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bronght into action ; and wild beasts, venomous their general character is diversified by local cir- they do; but the Colombian government reptiles, and tormenting insects, enter equally into cumstances, we may observe that the inhabitants of are not, therefore, to be considered so absoa system which man vainly imagines constructed the coast line, and especially of the principal seafor

his peculiar use and convenience. The climate, port towns, are the most refined and intelligent: lutely devoid of common sense and prudence though hot, is neither so unhealthy nor debilitating that the inhabitants of the interior and mountain as the Colonel supposes. They might find as that of the seacoast, the air being refreshed and country, particularly of New Grenada, are the most in the doings of other American congresses, purified by the strong breezes blowing constantly simple in their habits, the least crafty in their dis- which are admitted to be the wisest in the over this grassy ocean, which extends not less than positions, brit ignorant, timid, selfish,

and inhospit

: world, some enactments on a principle not 300 miles in every direction betwixt the Andes and able. The inhabitants of the plains form a totally the Orinoco.

distinct class, whose characteristics, as their

modē very different from their own. We preOf the vegetable productions of this coun- of life, are peculiarly their own. Nothing is, ac- sume, moreover, that Colonel Hall has try it is unnecessary to speak. It is obvious, pacific than the life of a herdsman, nothing less native land, as well as other matters, in

cording to an European view of the subject, more heard of such things as corn laws in his that there are few, wbich might not find a likely to engender ferocity or military habits ; it is regard to which the imperial parliament itcongenial soil in some part of this exten, sufficient, however, to have once witnessed the self is somewhat in the rear of the march of sive territory. Among the precious animal mode of tending cattle in South America, to form a products are the pearls of Margaritta and different opinion. The immense herds raised in political science. boundless and unenclosed plains, are gathered,

This work will be most interesting to Goagira, the fisheries of which are now penned, or conducted, as change of pasture may emigrants, for whose use indeed it is more monopolized by a British company. The require, by half-naked horsemen, each armed with particularly intended. It will, therefore, be mineral treasures are gold, silver, platina, a lance, whose rapid movements, shouts, and wild more valuable in Great Britain than it can and emeralds.

demeanour, suggest the idea of a body of Tartar cavSo much for the country, which, it must alry. The untamed nature of the cattle themselves, be in this country, for few, we imagine, will be admitted, is a fairer land than our own.

the attacks of wild beasts to which they are exposed, be so Quixotic as to leave a land like ours, We have next to inquire concerning its in: quently to be led, with a variety of circumstances residence in the semi-barbarous republics

the deep and rapid rivers over which they are fre- whatever may be its disadvantages, for a habitants and government, and here we shall essential to the mode of life of the Llaneros, or of South America. To the indigent agrifind the superiority no longer visible. The Plainsmen, all require and produce those habits by culturists of many portions of England, character of the former is various, and is which they are distinguished; besides being the thus described by our author.

breeders and keepers of the cattle, they are also Colombia will doubtless have charms, and

their butchers, both from necessity and amusement. another century will probably find, on the Long habits of slavery, and oppression, partially Their chief, we may say their only, pastime, is fertile plains of Venezuela and New Grencounteracted by a feverish interval of liberty, ill drawn froin this source : to throw a Lazo, orada, other men and other principles from understood and imperfectly enjoyed ; the almost coiled rope, round a bull's horns while at his speed, those which have so long disgraced and total want of education, and absence of that moral to pierce him in the spine, or hamstring bim till stimulus, which, under the name of honour or char- they have occasion to kill him; to flay, quarter, and abused this garden of the world. acter, forces every respectable individual of Euro: divide his quivering carcase with all the technicality Many in this country, we suppose, will be pean society to a line of conduct conformable with of our old European huntsman, is the pride and al- curious to learn more particulars of the his situation; all these circumstances have produced most the sole enjoyment of their lives. The revo actual state of the South American prova negativeness or debility both in thought and ac- lution thus found them a ready-made body of irreg- inces, than we have been able to give in ion, which renders them troublesome to deal with, ular cavalry; a popular chief sprang upito give this short sketch; and they will find in the and unfit to be relied on. It is, in fact, impossible impetus and direction to their native spirit, and a to calculate their behaviour except you could be very short time beheld them excellent Guerillas, account of Colonel Hall, a great deal of incertain of the last idea which has occupied their and not less expert thieves and cut-throats—in their formation, which cannot, as far as we know, imagination, for the feeling of interest most imme- favour we must revoke our negation as to the natu- be found any where else, and much of it of conduct. Does a merchant contract with a planter haps, in the world, a race of people who shed hu- clude this article with an anecdote, which diately present is pretty

