the en, which later times have but partially de- ture prospects of your country; I have morrow had commenced ; and I regarded veloped. The future exists in the present; shewn her peculiar characteristic, from the repose which I sought, but as a quiet the present existed in the past. Revolu- this, if she is true to herself, judge ye of preparation for what my hands might next tions are often the effect of causes, which her prospects. I have carried thee to the find to do, rather than a state of lethargic have been in operation for centuries. The root of the tree, and analyzed the juices lifelessness. Man is not held to be account- independence of America was achieved which give it sustenance; to count the able for his dreams, because he cannot con- before she was discovered; even when the fruit, the branches, and the leaves, were trol them; for that very reason they indi. human mind was redeemed from superstition, endless.' cate his character; and imperfect indeed from the dire bondage of religious slave- He proceeded Look not for the promust his be, whose dreams are stained with ry. The independence of America, did I gress of religion to the din of controversy, deeds of wantonness or cruelty. Thoughts say? I should have said the independence and the noise of party. The effects of are then spontaneous, and they disclose the of the whole world. That strong, convul- these must be as ephemeral as the feelings way in which we are disposed to act. May sive impulse to liberty, which the earth from which they proceed. The crusades not the waking hours often profit by les- feels from its centre to its circumference, to the holy land to rescue it from the foot sons, that the hours of slumber will give; which the iron hand of despotism can hard- of infidels

, were not more the effect of amfor the heart never reflects its own image ly bind, is an effect of the same cause, bition, feebly masked by false religion, than more truly, than when the limbs lie still; which is already strengthened by its suc- are the controversies that have since agithe eyes are closed ; the breath prolonged; cessful operation in thy country. There is tated Christendom. The power and enand the whole influence which man exerts this only difference. Here the strong de- signs of religion have been bestowed on over himself, suspended.

termination to pursue an upright course the foulest passions of the human heart, as I am more accustomed than most persons carried with it enough of faith for the ac- the temple of God has afforded protection to watch my dreams. They amuse me, at complishment of that, which other nations to the outlaw and assassin. Religious truth least; and they have sometimes almost as could hardly believe to be possible, until is not a treasure which a man may easily much distinctness and continuity as the the reality proved itself before them. God defend with his sword; he would seek in « visions” elaborated by writers who are sent his veterans in the cause of religious vain, after his victory, for that which he broad awake. I will not say that I dreamed freedom and civil liberty, to this country, had fought for. It is to be found neither the following, just as I have written it; but that they might be in the front of the bat- in the despondency of defeat, nor the exsomething like it I did dream. I had retired tle. And as other countries gradually ef- ultation of conquest. It is not a prize to at a rather late hour, and the moon kept fect that, which yours has already accom- be gained by strength, or lost by weakness. me awake for some time ; but her beams plished, from being the youngest, you will It is reflected from the calm and quiet gradually withdrew to the foot of my bed; become regarded as the eldest nation on heart in the faithful and peaceable disthe moaning of the wind was heard less the earth. Happy country! destined to charge of its duties, like the face of naaudibly; and I slept.

receive aggrandizement, not from hard- ture from the placid water. There exists, I soon found myself in a pleasant field, fought battles, and ill-deserved conquests ; deep in the minds of very many, far renot far from my abode ; it was indeed a but from every successful struggle in the moved from what is often called religion, a place which I often visited both in my wak- cause of civil and religious liberty, where conscientious regard to their duty, produced ing and sleeping hours. It is situated on a ever it may be.—The union of church and and nurtured by the word of God. This it declivity facing the east, and at its foot state has been a most unhallowed connex- is, which will grow, and work miracles on moved a narrow stream, of considerable ion, not from essential necessity, but from earth.-The literature of your country depth, overhung with willows Hither, in the depravity of man. It was the peculiar. will be as distinctly marked as its governmy youthful days, I used to go for the purpose ly religious character of this people, which ment. It will be the wreath, which will of fishing ; and as the nature of my pleas- achieved their independence, and establish- decorate her civil and religious institutions : and will derive its life from that of which it used merely as attributives, is divided into comprehended by most children of ten or is the ornament. It will be a real, substan- adverbs, conjunctions, and prepositions. None twelve years of age, after considerable intial, living form, on whose face may be of our grammarians have, however, so destruction and explanation. But what is the read the inmost workings of the soul. It fined either of these parts of speech, as to use of teaching them this fact? No person will not as yet—if ever-abound with fic- give us any means of determining what ever violated this part of the rule, and tion, for as the eye looks into the past, it is words belong to it. They have given ta- there can never be a doubtful case for this only as it loses itself in a dim and doubtful bles of those which they think belong to to determine. Is not the time devoted to twilight, that it discovers the shadowy each of these classes; and, but for these it, therefore, misspent? forms of romance; and America has no tables, we should be left wholly in the dark. Let us leave the nominative, and proceed dark ages, to be the illimitable haunt of No competent reason is given for making to the other nouns in the sentence. Book those who would work into reality the of these words three parts of speech, and and school are both in the objective case. phantasms of their own minds. The litera- they might, for all that appears, as well Is not this a little remarkable that two ture of America will be beautiful and have been divided into twenty.

