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his gallantry;-of his regard for that sex, a regard for whom distinguishes not only civilized from barbarous nations and ages, but civilized individuals from savages. We give an extract from the 199th page of this very religious and high-minded work, as a sample of very many passages.

they founded, or to which they belonged, note, stands thus. It is asserted by Neal, it are anti-christian? No; he cannot think so; is denied by the Quakers; it is given up as and these passages are but the overboil- false by the writer in the Christian Obserings of envy, or some other evil passion, ver, and it is believed by Mr Brownlee. from the mind of their writer. We may Had such an event occurred (and it is not text from that volume represented as being done in a corner), well apply a which the reverend Mr Brownlee will do would it have rested on the sole authority "It is certain no female preacher ever yet need- well to study when he can find leisure to of Neal? Neal quotes no authority, but ed to make the solemn invocation of worthy and lay aside his Hudibras,-Out of the abund- makes the statement simply. It ought also We to be remarked, that Mosheim quotes only learned Zachary Boyd, in his printed but unpub-ance of the heart the mouth speaketh. lished version of Job. have said that Mr Brownlee speaks of the Neal as his authority for this story. Now, doctrines of the Society with asperity and admitting all these stories to be true, and contempt. As we have already occupied many we think false, we still contend that much space in proving that he speaks un- that they argue nothing against the soundcourteously of the Society itself, and its in-ness of the doctrines professed by the sober dividual members, we shall cite but a single part, the body of the Society; certainly passage to show how he speaks of the doc- they do not tend to prove that they hold trines, and of the sincerity of those who anti-christian principles. There never was a sect, nor a society, of any note, some individuals of which did not act more or less

"There was a man, and his name was Job,
And he dwelt in the land of Uz;
And he had a good gift of the gab-
May the like befal us!'"

a distin

In page 27 of his Appendix No. 2, he thus notices Elias Hicks, who is guished Quaker preacher, residing, as we are informed, on Long Island, N. York.

"But honest Elias is no philosopher, no chemist, [which, of course, unfits him for a teacher of christianity], no theologian; and men of his venerable years, are, every where, privileged characters!

"O zóyes páguanov dúæns, xaì à mouλoyia γήρατος.

Speaking is the solace of grief,—and garrulity that of old age."


hold to them.

"There is not a man of reflection in the Society, who would not laugh in his sleeve at the simpleton who would believe without evidence, and with the deistical Pope who chuckled over the easy belief of his Catholic subjects, would exclaim, A fine fabrication this—which has proved so lucrative to us.' We have said that he has charged upon the Quakers, the acts, many times foolish, of their predecessors. Take for example, and there are many such passages, the following paragraphs and notes from pages 94 and 95.

We think that the above quoted passages (and we have by no means copied all that we had marked for quotation) fully prove the character and extent of our author's politeness and courtesy. They prove "During the first period, and also the second, the more,-for we must leave the language of zeal of their prophets carried them into extravairony for that of serious indignation,-they gancies of another kind. To give a brilliancy to prove that he is instigated by malignant their denunciations, and to rouse the public attenmotives; for he could not but perceive that tion, they taught by signs. Some of them went all these things might be true, and yet that into churches, during service, clothed in sack-cloth, the Quakers might be as much Christians and their hair sprinkled with ashes. *** Ann Wright, having in the same garb made her as himself or his brethren. They therefore debut into St. Patrick's in Dublin, entered on a pildo not help his argument, and since they grimage to London, and went in these weeds do not, are merely proofs, that he wished through the chief streets, as a sign of approaching to overturn the Quakers, if not by force of judgments. But to crown the whole, these prophets appeared in public in a state of nudity. Durargument, at least by ridicule. Even here ing the Commonwealth, and in the reign of Charles he fails; for the passages we have quoted, II., several individuals of the Society went in naare directed, not against the doctrines of ked processions through the streets of London. A the sect, but the manners of some individ- female came, in a state of perfect nudity, into uals. What though some of the Quakers Whitehall Chapel, before the protector. The most did, and still do, use a singing tone when distinguished of these Lupercalian heroes, were Eccles and Simpson. In London, the former apthey preach or pray? what though their peared naked in the fair; and held on his lectures false, or real sense of sin affect them and denunciations against folly, till the loud whips with nervous tremours? what though they of the coachmen made him seek safety in flight. find or imagine that a peculiar garb fur-At another time he threw a Catholic chapel in Irenishes occasion for a greater watchfulness land, into a scene of confusion. In the midst of mass, this Lupercus entered naked from the waist against sin, over themselves and their as-upwards, with a chafing dish on his head, containsociates? what though some of their mem-ing coals and burning brimstone; he cried with a bers, in Philadelphia or elsewhere, live loud voice, Wo, wo, to the idol and its worshipmore luxuriously than is becoming Chris- pers! His third feat was performed in a church tians? (We shall presently, examine the in London. During divine service he came in stark naked; and raising his arms besmeared with correctness of Mr Brownlee's sweeping de-filth, he denounced the woes of heaven on the wornunciation in this respect.) What though shippers. Simpson continued his naked procesone of their elders, in a dream, did sing a sions from time to time during the space of three song which he had learned in his youth? years.” what though George Fox were a Cordwainer, and some of his coadjutors, for aught we know, fishermen? what though their female preachers make long sermons, and Elias Hicks be no chemist? Does our author seriously suppose that this torrent of invective -for though he aims at ridicule, he falls short into abuse-against the habits of some of the individuals of which a religious society is composed, will help him to persuade his readers that the tenets of the sect which