generally decisive of their fal cruelty of the Colombians. There is not, per a very interesting character. We shall confor a quantity of coffee or cocoa at a certain rate?- man blood with more indifference or with slighter in vain would he suppose the bargain concluded, temptation ; it is difficult to say by what good illustrates the nature of the care which the should another purchaser appear ind offer the qualities, if we except courage, and a strong love Holy Inquisition exercised over the morals slightest advance of price. The readiness with of independence, their defects are redeemed or of the subjects, under the ancient regime. which they break a promise or an agreement, can qualified ; pacific virtues they have none; it is only be equalled by ihe sophistical ingenuity with fortunate, however, that the natural abundance of

* A painter in Bogota, of the name of Antonio which they defend themselves for having done so. the plains tends constantly to diminish their dispo-Garcia, had two paintings from which he used to In this respect they seem a nation of lawyers, who, sition towards a life of savage marauding; were it study—a Hercules spinning by the side of Omphale, * with ease, twist' words and meanings as they otherwise, the Llaneros would be to Colombia, what and Endymion sleeping on the breast of Diana : the please. ' As the reproach of being a liar is the last the Moors of the Nubian

desert are to Egypt and Commissary of the Inquisition was informed of the insult which can be offered or endured among free the interior of Africa ?

circumstance on the ground that the pictures were

indecent searched his cabinet, and had them cut in men, so is the term lie the last to be used in decent

The government is framed according to pieces, which the owner was allowed to keep.' conversation; here, on the contrary, not only is the expressiorf a good one, and adapted to the meridian the central system, and is much better in of the genteelest society, but the reproach of being theory than in practice. The distance of a liar may be safely cast on friend or foe with as the capital from the various provinces, the Missionary Journal and Memoir of the little offence given or taken as the term Rake' or difficulty of travelling, but above all, the "Prodigal would cause in a fashionable , London character of a people just emerged from the

Rev. Joseph Wolf, Missionary to the

Jews. Written by himself. Revised and circle. It is indeed a truth worth a thousand homilies' in defence of liberty, that without it there most degrading slavery, will probably long edited by John Bayford, Esq. F. S. A. can be no virtue.

prevent any government, and much more a New York 1824. 12mo. pp. 332. "The most pleasing trait in the character of the republican one, from possessing that effi- THERE are few things in which sensible Colombian Creoles is good nature. It is easy to ciency, which is necessary for protecting and conscientious men differ so much as in live with them if you require little of them: they individual rights against the encroachments their views of the utility and tendency of have little or no active benevolence, because such must result from strong powers of imagination and

craft or power. Indeed, as our author missions. Different minds may, and as they reflection. But they are not vindictive, for revenge observes, the forms of government in the are impressed with different convictions, is both a strong and a permanent feeling; nor are South American provinces must be consid- must have different opinions of the characthey cruel, although this assertion may seem para- ered as yet, as experimental. Liberty, edu- ter and amount of the good and evil from doxical to those acquainted with the history of the cation, and the emigration of foreigners, which they spring, and which they effect. revolution, but we must distinguish between cruelties which are the fruit of a savage nature, and such will

, in time, enable them to establish one But this difference of opinion must be conas weakness itself may give birth to, when

that shall be better adapted to their circum- fined to their use as religious missions; for Roused up to too much wrath which follows o'er stances than any which has hitherto been their influence upon the interests of litera

in operation. Colonel Hall criticises some ture will receive unqualified acknowledgNeither are they in general proud or assuming, ex

of the prohibitory regulations of the congress ment and commendation from all who deem cept when they have obtained place or power, on with severity, supposing them to evince an these interests of value. ln estimating which ocensions they are apt to verify the musty ignorance or contempt of the clearest prin- their efficacy and importance with respect proverb, . Set a beggar on horseback." As far as ciples of political economy, and doubtless I to religion, many considerations should be


grown fears.'