nouns, one of which expresses the object strong and chaste and healthy.'

Most of our rules for connexion, arrange- of a transitive verb, and the other denotes The last words sounded in my ears as I ment, and government, depend on these the place where the action expressed by awoke, and saw the full splendour of the undefined words; and these rules are gene- the verb is performed, should be considersun falling where I had last seen the gen- rally such as children cannot understand, ed in the same case. It is to be remembertle light of the moon. I recalled the lead. and men forget or despise. At least, nine ed, that by cases are denoted the relations ing parts of the conversation as well as I tenths of the time devoted in our common which nouns and pronouns bear to other could, and spent my first hour of leisure in schools in learning to parse, is rendered words in the same sentence. The nominaarranging them in this form.

necessary solely by the folly of these rules. tive denotes the agent; the genitive denotes

Let us take the first, for an example, the possessor; and the objective is made to MR EDITOR,

and combine with it those which relate to represent all other relations which exist I would direct the attention of some of your book in school.”

the objective case. “ The boy reads his between nouns, and between nouns and readers to the most important faults of our common

Boy” is in the nomina verbs. The principal use of parsing is to systems of English grammar; and your apparent tive case, beyond a doubt. But what is the acquire the habit of analyzing our lanwillingness to estimate aright the importance of nominative case ? “The nominative case guage, for the purpose of determining the these inquiries, which I propose making, encourages denotes an agent or actor; or it is the exact meaning of every word, and its reme to hope that you will admit my essays; - if I subject of the verb.” How long will it take lation to other words in connexion with it: many of your readers, they cannot be interesting; a child to understand, from this explana- or, to say what we mean in another way, and I hardly dare to hope, that they will fully con- tion, that boy is, for this reason, the nomin- it is to determine exactly the use of every vince those who may read them with interest ; but if ative case to reads ? What will he know word in the place where it occurs. I supthey serve to fix the attention of thinking men upon then, that he did not know before? He will pose no one will dispute the correctness of topics which are certainly of great importance, and know that grammarians call a word thus this assertion. In those languages in which have certainly been too long and too much neglect- situated, in the nominative case. In speak- nouns are varied in form, to express .cer: ed, my principal purpose will be answered.

W- ing or writing the sentence, he would have tain relations to other words, it is of use, at

used exactly the same words, and arranged least to those who learn the language from them in the same order, without this infor- books, to have the nouns declined. But in

mation. Before parsing the sentence he English we have no cases of this kind exTHERE is no fact more obvious than that must understand it; and if he understand cept the genitive; and, except with referno method of parsing the English language it, he cannot say the book reads the boy; ence to this, the term case expresses the has yet been devised, which gives general that is, he cannot give the term boy, the relations or offices of nouns, and not their satisfaction to teachers or learners. All situation of any thing except what gram- terminations. We ought, therefore, to allow that Murray's Grammar, for exam- marians term the nominative. The word have, in this sense, as many cases as we ple, contains much useful information, and is the same in the nominative and the ob- have relations; and this would make more affords great assistance towards speaking jective, and hence no error can be commit- than a hundred. To tell a child that cases and writing correctly; but it could scarce-ted in the term itself. In fact, the scholar are these relations or particular offices of ly have been made to contain less that is of does not learn to guard against error, nor nouns, and then teach him that there are any use in analyzing the language-reduc- to understand the sentence better than he but three, is a greater absurdity than can ing it to its elements, and showing the pre- did before ; but devotes a long portion of be found any where but in English Gramcise use of every word in a sentence. Many previous time to learning this really use

