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VOL. I.
BOSTON, SEPTEMBER 1, 1824.

No. 10.

REVIEWS.

Measures for encouraging the emigration | ceive them with open arms. That govern

of the free people of colour among us; to ment has done still more. It is willing with Correspondence relative to the Emigration United States, had been for some time in In March last, a citizen of New York, ani

some place beyond the territory of the parental kindness to meet them afar off. to Hayti, of the Free People of Colour in the United States. Together with the rious occasions, and the views of different desirous to obtain more accurate and defi

contemplation; they were discussed on va- active member of the Colonization Society, Instructions to the Agent sent out by Presi- individuals on the subject compared togeth- nite information of the conditions on which dent Boyer. New York, 1824. 8vo. pp. 32.

er, till the project became so far matured emigrants from this country would be reIt is now more than twenty years since the as to cause the establishment of the Amer-ceived in that island, addressed a' letter diHaytiens declared themselves a free and ican Colonization Society. This Society rectly to the President of Hayti, and reindependent people. Since that time, they was first organized' at the city of Washing- quested his answer to several queries therehave removed every foreign claimant from ton, in the year 1816. Its attention was in proposed. From the President's reply, their shores, have reconciled the divisions early turned to the settlement of a colony dated 30th of April, we make the followwhich existed among themselves, and are on the coast of Africa; and though there ing extracts. now peaceably united under one govern- were many at that time who thought that The government will give fertile lands to those ment. Thus have they done all that de- the neighbouring island of Hayti offered who wish to cultivate them, will advance to them pended upon their own exertions to enable stronger inducements to emigration than nourishment, tools, and other things of indispensa them to take their rank among the nations. any place which might be found on the Af- ble necessity, until they shall be sufficiently estabBut there is a debt of courtesy and of jus- rican coast, it seems that the Society in- lished to do without this assistance. tice, due from the nations to them; not one clined to the opposite opinion; and they family can cultivate. There is no price to stipof which has yet officially recognised their have been for several years endeavouring ulate for, as respects the land ; since the governindependence. It has been repeatedly in- to establish a settlement in Africa. Unto- ment will give it gratis, in fee simple, to those who quired why our country is so tardy in ad- ward circumstances have prevented them will cultivate it. The emigrants will be distributed

in the most advantageous manner possible, and mitting the national existence of this peo- from making much progress in this

under those who may desire it, shall be placed in the ple, and we cannot but think with them, taking, up to the present time; but we neighbourhool of each other. who consider this delay altogether unne- mean not to speak unfavourably of these

A further extract from the letter, will cessary. Our government in its intercourse colonies; on the contrary, we wish them show, in the President's own language, the with other nations, has professed to be reg- all possible success. It is our desire only reason why he did not come forward at an ulated by the principle, that it will, in all to open new places of refuge for this unfor- earlier period with the overtures he has cases, hold official correspondence with that tunate people; and we have not the slight

now made. which shall appear to be the government est feeling of hostility toward those already de facto of any nation, without inquiring provided. We rejoice to find by the late re- climate is so mild, and whose government is

I have often askeå myself, why Hayti, whose whether it is also the government de jure ; ports of that Society, that their prospects analogous to that of the United States, was not regarding the latter question as one that are brightening; that the new colony at preferred as their place of refuge. Fearing that belongs to the internal regulations of a Mesurado has been established under much my sentiments would be misinterpreted, if I made state, with which it has no right to inter- more favourable auspices than the former the first overture, I contented niyself with having meddle. On this principle our rulers have one a Sherbro'; and we hope the day is not explained to those of them who came to Hayti, ali regulated their intercourse with Spain, dur- far distant that shall behold there a flourish- Republic has established in their favour. I have ing all the fluctuations to which the gov- ing and happy people. But we see no reason aided in freeing those from debt who could not ernment of that unhappy country has been for withholding the opinion we have enter- quire pay for their passage; I have given land to subjected; and, by the same role, they tained on this subject from the beginning; those who wish to cultivate it; and by my circular states of South America, as soon as they er inducements and brighter prespects to pared for the children of Africa, coming out of the acknowledged the independence of the that the republic of Hayti holds out strong- to the officers of districts, of which I send you a were satisfied that that people had actually our coloured population who are disposed United States, all that can assure them of an hontaken the sovereignty into their own hands to emigrate, than any other portion of this ourable existence in becoming citizens of the Hay-and not before. We could not expect habitable globe. Such was oor opinion, on tien Republic. the same promptitude in the case of the the suppposition that a kindred feeling, and But he has done more than we have yet Haytiens as was shown toward the inhabit. a sense of common interest would procure stated. He has appointed one of the most ants of South America ; we are prepared for them a welcome reception there. But distinguished citizens of Hayti to visit this to make great allowance for the prejudices this is no longer a matter of supposition. country as his agent, for the promotion of existing against the descendants of Africa, Within a year past a number of families of this object. This agent, Citizen Granville, and for the reluctance which many must this description have actually removed to is now in our country; and the instructions feel at the idea of sanctioning the revolt that island; several, to our knowledge, given him, which have also been published, of slaves from their masters ; but, waiving have sailed from one port within this com- are in conformity with the extracts from for the present all inquiry into the merits monwealth. They had to encounter the President Boyer's letter already quoted. or defects of the Haytien government, we inconveniences necessarily attendant on an In one article of these instructions he stipconsider their existence as a nation, estab-intercourse with strangers speaking a diffe- ulates further, that he will pay the expenlished beyond the possibility of a doubt; rent language from their own; but these ses of their passage, and maintenance durand that for several years past