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taken into view; for, while all admit that mano, with the intent of becoming a mem- | walk eight or nine hours. In the first month of my tares are sown with the wheat, who re- ber of the Propaganda Society. Before stay in that seminary, I went with the others to see member that the missionaries , and they long he became convinced that popery was VII, and I considered the canonization not as a

the canonization of Alfonsio Maria Ligori by Pius who send them, are subject to human frail. not the best form of the religion of Christ; beatification and sanctification, but only as a repreties, and do not believe that the mere send- he suffered some petty persecution in Rome, sentation, or a description of the grace of God ing or going on this errand purifies from left the papal court in disgrace, and arriv- working in the individul; but I found afterwards, all error,-it is no less true that the Word ed in England in 1819. He was recom- that my idea was not according to the Romish sys. of God is thus scattered abroad among the mended to the London Society for Promot- tem. In Rome, they divide the canonization into nations, and light from Heaven made to ing Christianity among the Jews, and by second Sảntificazione: both acts cost the family of

two acts, calling the first act Beatificazione, and the penetrate the darkness. Bnt they who them was sent to Cambridge, and afterwards the saint a great price. The words beatificazione believe that these religious missions are in to the Missionary College at Stansted, in and santifazione correspond entirely to the Latin efficient as to their principal purpose, or Sussex, at which places he remained two words, beatum facere, and sanctum facere aliquem. that they call into exercise bad passions as years, employed in studying the oriental But how can I believe that a pope can make saints ?

since Rome herself confesses that popes may burn well as good ones, and help to propagate languages. In the summer of 1821, he left

in hell. mischievous error, will still admit that their England for Gibraltar; thence he proceed- In November, the Exercitia Spiritualia (which influence upon literature is decidedly bene- ed to Malta, Alexandria, to Jerusalem and always precede the public lectures, and every ficial, whether they suppose this good ef different parts of Palestine; at the close of solemn festival) began; a strange clergyman, or fect to be dearly or cheaply purchased. the next year he returned to Malta, and some monk, is invited at such a time to preach to These remarks were suggested to us by soon after went to Palestine a second time, lege are obliged to observe a strict silence two days,

the pupils about their duty. The pupils of the colMr Wolf's Journal. It exhibits a young with two missionaries from this country, and are ordered to meditate and to go every day man of bright intellect, acquiring by his The bulk of the volume is filled with the three times into the chapel, to hear the sermons or own efforts almost a “ gift of tongues," that narrative of his first visit to Palestine, exhortations of the missionary. The act begins he might be fit for the missionary work. which is contained in bis Journal and let with holy song, Veni Sancte Spiritus, reple tuorum He is then engaged in collating the Scrip-ters. Our limits will not permit us to corda fidelium, et tui amoris ignem in eis accende, tures and commentaries upon them in va- make an analysis of this Journal,-- which, faciem terræ.' I heard sometimes, but not often,

emitte spiritum tuum et creabuntur, et renovabis rious languages, in scrutinizing them rigor- we believe, most readers would find inter- sermons very fine, and according to the Gospel, ously, in disputing upon the remote deriva- esting. It exhibits the character of Mr especially when Prince O.