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For this valuable fact, he cites Neal's
History of the Puritans, vol. IV. p. 175,
Bost. edit., Mosheim, vol. V. cent. 17, and


"Sewel has omitted this fact for obvious reaI cannot, with the Christian Observer, vol. XIII., p. 101, give this up. It is stated by Neal, who was conversant with the men of that period, and though stated publicly by him, it was never questioned till lately, so far as I can discover."

Now, the story that is alluded to in this

This we

foolishly or wickedly. The apostle Peter
wished to impose unwarrantable restrictions
upon the Gentiles, and received a sharp re-
buke from the apostle Paul; but Peter was
a Christian, however he mistook this point.
Our author adds, that these extravagances
grew out of their principles.
deny. The same causes produce the same
effects. The Quakers of the present day,
assert that they hold to the same principles,
now, that their ancestors professed, yet
they do not now practice going about as
signs. Our author doubtless professes to
believe what his ancestors believed, among
whom was one, at least, who justified the
murder of Archbishop Sharpe; and what
those of our ancestors believed, who exe-
cuted their law which pronounced Qua-
kerism a capital crime. Nevertheless, we
think, that neither he nor we, should now
think ourselves justified in murdering a civil
magistrate on the highway, however oppres-
sive he may have been; and that neither of
us would vote any heresy a crime deserving
death at the hands of mortal and fallible

The truth is, that all the founders of
new sects have been somewhat enthusias-
tic,-some more, and some less so; and
the wild acts of the Cameronians in Scot-
land, and the Puritans here, and the Qua-
kers in England, resulted not so much from
their principles, as from the fervour of their
zeal against what they considered error;
and they were modified according to the
feelings of the individuals and the manners
Those times are happily
of their times.
gone by, and we are sorry to see our au-
thor partake so much as he evidently does,
of the feelings of his predecessors, and
make such an approximation to their illib-
eral conduct. Still, he is not altogether
like them; the manners of the present age
forbid it; and though it is said, that Luther
in the heat of argument one day boxed
Melancthon's ears, and though we suppose
that our author believes that Luther was,
notwithstanding, a sincere Christian, and
no heretic; yet we should not be deterred
from a personal argument with William
Craig Brownlee upon any point, by a fear
lest it should end in fisticuffs.

As to what is said of the miserable fanaticism of Naylor and others, we think that

it might all have been spared; because, ac cording to Mr Brownlee's own showing, the Quakers disowned them and their principles; and, of course, are no more chargeable with their acts and opinions, than the Church of Rome is chargeable with the acts and opinions of Luther and. Calvin, or of Fenelon and Madame Guyon. Some of the men whom our author mentions, went out from the Quakers and founded new sects; and some submitted, and were received again on giving proofs of penitence.

Mr Brownlee says, that he cannot find that Tolderoy was expelled, or even suspended; but it is obvious that one or the other was done by the Society, because Mr Brownlee admits that he made acknowledgements of his errors; and an inspection of the Quaker discipline, as expounded by Clarkson, would have shown him, and did show him, unless he grossly neglected his duty as an inquirer into Quakerism, that for the Society to call a member to account for any impropriety, ipso facto, operates as a suspension.

As therefore Mr Brownlee must have known that the Quakers, as a body, disapproved of the opinions and conduct of these men, we cannot but think it unfair in him to cast these things as a slur upon all the early Quakers. The passages here alluded to are in pages 87, 88, and Appendix No. 2, page 16.

We have said that Mr Brownlee has attempted to calumniate the Quakers by asserting that their doctrines lead to evil consequences, which cannot reasonably be expected to spring from them, and which facts contradict. We had marked many passages as worthy of notice in this point of view, but feel that Mr Brownlee has already occupied more than a due proportion of our columns. We will only notice two assertions. The first is on page 290; "The first grand tenet of the sect has a tendency to lead men into the wildering mazes of Deism." To this we can only reply, that we have known many Quakers and known much of them, but have never heard a charge of Deism uttered or insinuated against any one of them, and that we venture to say this is the first time our readers have ever heard it. We may recur to this subject presently. On page 288, he sees fit to say that "The [not even their] doctrine of supernatural influences carried out in its legitimate tendency, lays their minds open to endless follies and deception." Now we suppose Mr Brownlee, being, as aforesaid, a minister of the gospel, sometimes preaches to his people respecting the being and the attributes of God. We should be glad to know whether he charges them to believe that God is not a supernatural being, or, that he is wholly indifferent towards his creatures, and never gives them the help of his influence. The manner and the degree in which this influence is exerted, is, we well know, a subject of controversy among Christians. But we never before heard a gospel minister in fact utterly deny it, by asserting that "The doctrine of supernatural influence," in the