Besides the relation between a words in our language of very common use, less fact that a word having a certain use, transitive verb and its object, and those reand of essential importance, have appa- or performing a certain office in a sentence, lations expressed by prepositions, there are rently lost their original, radical meaning, is called by a certain name. With few ex- numerous others, which we have no words because they are no longer used as leading ceptions, these remarks will apply to this to express. Such are the relations beterms, but only as qualifying terms. Still, case wherever it occurs.

tween intransitive verbs and nouns of time, if the use of these is to be governed by any It is required that the nominative case space, dimension, &c. Our grammars inrule or system of rules, they must be de- shall govern the verb in number and per- form us that these nouns are governed by fined. Although custom may be uniform in son. The noun boy, is singular, therefore, prepositions understood ? but in many, if many cases, and there may be little danger the verb reads, must be singular. But this, not most of these examples, there is no of error, there are hundreds of those in so far as it regards the use of the words, is preposition in the language that will exwhich even the learned do not agree in their learned when the language is learned, and press our meaning. use of terms, because they do not see their not from grammars; and as to the fact, What shall we say of the possessive or radical meaning. Our dictionaries afford that different forms of the verb are some- genitive case ? It is said to denote properus little assistance in determining their times required, by our grammars, to suc- ty or possession. The noun expressing specific signification; and our grammars ceed nominatives of different numbers, it is this idea is made to express it, sometimes profess to teach us how to construe and of no consequence. All that the scholar by placing of before it, and sometimes by parse the language with scarcely any refe-learns from this, and most other parts of s'and an apostrophe placed after it. These rence to their meaning: Murray gives our grammars, is to apply certain technical two methods signify the same ; that is, they from Horne Tooke a few definitions, but his terms to what he perfectly understood be- denote the same mode of possessing. When system of parsing has no reference to them. fore. We are told that all nouns are of the we wish to convey the idea emphatiThis numerous class of words, which were third person, except when they denote the cally, in a declarative form, or with referoriginally nouns and verbs, but are now l object of a direct address. This may be ) ence to the attributes and qualities which

ON THE COMMON SYSTEMS OF ENGLISH

GRAMMAR.

mars.

any one possesses, we commonly express Then had my glory walked abroad

This deep, this heartfelt loneliness, this quietness this idea of possession by the word be and And I had been enshrined a god.

of grief

Falls heavier on the flowers of joy, than tempests have, with their variations. For example: « This man is a philosopher.” Here we asWhat else but wide-spread carnage made

strong but brief; The founder of our line a god;

Though whirlwinds tear the blossoms fair, yet still sert that the qualities which constitute a phi- A man, whose dark ambition bade

the stem may thrive, losopher are possessed by this man. Again: Earth be a crimsoned sod.

But the withering blight of one wiptry night, scarce The man has a watch.In this case, man A bloody hunter, yet behold !

leaves the root alive. is as abviously a possessor, as if it were

His shrine is of thrice beaten gold.

Yet as our earthly pleasures fade, if plants of purer said, “ The man's walch,” or “ The watch of And she, the queen of Belus' son,

peace the man." According to the common and

Who built this sanctuary high,

Spring in our bosom's wilderness, and nurtured only proper definition of English cases,

there, increase ; And planned it-proud presuming one! these four methods of expressing the pos- With roof-tree laid against the sky;

And humble hope, and holy fear, our wounded bosessive bave so near an affinity in meaning, Because she blood spilled, -when she died

soms fill, as equally to entitle them all to be termed Wide realms her queenship deified.