, we could were soon so far surmounted as to make ing the voyage, and will furnish the means have felt no more hesitation in declaring them satisfied with their new situation, and of subsistence for four months after their who was the virtual chief magistrate of unwilling to return; for they found a fértile arrival, to those who shall come out as culthat island, than in declaring who was the soil, and a salubrious climate; they found tivators of the lands. These lands, we President of these United States.

a government and a people prepared to re-I learn, are such as have been formerly culti

vated, but now lie neglected. And to put, liberty is secured to them,* and this, com- | its expansion is come. But we hasten to beyond all question the sincerity of the pared with the situation of their brethren view the subject in another light. President's intention in this matter, he has in servitude, is an inestimable blessing ; Let us return to Hayti, and contrast the sent to another philanthropic citizen of their lives and property are protected by present state of her people with their situNew York, whose exertions on behalf of the government, and they can drag on a ation twenty years ago, when they first this oppressed race have been known and mere animal existence without molestation; erected the standard of independence. It appreciated, it seems, beyond the limits of but what have they more? The privi- is worthy of our attention, that this was not his own country, fifty thousand weight of leges of citizenship are not extended to merely a dissolution of their political concoffee, the proceeds of which are to be held them; with the exception of that of our nexion with a foreign people, on whose govsubject to the disposal of Citizen Granville, own Commonwealth, and possibly of one or ernment they were dependant, but in whose for the purpose of aiding such part of our two more, the constitutions of the several improvements in science, in literature, and coloured population residing in the interior, states carefully restrict the privilege of an in the useful arts they had liberally paras may be disposed to embrace the condi- elector to the free white man; and in this ticipated. Far different from this was the tions of emigration now offered to them, Commonwealth, though some of them are situation of the Haytiens ; they were now and who may not possess the requisite electors, he would be considered a madman for the first time bursting the chains of means for conveying them to a suitable who should think of placing one of their personal bondage, and emerging from a place for embarkation. The necessary in- names on the list of those who may be state of ignorance and abject servitude, to structions have also been given to the com- elected. No man of colour among us, let which some of the West India islands at manders of the different departments of his attainments be what they may, can the present time may furnish a parallel, but Hayti, for ensuring a suitable reception to have the most distant prospect of becoming no superior. And since that time, what the emigrants who may arrive, and for car- a judge or a lawgiver; even a seat on the have they done ? They have secured rying all the stipulated conditions into full bench of jurors is denied him; for when that independence; they have expelled effect. Thus is the public attention at the brought to this test, the law does not recog- every hostile foot from their soil; they present time awakened in both countries nise, nor does the white man admit the have reconciled the divisions which had to this subject; and the time seems now to man of colour as his peer. And this feeling sprung up among themselves; they are now be fully come, when those who are disposed is extended into almost every situation in peaceably united under a constitutional to cooperate in these measures, have good which you can place him ; very few are the government, and exhibit every appearance reason to believe that their labours will not exceptions where the intercourse between of being a contented, prosperous, and happy be exerted in vain. The American Colo- the two classes extends further than the people. Schools of different grades are esnization Society, believing that all their re- transactions of business absolutely require; tablished; the useful arts meet with liberal sources would be required for the support the white man learns in his infancy to look encouragement, and are flourishing among of their establishment on the coast of Afri- upon his brother of a different skin as one of them, and their ports are opened for comca, have declined acting on the propositions a race with whom he is not to commingle; mercial intercourse with friendly nations. of the Haytien government; but a Society that brother is conscious that the mark is They have a liberal and intelligent chief for this purpose has been already organized, set upon him; and so deeply rooted is this magistrate, and all the departinents of their and is now in active operation in the city prejudice, if prejudice it be, that when he government appear to be well administered. of New York. A meeting of the people looks forward to his children, or to his chil. We may now ask, what people of the earth of colour has also been held in that city, dren's children, he sees no fairer prospect ever emerged from a state of ignorance, in which the propositions of President Boy- to animate him; for ages to come, they and a servitude so galling as theirs, and in er were highly approved, and measures must remain among us like a Hindoo caste, the short space of twenty years made greatwere taken for the formation of an Auxilia- separated and distinct from the rest of the er progress in civilization and improvement, ry Society on their part. Citizen Granville people. From the strength of our habits, than this people has done? And here we too, is actively employed in promoting the and the structure of our institutions, it can- are willing to rest the question, whether, object of his mission, and with the aid and not be otherwise, and we do not know that in almost every situation in which we have encouragement of influential and benevo- we should wish to alter it if we could. But beheld them hitherto, nature or circumlent citizens in all parts of the United we would ask, when so many of the strong-stance has made them a race inferior to States, much might now be done to improve est inducements which are offered to our ours. If the present kings, and princes, and the present condition and brighten the fu- white population for the cultivation of the rulers of the earth, were to pass in review ture prospects of this portion of suffering talents which God has given them, are before us, and no other precedence were and, in too many instances, degraded bu- withheld from these people, if there is not to be assigned to any one, than that to manity.