general, without any qualification, leads to
"endless follies." As to this charge against
Quakers, our readers may judge as well as
we, whether their Quaker friends are re-
markably apt to act foolishly or "under

of the Quaker who drowned a highwayman, Mr Brownlee cites no authority whatever, and a good deal would be necessary to verify it. We have a better anecdote, which we do believe. Robert Barclay was assaulted by a highwayman with a pistol; We come now to our last and heaviest he took gently hold on the man's arm, saycharge, that of wilful misrepresentations of ing, "How canst thou be so rude?" and the facts and doctrines. This, too, we expect ruffian dropped his weapon. In page 117, fully and easily to prove. And, first, for the we are told that the jumping Quakers, who misrepresentations of facts. Our readers exist near Albany and in the state of Ohio, will have remarked that Mr Brownlee seceded from the Quakers in the days of charges generally against all the Society of Penn, under their leader, Case. Now this Quakers, "splendor of equipages, richness is, to say the least, incorrect. The sect to of dresses, luxury of the table, and the which our author alludes had its origin more use of a delicacy and profusion of wines;" recently, we believe in the latter part of now, we do assure them, that it has been the last century; and though some of its our lot occasionally to be entertained at early members may have been Quakers, the tables of Quakers, not only here in yet those who were so, had been previously New England, but in Philadelphia and its expelled from the society; and the Quaneighbourhood; and we can speak of our kers have less concern in the formation of own knowldge, that this charge, as it ap- that sect than the Puritans had with that plies to any who have fallen under our ob- of the Fifth-monarchy-men. There are servation, is utterly false. There may be, other passages the correctness of which we there doubtless are, some individuals of the doubt; but we have not the means of ascerSociety, who live more luxuriously than be- taining their truth or falsehood. comes their profession, but they are indeed We have already drawn out this review few; and Mr Brownlee must know it. into greater length than we at first intendHere is our assertion against Mr Brown-ed, and shall confine ourselves to showing lee's, and this is all we can bring, by rea- but one misrepresentation of a doctrine. son that the case does not admit of deposi- Mr Brownlee charges the Quakers sometions being taken and used. He asserts times with Deism, sometimes with Sabelthat the Quakers did not at first condemn lianism, and sometimes with Socinianism ; war, but, on the contrary, did advocate it. and he says that there is a want of consistHow this may be, we do not know; but we ency in the writings of the Quakers, and do know, that when he asserts that William that he mentions this particularly to guard Penn recommended to the legislature of his against an array of quotations from different colony of Pennsylvania that they should parts of their works, as from the London raise a sum for carrying on war, in obedi- Epistles, which contain much orthodoxy in ence to the king's letter, that he asserts their modern form. Well might he guard what is directly contradicted by Clarkson as he could against quotations, when he has in his Life of Penn; and that he takes no accused the Quakers of changing their exnotice of Clarkson's account of this matter. pressions in order to accommodate themAccording to Clarkson, whose authority selves to prevailing doctrines, all the while we suppose to be indisputable, William meaning that the words should convey a Penn communicated the letter to the legis- different meaning to the initiated; and of lature, and refused, though called on, to give railing against Socinianism, while they them his opinion on the subject; and the leg- themselves are Socianian. Probably the very islature, being Quakers, did not raise the last thing we shall do, will be to enter into money, alleging their scruples of conscience an argument to prove whether the Trinitarifor refusing so to do. He asserts, in page ans or the Unitarians are more correct in 111, that the Pennsylvanian Quakers rais- their opinions on this much disputed subject; ed an armed band, to retake a sloop from but we mean to show that William Craig certain pirates; and did in fact recapture Brownlee has, on this subject, quoted just such her; and he says sneeringly, that "the passages, and no others, and in such a way, historians of the society wriggle and twist as he thought would injure the Quakers in under the difficult digestion of this morsel the estimation of those who agree with him of their history;" and refuses to believe on this point. He quotes largely from Penn their declaration that no arms were used, and from Pennington to show that they because of its improbability. Clarkson's were Socinians. We have not, and could account of the story is, that some unruly not procure, their writings at full length or persons seized a sloop, and the magistrates in the early editions; but Mr Brownlee has issued warrants to apprehend them, which suppressed two very important passages, was accomplished, and the circumstance one of which is in Clarkson's Life of Penn, was magnified by George Keith into a mak- and the other in that copy of Pennington's ing of war upon the offenders. Mr Brown- works which we for this purpose have prolee refers also to a story in Sewel's History, cured; passages too, the orthodoxy of which of the recapture of a ship by a Quaker we believe the most rigid of Mr Brownlee's from the Turks. According to Sewel him- own sect will not dispute, and with which, self, not only was no violence practised on we doubt not, every sentence which he has this occasion, but the Quaker even landed quoted may be reconciled, if taken with the his prisoners on the coast of their own context, from which, for his own purpose, he country. As to the story, told in page 108, has disjoined them. The words of Penn,

In his Appendix No. 2, page 25, Mr Brownlee thus notices an able champion in behalf of the oppressed Africans.