, the Stolberg of Rome, tions of words and obscure shades of mean- Wolf in a very favourable light, and proves preached to us in the seminary. He unites the zeal ing, and labouring to understand the pre- him to be possessed of uncommon talents of Elias and true Christianity, with great worldly cise force and purport of expressions, and and attainments. Mr Wolf's sincerity can- and love for the Gospel, the character of a man of

possessions; and adds to an unquestionable zeal to translate them exactly from one tongue not be doubted; and his representation of learning and philosophy. into another,—and all this with a zeal and the state and disposition of the Jews in va- The lectures upon Church History occupy four industry, which, were he a mere scholar, rious parts of the world, encourages the years, and yet they only come down to the fourwould ensure bim great fame. But we belief, that a spirit of inquiry, a willing teenth century; Dissertations about celibacy, the may leave the instance before us, which ness to know the doctrines and evidence of holy wars, and the infallibility of the popes, and

reconciling the fallibility of Pope Honorius with has many parallels, and advert to a few the christian religion is beginping to mani- the doctrine of infallibility, take up the greatest part facts of common notoriety. For almost all fest itself among them.

of the history. The professor's prudence surprised that we know of the twelve hundred dia- We do not know that any part of the me, when he lectured on the history of Henry IV. lects of North America, we are indebted work interested us more than those pages the latter against the emperor, he did it; but when

and Gregory VII. So long as he was able to defend to missionaries. Marsbman and Morrison of Mr Wolf's own memoir, which disclose he came to facts mentioned of the pope which he have brought the Chinese language and the actual condition of the papal court, could not defend, he merely read the history, and literature within reach of European schol- and makes us acquainted with the internal left us to form our own judgment. I only found ars; the obscure and almost forgotten Cop- economy, the customs, purposes, and prac. one amongst the pupils of the Seminary, who had a tic language is made to yield up its ele- tices of the seminaries and societies of spirit of tolerance, and knowledge of the Bible. ments to the uses of philology; the anoma- Rome. The following extracts are from

I frequently heard the noise of a crowd of people lous signs and exponents of the Chinese this part of the work.

flocking to the church called Rotunda, and exclaimwords are brought to illustrate the hiero- I entered the Seminario Romano the fifth of ing, " The mother of God opens her eyes and works glyphics of Egypt; and there is scarcely a September, 1816, being twenty years of age. i miracles.". The clergy send soldiers to guard the corner of the earth so remote or so obscure, received a long violet blue garment, and a triangy- image which represents the Virgin; and to deceive that sometbing of its peculiar dialect may time the vacations of the schools took place, which collects money for the mother of God. It is true

lar hat like the other pupils of that college. At this the people, one priest reads mass, and another not be known by him who wishes to learn continued till the month of November: and I found the greatest part of the clergy said to me that this it. Of oriental literature it is peculiarly not so much edification in the Seminario Romano, was only the fanaticism of the people; but why true, that the study of every department of | as in the shops of the German artists. The Semi- does the pope approve such an idolatrous fanatiit is facilitated by the means which mission- nario has, besides the master and vice-master, a cism, and why do they send soldiers to the altar of ary efforts have wrought out, and which, prefect also, who was a priest like the former, but a that image, and why do priests

collect money for the but for these efforts, woold not probably day in their walks, and when they assist any bishop the altar of that image, to show respect and hon

man of no talent. He accompanies the pupils every support of that image, and to celebrate mass before have existed. Again, missionary societies or cardinal, or the pope, in any ceremony. He calls our to it? The vicar-general, in a printed declarahave established presses among ihe princi- the pupils every day for the rosary prayer, and tion, approved the miracles, said to be wrought by pal heathen nations. What incalculable closes the door of the pupils' room in the evening, the image of the Virgin. advantages may be expected from this ! and calls them up in the morning. This is the In the month of October, 1819, all the pupils Why may not Asia profit by the exercise whole duty; he receives

for it two crowns per went to Tivoli, where they have a very fine coun of this wonderful art, almost as Europe has the doors, and awakes the pupils, one of them is grotto of Neptune, the ruins of the barracks of the

month, and his board. When the prefect opens try-house. I saw there the villa of Mæcenas, the profited by it? At all events, it is a great obliged to recite the Litany of the Virgin Mary, army of Trajan, and the ruins of the temple of the thing to have put so powerful an instru- and they are all obliged to cry, "Ora pro nobis, Sybil; and I read Horace's poetry in one of his ment into operation.