They 'll teach us all the blessedness of yielding to

His will possessive ; but our grammarians call one

But I, because my regal day of them possessive, one objective, and two

Then seek not, hours of sober grief or sorrowing

Hath been arrayed in pleasure's dress; nominative.

thoughts, to shun, Because I loved soft music's lay

Until we feel that we can say, “Thy will--not As my present object is merely to lead the And beauty's dear caress;

mine-be done." attention of my readers to the faults in the Because I woman loved, and wine,

And then our hearts to Him will pay an homage

Am thence to be denied a shrine. J. present mode of parsing the English lan

pure and warm, guage, I have not thought it important to

Who saw the cloud o'er them we love, and housed them from the storm.

A. C. H. adopt any systematic method, nor to study

TO MY MOTHER'S MEMORY. any greater degree of exactness than is ne cessary for my general purpose. But, seeing My Mother! weary years have passed, since last

INTELLIGENCE. that I have got fairly under way, I have a 1 met thy gentle smile; and sadly then mind to proceed in some future numbers, There was a mortal paleness on thy cheek,

It fell upon my young and joyous heart. and remark on some of the more obvious And well I knew, they bore thee far away

TURKISH LITERATURE. errors in the common method of parsing With a vain hope to mend the broken springs- THE following remarks are contained in the several parts of speech.

The springs of life. And bitter tears I shed a review of a Grammar of the Turkish lan-
In childhood's short-lived agony of grief,

guage by M. Jaubert, published in the When soothing voices said that thou wert gone,

Courier de Londres, and translated into the
And that must not weep, for thou wert blest.
POETRY.
Full many a flower bas bloomed upon thy grave,

Asiatic Journal for May, 1824.
And many a winter's snow has melted there ; “An erroneous opinion is generally en-
SARDANAPALUS AT THE TEMPLE OF BELTS. Childhood has passed, and youth is passing now, tertained in Europe respecting the lan-

And scatters paler roses on my path; This spacious mausoleum holds

guage and literature of the Ottomans, and Dim and more dim my fancy paints thy form, Proud dust in many a worshipped shrine;

their system of education. It is supposed Thy mild blue eye, thy cheek so thin and fair, Yon massive golden urn enfolds

by many that the language of this barbarTouched, when I saw thee last, with hectic flush, The Founder of our line. Telling, in solemn beauty, of the grave.

ous people is even less cultivated than their In gloomy grandeur, here are laid Mine ear hath lost the accents of thy voice,

Such however is not the case. The gods, our regal race have made.

And faintly o'er my memory comes at times The descendants of Othman possess a lanYes, here are sleeping side by side A glimpse of joys that had their source in thee,

guage, which is inferior to no ancient or The gods, Assyrian queens have borne; Like one brief strain of some forgotten song.

modern tongue in softness, flexibility, and And then at times a blessed dream comes down, Warriors of madmen deified,

Missioned, perhaps, by thee from brighter realms; harmony; and its rules are so admirably And tyrants overthrown. Why, since my sires are all divine,

And, wearing all the semblance of thy form, simple, that we should rather suppose them Am I, their son, without a shrine ?

Gives to my heart the joy of days gone by. to have been framed by an academy of

With gushing tears I wake; 0, art thou not learned men, than by a society consisting I have unto my people been Unseen and bodiless around my path,

of Nomade and pastoral tribes. A father, brother, and a friend ; Watching with brooding love about thy child?

“ We shall not enter into a minute anaGo to the Western Island men

Is it not so, my mother? I will not
Go eastward to mine empire's end;
Think it a fancy, wild, and vain, and false,

lysis of this language; but it may not be If there be one hath wrong of me,

That spirits good and pure as tbine, descend amiss to furnish, as an example of its geneHim, fourfold recompense shall see.

Like guardian angels round the few they loved, ral construction, the facility with which a
Oft intercepting coming woes, and still

verb is conjugated. By adding a single I loved the glittering javelin notJoying on every beam that gilds our paths;

syllable and sometimes, a single letter, to I did not love war's bloody suit;

And waving snowy pinions o'er our heads
Though came the strife with victory sraught,
When midnight slumbers close our aching eyes.

the radical of the verb, it is thus modified. And empires were its fruit.

A. The verb sevmeq, to love, is made to signify, I passed the prancing war-horse by,

to be loved, to love one another, to make To gaze at beauty's melting eye.

one love, to make us love one another, to CONSOLATION.

love not, to be not loved, to make us not I never crushed Assyria's sons To build Colossal temples high;

It is not when the partirg breath, we watch with love one another, &c. We should tire our I bade the sire his little ones

anxious heart,

readers by following up the series of modWatch with a parent's eye.