A Practical Treatise upon the Authority and Duty of Justices of the Peace in Criminal Prosecutions. By Daniel Davis, Solicitor General of Massachusetts. Boston, 1824. 8vo. pp. 687.

to which we allude, are, "In my confession | wants of the poor, their deportment towards the God-daring, Christ-blaspheming, Spirit-disat the close I said, that we believed in Christ, Indian tribes, their labours in behalf of bleeding piting generation of the prodigiously proboth as he was the man Jesus, and God over Africa, call forth our applause. I will not detract fane and arrogant sect of Runagad Quaaught from the laurels which have long and justly all blessed forever." Clarkson's Life of Penn, adorned the brows of some of their leaders. I re- kers," have in the mean time established for p. 100. The words of Pennington are, vere the memory of Governor Barclay, as a man of themselves an honorable and well-earned "There are two or three things in my heart letters, prudence, and integrity. The name of name, while he and his book have been forto open unto you, how it is with me in re- Penn associates in my mind the ideas of wisdom gotten. We do not know what Brown's adference to them; for indeed I have not and sound policy, built on strict national jus- mirer, Mr Brownlee, may perform hereaf tice," &c. been taught to deny any testimony which ter; but we do believe that his present work will not produce a different result, the Scriptures hold forth concerning the Lord Jesus, or any of his appearances, but nor meet with a better fate than that of his am taught by the Lord more fully to own predecessor. and acknowledge them. The first is con- "A. Benezet. A Short Account of the Quakers, cerning the Godhead, which we own as the and their Settlement in America.' The most reScriptures express it and as we have exper-markable thing about this book is, that it has seen imental knowledge of it; in which there a second edition. It has no claims to the title it has assumed. It contains the meagre gleanings of are three that bear record in heaven, the a man amiable it is true, but superficially acquaintFather, the Word, and the Holy Spirit, and ed with his subject. The most striking of his fanthese three are one.' This I believe from farades are those about liberty, and about war. my heart, and have infallible demonstra-Like other Quaker authors, he very unfortunately tions of; for I know three and feel three in does not touch the question." Spirit, even an eternal Father, Son, and Now can it be possible that Mr Brownlee Holy Spirit, which are but one eternal can live in Philadelphia, where Anthony God. Now consider seriously if a man Benezet spent his days in unremitted exerfrom his heart believe thus concerning the tions for the good of mankind, and be ignoeternal power and Godhead, that the Fath- rant of the fact that Anthony Benezet, if er is God, the Word God, and the Holy not the first, was one of the first men who Spirit God, and that these three are one raised their voices against the slave-trade; eternal God, waiting so to know God, and or knowing this, be willing to speak of him to be subject to Him accordingly, is not with studied ridicule? The fact is on rethis man in a right frame of heart towards cord; unhappily we could not procure a the Lord in this respect?" Epistle to all copy of a biography of him published a few Serious Professors of the Christian Religion. years ago; but we state from memory, that We might cite much more to the same when the subject of the slave-trade was effect, and from other Quaker writers, brought before the general meeting of the ancient as well as modern, which we Quakers, Anthony Benezet appeared in the have met with on this subject, as well as most conspicuous place with his counteon the Atonement (which our author also nance bathed in tears, and exclaimed, accuses them of denying or allegorizing.)" Ethiopia will soon stretch forth her hands But our object is neither to prove that the Quakers hold the same doctrines as Mr Brownlee, nor that the doctrines which they do hold are true, but only that he has misrepresented them.

We had almost forgotten that we had charged Mr Brownlee with faintly praising the acts of the Society of Quakers, even where he could not deny that they were laudable. We cite the following passages and notes to show with what reluctance he testifies on this occasion.

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What they have done, they will do alone; and that little which has been done in this way [that is, as a body] by them, has been confined to some attempts at the civilization of some Indian tribes, and the meliorating of the condition of the Africans.*

THE design of this work is excellent, and its execution no way inferior to the design. The principal object of the author is to furnish a complete guide to justices of the peace in criminal prosecutions. It contains in the first part, ample directions in these proceedings in every stage of the process. They are principally selected from common law authorities; much of them, however, is original, and founded up on the present practice, as settled in the Supreme Judicial Court of this State. The directions relative to taking bail, and returning the process into court, and the taxation of cost, are full and accurate, and will probably be the most useful part of the work. The incorrectness, want of information, and of punctuality in the justices of the peace, in this respect, have occasioned serious inconveniences and sacrifices to the government. This part of the work must be regarded by the profession as supplying a want they have doubtless often experienced.