which they do mechanically, and without devotion! own country houses. I went one day, with the Joseph Wolf was born in 1796, in Wei- After that, they go into the private chapel, and read other pupils, to the church of the triars of that

a meditation taken from the book of the Jesuit town. They were then celebrating ne festival of lersbach, in Bavaria. His father was a Segneri, which contains some good things, together St Franciscus Assissi. At the monks of Rome Rabbi; and intending his son to be a very with Mohammedan notions and abominable super- are accusioned to preach sermons on the day of orthodox Jew, he educated him according stitions. The description of hell and paradise here their patriarch, which they call Panegyrica. I ly. But Joseph was disposed, while yet

a given, is the same I once read in a superstitious heard ihe panegyricum of si Franciscus of Assissi, boy, to become a Christian; when seven- Aster meditation they go to hear mass in another all the miracles of St Franciscus, and all the pains

Rabbinical book, and in a surah of the Alcoran! composed by a franciscan friar! He enumerated teen years old he was baptized, and three private chapel, and then breakfast; and in the days of his body, where they observed the five wounds years after he entered the Seminario Ro-1 when public lectures are given, they are obliged to of Christ. And, after the acconnt of these mira

their several errors in opinion and in lan-, and, in a word, admirably suited, I think, which not only debases that, but which guage, and rectifies the whole matter in an to make easy, pleasant, and intelligible the will also throw its tinge of gall over all intelligible manner. The utmost pains are highly important subjects of his inquiry 1, the honourable ambition and enterprise of taken to cultivate in the pupils the habit of know of few American specimens in didac- our lives. Oar elementary instructers expressing their opinions freely; and, under tic writing superior to it. You will see it, should look carefully to this. The rod is a the tuition of a competent and faithful in- by a single glance over any of the pages, to much better corrective of indolence, than structer, how can they avoid learning to be of the author's own composition. And it is bad passions are. Indeed the latter remedy converse with ease and propriety on the deserving of the greater praise in Mr Park- is incomparably worse, on all accounts, numerous topics which will be introduced hurst, because he is evidently a devoted than the disease can possibly become. in the course of a regular education? How admirer of Dr Brown's Lectures on the You will observe that I confine my refew persons ever learn the art of conversing Philosophy of the Human Mind, which are marks here to the use of emulation in early well; and how little is done by common in their style extremely wordy, prolix, and intellectual education. It is because I modes of education to cultivate it. It can- repetitious,-faults, however, much more would not banish it from the system entirenot be doubted, that the method adopted by excusable in that mode of composition than ly. Very noble, generous feelings are Pestalozzi is admirably calculated to im- in any other.

sometimes awakened and brought forth by prove this faculty,-a talent which, as social When I have said thus much in favour of it. There is scarcely a single game of beings, is the most important with which we the book, I am sorry to add, that it is the skill or of ingenuity, or of any interesting are endowed.

greatest and perhaps the only encomium it yet honourable competition, where it does deserves as a whole. There is very little, not prevail. It forms the mainspring of

The reasonElements of Moral Philosophy : comprising if any, original matter in it.

some of our most innocent social amusethe Theory of Morals and Practical ings and conclusions, and indeed the order ments, where nothing but the kindest moEthics. By John L. Parkhurst. Con- and arrangement of Brown and Paley form tives can have play. They owe to it, incord, N. H. 1825. 12mo. Pp. 257.

the great body of the work. Copious ex. deed, all their value, all their delight.

tracts are made continually from those Higher purposes too, have, without doubt, (We sent this volume to a lover of moral phi- highly popular writers. Page after page, been generously accomplished by it. The lososphy for a Review, and in answer to our re- nay, chapter after chapter are taken from classical scholar will scarcely be willing to quest he wrote us the following private letter, which them almost entire; and you will scarcely believe that the rival competitors at the we have since obtained leave of him to lay before open the volume casually without lighting Olympic games secretly envied and hated our readers.]

upon some quotation or reference to them, each other. And perhaps I may say gen

or without perceiving that the author's re- erally that comparatively late in life, when

March, 1825. marks are based altogether upon their the moral character is cast, or at least when DEAR SIR,

maxims and principles. So striking is this the feelings have acquired decisively a I happened to be out of town when in fact, that it appears at first sight rather kind, social, affectionate tendency, it may your little volume was left at my room, and designed for a compilation, or an abstract always be introduced with much advantage, it was not till last evening that I had an with a commentary upon them, than for an and made a very powerful incentive to inopportunity of cutting the leaves, and read- original work itself. It is true, very gen- dustry and enterprise. It is rather a fault ing it, or rather of running it very hastily erous credit is given in the mean time. in Mr Parkhurst, I think, that he makes no over.