It is not in the hour of death, when those we love ifications. Throughout the land no vassal strives

depart,

“ There are, however, several defects With a hard lord, nor wears his gyves.

Nor yet when laid upon the bier, we follow slow with which this language, or rather those

the corse, I bade my subjects plant the vine

And leave it in its dwelling dark, that most we feel who write it, may be charged. The literaThroughout the realms my sceptre sways;

the loss.

ti of the country frequently write with a And bade them drink the joyous wine,

degree of obscurity it would be easy to And feast away their days.

When past the last, the solemn rite, and dust to avoid. Not contented with admitting into Sardanapalus thence hath lost

dust hath gone,

their pages, a multiplicity of Arabic and His golden shrine and holocaust.

And in its wonted, channeled course, the stream of Persian terms, borrowed from their neigh

life flows on; For bad I made the rivers dance Oh who can tell bow drear the space once filled by to the rules of Turkish Syntax, they strive

bours, and which are not readily subjected With waves of blood from prostrate foes;

those most dear, And couched a warrior's murdering lance, When well known scenes which they have loved, to crowd together a number of participles And hroke my land's repose ;

and all but they are here.

which give no determinate time, always

manners.

PIPE.

This sug

keep the meaning of the sentence incon- at the same time, be interesting to other same bookseller, met with like success, and veniently suspended, and sometimes even readers, by exemplifying the wisdom and is out of print. to the end of the second or third leaf of the observation of a people generally supposed If the work is a remarkable phenomenon volume. When in addition to these defects, to be barbarous.

in Russia, the venerable author himself is we take into consideration, that there are “We repeat, the Turks are by no means no less so. M. Von Karamsin is a rare, and neither vowels, paragraphs, nor punctuation, so uncivilized as report declares them. in Russia the only, instance of a man who which in fact are seldom to be met with in Public instruction is encouraged by all the has become known and rich by his literary oriental languages, we may form a tolerable higher classes of society. Numbers of rich labours alone ;* who is indebted to them idea of the perspicuity of a Turkish manu- men in bequeathing legacies, usually devote and his moral character for universal esscript.

a portion to the erection of a Mudreseh, or teem; who, without holding any office, was “The penury of Turkish literature is, public school. Several of the Turkish em- distinguished at court, and honoured with doubtless, to be attributed to those causes. perors have followed the example. It is particular favour and regard by the EmpeNevertheless the language can boast of actually the case, whatever surprise the ror and the whole imperial family. M. poets, for instance Rouhihi and Meshiy; of statement may occasion, that, at the pres- Von Karamsin, though he has suddenly romance-writers, amongst whom the aged ent moment, there exists at Constantino- risen into favour at court, has not become Tartare Barakeh may be mentioned ; and ple, a greater number of Colleges than at a courtier, but, faithful to the sciences, of a considerable number of historians, Paris.

continues to dedicate the greater part of geographers, and physicians.

“ In the penal laws of this people, there the day to serious study, and is never so “ But, even if the Turkish language does are certain provisions which are not to be happy as in the circle of his family, or in not present us with a variety of literary found in our own codes, but which would the society of chosen friends. productions worthy of attention, it ought have done honour to the wisdom of our legnot the less to be an object of study to the islators. Unfortunately, however, the in- HEAT PRODUCED BY THE COMPOUND BLOWphilologist, for it is the only diplomatic lan- stitutes are infected with the same fanatiguage made use of at most of the eastern cal spirit which attaches generally to the

The astonishing heat from the flame of courts. It is almost exclusively spoken at the followers of Mahomet, and more especially courts of the Viceroy of Egypt, and the Shah to those Mahometans who belong to the oxy-hydrous gas, issuing from the compound of Persia; under the tents of the great Khāns Sunnite sect. This fanaticism will ever in 1802), is such that Mr Thomas Skidmore tan ; and is certainly the maternal language rus from attaining to such a degree of civ: outside of a small tinned iron cup, full of of these princes. In fact, over all the north- ilization, as is absolutely requisite to enable cold water, that the outside of the cup beern coast of Africa, and from Constantino- them to command respect in the great came red hot, and at length assumed a white ple to the western frontiers of China, there family of European nations.

heat, not only on its outside, but within, in is scarcely a spot where the Turkish idiom

contact with the water; and in an instant is not more or less understood. The im

RUSSIAN LITERATURE.

afterwards the flame broke through the portance of such a language is undoubtedly The tenth and eleventh volumes of the side of the cup and entered the water, great, whether regarded in a commercial Russian national work, the “ History of the without being extinguished. or diplomatic view.