unto God." He said no more, but the effect
was electric. This too our author may call a
fanfarade about liberty; but from that time
forth have the Quakers, as a body, with their The second part appears to have been
accustomed steadfastness, through evil re- extended considerably beyond the original
port and through good report, been earnest purpose of the author, but we cannot re-
in the cause of the abolition of the slave-gret this, as there is almost nothing in it
trade, and the emancipation of slaves. which can be regarded as superfluous or use.
less. There are two hundred and thirty pre-
cedents of complaints-drawn with the same
accuracy, and in the same form with indict-
ments. The book, therefore, contains a great
number of precedents for the common offen-
ces, occurring in our courts, which, by chang-
ing the captions and conclusions, may form
a useful collection of indictments, perhaps
as good as any extant, for the use of a
New England lawyer. The definitions and
preliminary remarks, are taken from the
best authorities, and from our own decisions,
and contain as much of this kind of matter
as will be useful or necessary for a justice
of the peace. It is, in fact, an abridgment,
giving the outline of the law relative to
crimes and offences.

We have done with our charges against this writer. We think we have fully proved that the book is written in a spirit, which will materially weaken the force of its reasonings, if any such things there be, with all candid minds. With his arguments we have little to do; we have found misstatements of facts and doctrines, and some of his premises being false, we can have no confidence in his conclusions, on those points. We have not had the means of ascertaining the correctness or incorrectness of many of his assertions, but that some of them are incorrect throws a doubt over the rest. The Quakers, according to their usual practice, will probably reply to Mr We must quote a little more. After speak-Brownlee in set form; that is their busiing of this people, as we have shown, Mr ness-not ours; and we have omitted to Brownlee finds himself compelled to ad- comment on many passages which we had mit what follows; and yet sends this work marked as objectionable, lest we should to the printers without expunging the pas- defence of that Society. have even the appearance of assuming the sages we have quoted.

*The extent of their influence in putting down that most execrable traffic in human beings, the African slave-trade, we cannot strictly define. They gloriously roused up the public mind to a sense of the evil; and then acted nobly and firmly in concert with the statesmen and christian public of the United States and Britain. Palmam qui meruit, ferat."

"Their kind and amiable manners have secured

them a right to the title of Friends; their females are distinguished for their prudence, their modesty, and elegance of manners; their attention to the

John Brown of Wamphey published his book, entitled "Quakerism the Pathway to Paganism," nearly one hundred and fifty years ago; but those, whom he calls "This

We think it our duty to remark, that the price of the book is one quarter less than the ordinary price of law books containing the same amount of matter, and we believe the proportion which the superfluous matter bears to that which is useful, quite as small, to say no more, as in most law books of this size. The principal part of the work, indeed, we may say

the whole of it, except a few cases decided in Massachusetts, being taken from the books of the common law, of universal authority, the work may be useful in all parts of the United States. The forms and precedents taken from the New York courts, add, perhaps, less to the value of the book, than any other part of it.

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that peculiar blessing which he and his perseverance, and manual skill and labour, brethren have. He may also learn, on the are all stimulated by the noble impulses one hand, how powerful is the resisting which prompt them to mutual destruction. force, which in Europe opposes the spread Our first extract will describe some of the and dominion of political truth, and how most celebrated galleries. laborious and long the conflict must be ere the victory can be won ;-and, on the other, he may find good reason to hope that the We understand that Mr Davis was in-cause of justice and of truth must inevitaduced to undertake the work, principally bly prevail; that it is perpetually gaining by the circumstance, that he had been all the strength which can be derived from troubled for many years in his official duties, advancing intelligence, greater unity of deby the want of knowledge and of punctu- sign and action, and a rapid increase in the ality in justices of the peace, and most of number of its friends, while its enemies, in all, in those justices who belong to the pro- spite of partial successes, are exhausting fession, and undertake to do this kind of their resources and discovering their weakbusiness. We think he may well hope, in ness;-that while each wave may be refuture, to be relieved from this embarrass-pelled, and the rooted rocks rejoice as the ment, for the excuse of unavoidable ig- angry waters are broken into foam and fall norance is certainly taken away. down their motionless faces, yet the tide is rolling onward;-ocean is upheaving its might, and vain must be the endeavour to fix upon its power or its progress a chain

A Journal of a Tour in Italy, in the Year 1821. With a Description of Gibraltar. Accompanied with several Engravings. By an American. New York. 1824. 8vo. pp. 468.