The author seldom takes without acknowl. distinctions of this sort, but wishes the prinIt is not in my power to give you a prop- edging to the full amount of his obligation. ciple banished altogether. His reasonings er review of it at present. The innumera- This is but a poor apology however. His upon the subject are indeed able and inble reflections which always crowd upon readers will scarcely excuse him for calling genious. I would advise you to take into the mind whenever a subject in ethics or on them to read over again such long, de- your review large extracts from this chapmental philosophy is fairly presented to it, tailed, elaborate discussions of other phi- ter, as much the most favourable specimen I have no leisure now to digest and arrange, losophers, after the promise he makes to of the writer's talents and good feelings, and if I were to pour them out to you in de- them on his title-page.

and excellent taste in the didactic style of tail, they would probably overflow your There are two or three honourable ex. composition.* pages, and you must publish a number of ceptions to the censures I have just now Generally, however, when Mr Parkhurst your Gazette estra,—and extra tedious, I past,-exceptions which prove the author am sure. Indeed, it seems to me quite im- to have resources within himself, and

The following are the concluding remarks of possible, within the narrow limits of a pub- must make us lament the more that he the excellent chapter above referred to.

VII. Concluding remarks. lication such as yours, to do any thing like should choose to throw himself so 1. Emulation, in every degree and in every justice to a theme of this magnitude. The tirely upon those furnished him by other form, is criminal

, and ought never to have a place subject is altogether too large for its grasp. people. I have now in my eye particu- in the breast. This is evident from what has alIt is most grand and comprehensive,-em-larly the chapter on “ Emulation,” in the ready been said; but the importance of the subject bracing the greatest number and variety of part which is headed “ Practical Ethics." will justify us in bringing it more distinctly into

view. questions, all equally interesting to every This is very excellent. The nature and Emulation is a selfish principle ; and is inconclass of your readers, and yet all to be dis- origin of that feeling,-its union with sistent with the exercise of pure and universal becussed in an abstract, refined, and some pride, vanity, hatred, and low ambition,– nevolence. If it were an innocent or a benevolent what metaphysical manner. I shall at- its dangerous tendency ;-that it leads to, principle, a failure of success in striving to excel, tempt nothing of this sort now. All you awakens, and gradually brings into action would not produce envy and hatred. It is right to must expect from me is my idea of the gen- the most malignant passions of our nature, right to do this with feelings which can prevent us

desire and seek our own happiness; but it is not eral character of the book you have sent and that, by its violence and exclusive from rejoicing in the happiness of others, even me. Perhaps this may save you the trouble occupation of the mind, it frequently de- when they are more successful and more happy of reading it so attentively, though I ad- feats its own great purposes of improve than ourselves. That emulation is inconsistent vise you, as my friend, to burn up these ment and supremacy,-are here in these with benevolence, is a proposition which is capable remarks, take it in hand, and give it a pages finely set forth and demonstrated. certain station, in respect to talents, knowledge,

of demonstration. Suppose that a man occupies a thorough examination yourself.