a sufficient cause assigned for their intel. which his intelligence would entitle him, But there may be some among us, who lectual and moral degradation, without how few of the mighty ones of the earth think we are too sanguine, and estimate too seeking for another in the constitution of would stand before the President of Hayti! highly the benefit which will be likely to their nature, that admits no remedy? And The attention of some of the conductors result from the removal of our coloured this we ask with renewed confidence, when of our public journals has been turned within population to the island of Hayti; some,

we remember how many of our a short time past to this subject of emigrawho, while they acknowledge the degraded colour there are, who, with all the advan- tion to Hayti, and the fertility of her soil situation into which the great body of this tages which we have enumerated, and many has been made the theme of their paneclass amongst us has fallen, are willing to more, suffer themselves to sink as low in gyric. We do not question the correctness attribute this inferiority to a natural or the scale of being as any of their less fa- of this as a fact, but we do not wish to atconstitutional defect in their organization, voured brethren. We might strengthen tach to it an undue importance, while there rather than to that which we consider as our argument with the observation which are so many better and stronger motives the true cause. We entreat these, before has frequently been made, that the chil. to be urged in favour of this measure. We they censure our zeal on this subject as dren of this people in their infancy often believe it will be found to hold good as a misjudged, carefully and seriously to re- give indications of a bright intellect which general rule, that wherever nature has flect on the situation of the free people of too generally disappoint us before they ar- been so lavish of her bounties as to seem colour in this land, and determine for them- rive at maturity. The bud of promise is to relieve some favoured portion of the huselves whether there is not sufficient cause nipt by the untimely frost and chilling dews man race from the primeval doom profor all the inferiority which is chargeable to which it is exposed before the time of nounced upon Adam and his posterity, that on this people, without supposing them des

“in the sweat of their face they should eat tined by nature to occupy a lower rank

* If the business of man-stealing continue to be their bread,” the balance is restored to in the scale of creation.

Their personal states, this can hardly be admitted without qualiti them, by fire or earthquake, pestilence or cation.

food, to its full measure; and that every

own

soil not absolutely sterile, and every cli- proach them with being born to an inferior | ican geography. They give us, at most, mate not absolutely pestilential, afford inheritance, and designed by nature to oc- but a few very general maps, and these are about their fair proportion of the comforts cupy a station subordinate to ours.

often strangely incorrect in topographical and conveniences of this life. But we also There is still another view of this sub- facts long established; and always destitute believe, that the different constitutions of ject, which we have not forgotten, though of more recent alterations and improvethe human family are adapted by nature to we have not alluded to it before. The emi- ments. The statistics of this country are her different climates; and that the air gration of this people from our country will very well understood in Europe,-pot only which is fraught with pestilence to one, open facilities for an increasing commer- in England, but on the continent,-particmay wast healing on its wings to another; cial intercourse with Hayti. The encour- ularly by those who take an interest in and on this account we should suppose the agement which we afford them will create questions of political economy. The popclimate of Hayti more congenial to the a friendly disposition towards us in the ularity which this interesting science has descendants of Africa than this in which we minds of those to whom they go. The lo- attained, and the important discussions and live. But it is not the climate or the soil cal situation and natural advantages of that results to which it has led have rendered

which we would hold up to the view of our island cannot fail to render the Haytiens all the most important facts, unconnected · coloured population, to ternpt them to seek ere long a commercial people. The pro- with this department of knowledge, gener

new homes under better auspices in another ductions of that climate are different from ally known. But of the pure geography land. We should say to them, “ You will ours; they can supply us with many arti- of America they are comparatively ignofind there a kindred people, descended from cles that we want; and from the product of rant. Indeed, we could not reasonably exthe same common country, wrested from our agriculture and our manufactures, we pect an European geographer to give an acthat country by the same violence, subject- can supply their necessities with more. curate map of this country. Not to name ed to the same bondage, and since being Open but the way, and the enterprise of our the difficulties he must necessarily encounrescued from that bondage, so placed by citizens will not fail to improve the advan- ter in collecting the latest and most authennature and by circumstances in relation to tages offered them by such a commerce. tic materials, our settlements are increasthe surrounding vations, as to join you to- That government has not been unmindful of ing and spreading through the western gether in a bond of common feeling and in these considerations. In the letter of Presi- wilderness,