Or our scanty native literature, the records of foreign or domestic travel occupy a large proportion, nor are we disposed to lament this circumstance. It is certainly well that those of our brethren who are able to indulge themselves in the pleasures and advantages of visiting distant climes, should go to seek from those ancient nations that are now in their maturity, if not in their decline, much valuable knowledge, which the many peculiar circumstances of our comparatively novel policy and institutions refuse to impart. We do not only mean, that it is desirable to cultivate the taste by a study of those works which art and labour have created for the enjoyment of refined luxury at the bidding of boundless wealth; or to improve and animate the sense of beauty, by looking upon the most beautiful objects, which the utmost efforts of human skill, combined with the efforts of nature, have been able to produce. This is a valuable advantage, but the least of those which an American should derive from foreign travel. The spirit of republicanism is paramount at his home, and not only so, but, perhaps without his consciousness, in his heart, and perpetually exerts a powerful influence upon most of his thoughts or emotions. It may be well, therefore, that he should leave this republic awhile, and go to the kingdoms of the earth, and see that spirit, which is the governing and animating principle here, meeting with little check or hindrance, either from ancient delusion or from popular ignorance or passion, -there, subdued, at least apparently subdued and almost crushed; in some corners struggling to come forth and act, in others counteracted and well nigh extinguished, not only by external force, but by those rooted prejudices and that universal and excessive ignorance, which mingle with pure and powerful principles, elements of opposition, weakness, and decay. He may thus learn to value aright and watch with jealousy

December 3. About one third the way up the rock, and near the north end of it, stands a Moorish castle of uncertain antiquity. It occupies the brow of a perpendicular ledge, containing the excavated galleries, for which Gibraltar is so famous. We set out this morning, under the guidance of a serjeant, to visit these galleries; and after a tedious walk through several streets, on the steep side of the rock, we found ourselves just below the castle, and at the gate of an old wall stretching down from it. The gate was very low, and of plain and solid architecture; and the walls, which are Moorish, are formed of rough stones, and large, thin bricks, in alternate layers, cemented with mortar. A subterranean passage led us under the wall of the garrison, and a few steps brought us to the beginning of the modern works: a dark passage bored through the rocks, for a distance of one hundred and fifty A little way beyond, is the entrance to playing upon an enemy from an inaccessible height, through embrasures or port holes cut in the face of He may not only do much good, as an the high, rocky precipice. The passage to the American among Europeans, teaching al- guns is a gallery, blasted with powder, three hunmost of necessity, knowledge more or less dred feet long, and large enough for the passing of important respecting our national existence a wagon; imperfectly lighted by the embrasures; and where nothing is to be seen, but heavy cannon and condition, but may impress upon him- (mounted, according to custom, on iron carriages), self, and afterwards upon his countrymen, bolted magazines, and piles of shot. This passage juster views and a deeper sense of the ac- terminates at a shaft like a well, down which we tual relation which exists between us and went, in total darkness, by a winding staircase, Europe;-of the importance of our ex-below. Cornwallis' Hall, into which these steps where our footsteps echoed like guns, above and ample, and the national responsibility which led us, is a room about forty feet across, supplied grows out of our national prosperity. with a magazine, and three pieces of cannon.

or a limit.


Wyllys' Gallery-a powerful battery, capable of

Going up the dark staircase again, and walking through a level passage, more than a hundred feet in length, we came to the brow of the precipice, whence a breastwork and several forty-two pounders which may be a hundred and fifty feet high, and overlook the bay, and at a great distance below, the Moorish castle; while the peaks of the mountains above, seemed yet as distant as ever. There are also two or three mortars mounted here, of the diameter of thirteen inches. There is one in the garrison, half an inch, or an inch larger; and that, a soldier told us, was taken from the Spanish, and was the largest ever made.

Our guide now led us up still further; and at length, passing between broken rocks, some of which jutted out overhead, and made a roof for the edge of a precipice, five or six hundred feet high; path, we suddenly found ourselves on the very and leaning upon a slight railing, looked down upon the Neutral Ground, which stretched out in a sandy plain, on the left to the bay, and on the right to the Mediterranean; while in front, it was bounded by hills and mountains, in the neighbouring parts of

This good work, the book now under notice has done, or at least may do to a very considerable degree; although the author may be surprised at our thinking his journal capable of so much usefulness. He seems to have intended little more than to make an amusing work, which should give to those who could not travel in Italy, a correct though very general idea of that country; and he has certainly offered to the public a book which all will find entertaining. But he has done something more; he enjoyed very peculiar opportunities for acquiring much interesting information, and availed himself of them fully. He was in Italy when the Austrians were advancing upon Naples; he journeyed from that kingdom through the principal cities of Italy, to Piedmont, as the invading army was marching south, and arrived at Turin just as the revolution in that country broke out. He travelled By a dark hole just at hand, we entered the in the public conveyances, and stopped at Windsor Gallery, which is formed on the same farm-houses and the common inns, and was plan as Wyllys'. It is, however, at a greater thus brought into close contact with many of height-quite out of the reach of an enemy's artilthat class who are of necessity the most nu-lery, and about five hundred feet in length. The merous in the body politic, and who are apt larity of the rocky surface, through which their emguns too, are larger, and on account of the irreguto say what they think or feel with little dis- brasures are cut, the gallery is sometimes quite dark, guise or reserve; and his free and frequent and so irregular, that it is difficult to proceed. We conversations are very pleasantly related. next reached the most admirable part of these Our author sailed from New York on the magnificent works-St George's Hall. Externally, 19th of October, 1820, and arrived at Gib-side of the precipice, which the Rock of Gibraltar it has the appearance of a round tower, against the raltar on the 29th of November. The for- presents towards the Neutral Ground. This is tifications of this celebrated Rock are very partly the effect of art: but the skill of the engi strikingly described. We do not recollect neer has been chiefly devoted to forming a beautito have met with so full an account of these ful circular apartment within, about forty feet in works ;-which prove, perhaps, more than diameter, and vaulted overhead. The floor is perfectly smooth, and the walls are pierced for six any other works of art, how much men sixty-four pounders. The care taken to keep every may accomplish, when their ingenuity and thing in perfect order, together with the shaft cut