Russian Empire,” by Karamsin, have been gested to him the plunging of the jet pipe “M. Jaubert, whose justly celebrated published. They contain the history of the and flame under water ; which, after due name recals to our recollection the various government of the last descendant of Ru- precaution, was effected, and the flame services he has rendered to his country, has rik, the Tzar Fedor Joannowitsch; the continued to burn with undiminished enernow established a new claim upon the grat- election, government and melancholy end gy in actual contact with the water; which itude of his fellow-citizens, as well as upon of Boris Godunow; the period of the false latter, in a tumbler holding about half a that of all friends to literature, by publishing Dimitrii; the horrors of the Interregnum; pint, quickly became heated from 56° to the grammar to which we are here request- the hated dominion of the Poles, and their 1706 Farenheit. ing the attention of our readers. The scar- expulsion from the Russian territories. city and dearness of the small grammar, pub- This is an important and interesting period.

COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE OF COKE AND lished at Constantinople by the Jesuit, Al. Independent of the scientific worth of the derman; the obscurity of Merinski's gram- work, it must have great influence on the mar; and the incorrectness of the oriental improvement of the language, as it is so

Some trials bave been made by M. Deltype in that which was published by father universally read; and in this respect these rit on the heating power of coke and wood, Viguier, render the new publication of M. two last volumes seem to be superior to the when consumed in stoves. Two similar Jaubert very acceptable to orientalists. In preceding. We find in them a number of stoves were heated, one by wood and the othstead of following the example of his pre- truly national expressions and terms which by coke, and the temperature of the exdecessors, by rendering his subject difficult had not before been adopted in writing, and terior taken at some distance from the fire. and complicated by a multiplicity of rules, which, being now incorporated into the The temperature of the flues was at first for the most part useless, this writer has en- higher style of composition, are an impor- 90 Centigrade, and the mean temperature deavoured to simplify the language he has tant philological addition. There has been at the end of șix hours, was, by the wood, undertaken to teach, by laying its elements no book which has met with such general 13°, by the coke 16o; so that the increase before us with method and perspicuity. approbation in Russia. The first eight by the wood was 4o, by the coke 70. These He has distinguished with much address, a volumes appeared in 1817; and in about effects were produced by 73 kilogrammes variety of trifling anomalies, which other three weeks after their publication, it is (163 pounds) of wood, worth three and a half grammarians had regarded as general rules said that the whole edition, consisting of francs; and 24 kilogrammes (53 pounds) of instead of exceptions. In short this learned three thousand copies, was sold. The eager-coke, worth one franc, 80 cents. During orientalist has employed the superior intel- ness with which all classes, even the less the progress of this experiment another ligence he has derived from long study and educated, hastened to procure the history stove had been heated for several hours extensive experience to preserve to the of their nation, was extremely interesting with wood, and the temperature had not Turkish idiom the character of simplicity and remarkable. Peasants, mechanics, dis- risen above 130;

The use of coke very which justly belongs to it.

banded soldiers, joined together to make quickly raised it to 15° or 16o. Hence it “ The work is concluded by a collection up fifty rubles, which was its price. M. is concluded, and with reason, that coke is of proverbs, engraved in lithographic, by Soenin, a bookseller at St Petersburgh, M. Bianchi, and which are both entertain- published a second edition of an equal num- Russia, towards the printing of which the Emperor

* It is generally assserted that the History of ing and instructive. These proverbs will ber, for wbich he paid the author a large contributed 60,000 rubles, has already yielded serve as exercises for the pupil; and will, I sum. The ninth volume, published by the 250,000 rubles to its author.

WOOD AS FUEL.

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