-new regions are explored, terest almost indissoluble. You will find dent Boyer to Mr Charles Collins of New new states and territories founded,-new there a paternal government, which is even York, already referred to, we find the fol- villages and towns are springing up, on the now stretching forth its arms to receive lowing passage.

banks of navigable rivers but lately disyou, and assure you of a participation in its But the emigrants alone will not reap the fruit covered, -with a rapidity, of which an inmanifold blessings. You will find there of your exertions.. The United States will find habitant of the old world could form no what this country cannot afford you, an their commerce with Hayti enlarged by the fre: adequate conception. He would not unample field for the expansion of your facul- quent intercourse which these new Haytiens will derstand the relative importance of settleties, for the cultivation of all your powers ;

.

ments so recent, and could not follow the

And we trust our government will not where you may fill that station, for which the bounty of Heaven, and your own endeavours so far forget what is due to its own citi- gigantic march of our geographical dis

coveries and changes. shall qualify you, and there will be none to zens, as to let the present opportunity pass

It is on account of such circumstances as look down upon you.” As has been justly unimproved.

these, that we have had no atlas,-neither observed by Citizen Granville, they ask

European nor American,—which, from the not for recruits to fight the battles of their A New General Allas, comprising a com- style of its execution and its accuracy, independence; that independence has been plete set of Maps, representing the Grand was entitled to the character of a standard already acquired by their own exertions, Divisions of the Earth, together with the work. But we think the Atlas of Mr Finand they are now offering a share in the several Empires, Kingdoms, and States ley will come nearer meeting the wants fruits of their labours to those who will in the World; compiled from the best and wishes of the public than any we have come and partake with them. And we feel authorities, and corrected by the most re- seen. It contains sixty maps, twenty-eight that it is become the duty of intelligent

cent discoveries. Philadelphia. 1824. of which are appropriated to North Ameriand benovolent minds to endeavour to im- We have been so much pleased with the ca; and we have never before seen so press these views upon the people of colour appearance of this Atlas, that we are dis- many good maps of the different sections who dwell among us. They are a people, posed to recommend it to the notice of the of our country. There are also several who, for reasons which we have already public. We do this with the more confi- good maps of all the most important divisgiven, will not be likely to weigh future dence, because we think the want of a cor- ions of the old world. Two charts are anbenefits impartially in the balance against rect and satisfactory Atlas, as this is, has nexed to the work, showing, at one view, present pleasures; and they will need all long been felt. The American and Euro- the heights of the principal mountains and the counsel and encouragement which such pean publications of the kind, with which the lengths of the most considerable rivers minds may be qualified to give them. There we are acquainted, are quite imperfect, of the world. The maps are neatly enis a portion of the present generation, who, either in execution or in accuracy. graved, and approach the best English under the favourable auspices which that It is a common fault with American style, the lines and letters are remarkably country will afford them, may become hon- maps, that they are engraved in a coarse clear and distinct, and the whole is beautiourable and useful citizens. There is a much and slovenly manner. This is truly pro- fully coloured. So far, too, as we are able larger portion from whom we have little or voking, in a country where there are so to judge of this matter, it is perfectly cornothing to hope; but for their children's many excellent engravers; and it is with rect. It appears to us, however, that there sake, if not for their own, let these go like-great satisfaction we have observed the im- are some errors of omission. We wish to wise. For all, the prospect is nearly hope- provements made, within a few years, and see South America more particularly deless while they remain here. There is a still making, in this branch of their art. lineated. A single map seems to be too barrier more impassable than mountains, We have several large maps, published by scanty a proportion of such a work to be interposed between the children of Euro- Melish, and under the patronage of some devoted to the representation of a country pean and of African parents in this country, of the states, that are models of accuracy so extensive, and which is now the theatre which will prevent them from ever mingling and excellence, and would do honour to of events so interesting. On some of the into one. And after we have removed all the any country. The style of our maps for maps, also, many more places might have obstacles which we or our fathers have schools, also, has been much improved of been inserted, without any injury to that placed in the way of their improvement, if late, and we hope to see it advanced still distinctness which should be carefully prethey disappoint our reasonable expectations, farther.

served. They have now an open and blank and the field for exertion is opened to them All the European atlases we have seen, appearance, which adąs nothing to their in vain, it will then be time enough to re-) have been very deficient in regard to Amer- beauty. This is particularly the case in

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