through the top to let off the smoke, the smooth- | ness of the walls, and the agreeable light admitted by the embrasures, are calculated to please the eye, after it has become accustomed to the rough ness and gloom of the long galleries. Through the embrasure on the right, we looked along the perpendicular side of the rock, broken indeed, yet on the whole surprisingly smooth for a natural surface, and rising to a sublime height, like the wall of a colossal city. The gun which stood beside us was so balanced, that the guide, with the strength of one hand, pointed it down almost perpendicularly; and such is the regularity of the precipice, that a ball fired from it would have almost grazed it the whole distance, and yet have met with no obstruction, till it fell upon the heap of loose stones, which has accumulated upon the plain below. While we were in quarantine, we had often noticed a bright spot, like a window, near the line of junction between the rock and Cornwallis' Hall, which now proved to have been occasioned by two opposite embrasures, through which we had seen the sky: for standing in a line between them, my eyes ranged over the quarantine anchorage, and soon singled out our vessel among a crowd of merchantmen below. On the Neutral Ground, are the remains of several old entrenchments, raised on various occasions; and though they appeared like works of but little consequence at that distance, had been important batteries. The serjeant was familiar with many points of local history, and had numerous anecdotes at command. He pointed out particularly one of the breastworks, which the Spaniards erected, to annoy the Windsor Gallery: but it was found impossible for the guns to carry so high, and the only point within their range was an insignificant battery at the water's edge, under the north end of the rock, far on our left. In the mean time, the tremendous artillery we had just been reviewing, had poured down such a shower of heavy shot, that the position was very speedily abandoned.

foot of Vesuvius, the place where the lava first ap- | our companions happened to be present the other
pears, smoke was rising in clouds, which sometimes day, when it was presented and paid, at an English
shaded the sun. There we scrambled up a heap banker's. We inquired what was the news from
of loose rocks, along the top of which was slowly Austria, and received for answer, that an army was
flowing a stream of half-fluid matter, in a ditch on the march against the kingdom of Naples, and
three or four feet wide, self-formed, but perfectly that, on this account, he was determined to return
straight and regular. It was encrusted with a porous, to Rome as soon as possible, allowing only a little
black surface: but whenever a cloud passed over, time for seeing the curiosities in the neighbour-
or rather when the smoke of Vesuvius rolled for an hood."
instant between us and the sun, it brightened like He determines to go in a vettura, the
red-hot iron, or a rattle-snake suddenly enraged, common public vehicle of the country, and
while a strange crackling sound passed over it that
made us start. Quantities of the lava were easily tak-leaves his friends-who happened to pre-
en out with a stick, but the heat was so great as to fer security and speed to the best opportu-
make the operation somewhat inconvenient. It nities of becoming acquainted with the
was so hot as to make the wood blaze; but soon country they passed through-to go on with
grew hard, and in a few minutes cold enough to the corriere (mail-carrier), who would ar-
handle. While thus employed, we heard repeated rive in much less time. But we shall not
sounds like distant thunder, which we supposed to
be the guns discharged from the ships in the bay, have room to follow our traveller through
though our guide declared they came from the his whole route. From Rome he went to
Florence, Genoa, and Turin, stopping a
considerable time wherever he found any
thing of interest enough to compensate for
the delay. He forgot not that he travelled
in a land at once cumbered and sanctified
by accumulated ruins, which may be said
to veil its actual condition with the shad-
ows of past greatness; and that around him
were the most beautiful works of ancient
or modern art. But no deceptive refer-
ence to the past, appears to have prevented
his forming just views of the present cir-
cumstances and prospects of Italy, nor was
he led away by statues, pictures, and pala-
ces, from a close observance of the condi-
tion, the habits, and the character of the
people. Whoever reads this "Tour in
Italy," may learn from it many things
which will help to answer the interesting
inquiry, how far this people are prepared
for liberty like ours, and what the farther
course of preparation must be. We will
quote some remarks relative to this subject
from the journey to Caserta.

About thirty yards above this place, was a heap of rocks fifty feet high, which marked the spot where the lava burst from the ground. Smoke was passing off by a hole in the top, while the current flowed from its base. Within a short distance, there were several other mounds of this description, each of which was performing on a small scale the work of a volcano, and was in fact a mimic Vesuvius. By an accumulation of stones, the passage gradually becomes clogged, and at length the lava finds a new vent, where it forms a new channel and a new cone.

Through a hole, we saw the lava just as it issued from the mountain-there it was, fifteen feet below us, in a cauldron it had formed, eddying and almost boiling, like melted iron, shining in its own infernal light, and possessing an aspect unnaccountably dreadful, as if it had brought along some of the horrors of the bottomless pit. Here, we were A flight of steps, cut into the solid stone, brought told, a Frenchman lost his life a few days before. us to the verge of the precipice, on a level with the Whether his death was accidental or intended, we top of Cornwallis' Hall. It is surmounted by a could not satisfy ourselves. Our guide, the brother conical cap, through the centre of which is the of him who had accompanied the Frenchman, dechimney, which lets off the smoke of the guns. As clared he threw himself in: but nobody, I think, we had become confused by the various objects we could look down this chasm and believe it. That had seen, and the irregular manner in which we he perished here is certain however; and the Neahad gained this spot; and besides, could see noth-politan saw his remains re-appear below, and float ing above us but a single mass of rock, we suppos- down the current!" ed ourselves on the summit: but the guide desired us to follow him, and judge for ourselves whether we were yet at the top. We accordingly stepped confess it was somewhat appalling to observe that upon a crag which projected near us-though I the cleft between, over which we had to spring, was bottomed by the Neutral Ground. Looking up, we saw the North Pinnacle-a mass of grey rocks, almost over our heads, and about a thousand feet above us, which, so suddenly discovered, had a most singular effect upon our minds. We seemed to be shrinking to the size of pigmies, and felt at the same time, so strong a disposition to contemplate the vast magnitudes around us, that, for fear of forgetting ourselves, and falling from the shelf on which we stood, we lay down, and grasped with all our might a ringbolt, the only thing we could lay hold on. For a moment, the crag seemed to be shaken, and almost to dance in the air like a bird's nest in a high wind, as if separating itself from the precipice.'

Thence he sails for Naples, and arrives there so as to finish his quarantine before the carnival begins. Of course, our travveller climbs up Vesuvius, as in duty bound; and from his story of this adventure, we extract the following lively account of the horrors, if not the dangers, which oppose the ascent.

"The guide now led us towards the foot of Vesuvius properly so called, which rises, like an immense ant heap, about twelve hundred feet high; and all the way we trod on newly-formed lava. Steams were issuing out on all sides; but at the

Pompeii and Herculaneum were visited, and all their disinterred memorials of byAfter seeing every thing in and about Nagone days and nations amply examined. ples worth seeing, our author travels on to Rome;-being encouraged to pursue his route by such enticing circumstances as the following.

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"As we were leaving home this morning, we met
one of our friends going to our lodgings, with an
American gentleman just arrived from Rome. He
was in the dress of a diligent and industrious trav-
eller, stepped quick, and I thought had a hurried
expression in his eye and manner, as if his journey
were not quite finished. We inquired the news.
I narrowly escaped falling into the hands of the
robbers at Terracina,' said he, in a way that made
us start. They came down from the mountains,
night before last, and took off fifteen or twenty
boys from a school. The schoolmaster and a sol-
dier were killed in making resistance, and the coun-
try was in a state of alarm. The courier made the
postillion set the horses into a gallop, as soon as he
heard the news, and they ran all the way to Fondi.
There is very little pleasure in travelling that road,
I assure you. You hardly see a man in all that
tract of country, who does not look as if he were
half an assassin.' This intelligence was not very
encouraging, particularly when we recollected that
two Englishmen had lately been taken by this same
band of robbers, and liberated only in considera-
tion of a large sum of money. They had released
one of them with a draft from Lord, whom
they detained, for 2000 Napoleons; and one of

"This tract of country formed part of the 'Campania Felix' of the Romans, and to my eyes bears no indications of having lost any of that fertility, in a good degree the luxuries supplied by this soil, which in ancient times rendered it famous for the richness and abundance of its productions. It was which rendered the bay of Naples the resort of the wealthy Romans under the empire; and I should be slow to believe that the soil alone has degenerated. In Modern days it has been repeatedly sprinkled with volcanic ashes from Mount Vesuvius; but this should increase its fertility, for the best wine in the neighbourhood is made on the mountain it. self. No, it is the inhabitants, or rather I should say the government under which they live, that have produced the change. The labourers, apparently living under the full rigor of the feudal and the pontifical systems combined, are crowded together in little dirty villages, basely ignorant and humiliated, without the power and without the disposition to improve: while the mellow and luscious fruits of their toil are sent to the palace and villa of the indolent and vicious landholder, or the overflowing treasury of some church or conventthe abodes of sloth and vacuity. ****

The villages through which we passed bore the strongest marks of a poor and degraded population. Some of them must contain five or six thousand people; yet the houses were low and small, and many of them, I will venture to say, not built since the discovery of America. The windows showed vacant and dirty faces, the doors ill-furnished rooms, and heavy stone walls and floors deeply worn by the feet and hands of numerous generations. Nothing like a new house, nor even an improved or a repaired one was to be seen; and I made up my mind while passing on, that not one of

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