Certainly this principle is used injudicious reputation, and usefulness. To see others inferior But to the work itself. And, in the first ly in our own common systems of early in- to him in these respects, gives a pleasure, which place, the author deserves a great deal of tellectual education. If the head is en- ceases as soon as they are raised to an equality praise for the style in which he offers it to lightened, it is at the expense of the heart. with him, and is converied into pain as soon as they the public. This is pure and classic,-sim- We can hardly pronounce knowledge to all the while, remains the same. The pleasure

are raised above him,-although his own station, ple and unaffected, -rich, without being be a source of enjoyment when thus ac. arises from seeing others destitute of a good which encumbered with superfluous ornaments ; quired. There is an alloy mingled with it, I he enjoys ; ceases as soon as the saine blessings


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become immense, infinite, if we extended it over all your surprise will not only subside, but, I trust, them be sustained as much as possible by the objects which surround us, and we can come at; must entirely vanish.

vely a high interest in the subject itself on which and for this very reason we shall be constrained to I shall not insist op remarking, how extensi limit our excursions.

the foregoing operations will necessarily unfold and they are exercised, and as little as the case The form or shape of an object is nothing else but perfect my pupils' natural powers of observing. will admit, by a love of excelling others, by a modification or a quality of an object. But this examining, analyzing, judging, and speaking; he fear of punishment, or hope of reward. quality being of a peculiar kind, and highly inter- cause those who see clear, will easily perceive it; To preserve in the mind of the scholar esting to us, the consideration of the different whereas the blind will remain blind, were they this genuine interest in his studies, there shapes, under which nature and art present their lighted by a thousand suus,

must be more activity, both bodily and menproductions to our eyes, shall form a separate, and

In proceeding with these exercises, and tal, in his school exercises than is found unconsequently our sixth exercise. Wbat is the form of this table

, of such a finger, of our heads, of an all that follow, the golden rule is festina der the common system. He is left to drill arm, leg, thigh, eye, nose, tongue ? Which bodies lente-hasten slowly. The scholar must and drudge alone, with little of that proper are spherical, cylindrical, triangular, circular, conic, leave nothing behind, but make thorough excitement which is produced by free conprisraatic? What object, or what part of such an work as far as he goes. It is obvious to re-versation, and by fainiliar illustrations of object, has the form of a bell, a tube, a bottle ?

mark, that the above lessons might be com- what is learned. Besides this, the studies In our seventh operation we shall subject to our menced at an earlier age.

in our common schools are so mixed and examination the different functions which organi

It will be objected, that this method blended, without any reference to their real eal bodies and their parts perform. The various functions performed by our eyes

, ears, mouth, would require more instructers than the connexion and dependance, and so little tongue, teeth, nose, hands, feet, legs, arms, shoul present system. This, however, would not time allowed for the daily exercise in any ders will peculiarly occupy our attention. These necessarily be the case. It would require, one branch, that there is no time nor opobservations we shall not forget to extend to the that the scholars should be of nearly equal portunity given for exciting an interest in plants, and their parts

. My readers must perceive, age and attainments; but the number of any thing; but the scholar is dismissed with that in proportion as we advance, our investigations these, to which one instructer could profit- an uncouth variety of incoherent notions, become interesting.

Our eighth exercise will be destined to observe ably attend, might equal that in our com- destitute of order and affinity, and possessand investigate the use we make, and can make, of mon schools. In all recitations the scholars ing as little tendency to any given point as the many things which surround us every where reply simultaneously or alternately, but each the rays of light reflected from a grater. Thus, for instance, we shall attempt to determine, one frequently undergoes a critical cxamin. Under the Pestalozzian system all his inby the means of a hammer, pen, knife,

bellows, ation, to determine whether he clearly com- terests are engaged in subjects immediately scissors, spade, axe, scythe, plough, hoe. 'We shall prehends the exercises which have passed. connected with his studies; and these are point out the use we inake, and can make, of iron, when the instructer has reason to suspect so varied, and possess so much of practical steel, silver, gold, copper, ashes, lime, chalk, wood, that any one of his pupils has been inatten- use and living interest, as to satisfy him stand, bottle, glass; of pears, apples, peaches, cher to the objects which have been presented farthest, with what this is preparing him to paper, ink, water, wine; of a table, bed, chair, inka tive to the subject of their conversation, or continually with what he is doing, or, at the ries, bread, meat. It will, probably, not escape our attention, that of many, if not of all things, we can for illustrating any subject, or for furnish- do. The studies are so arranged and conmake a good or bad use; and, as this subject is of ing topics for conversation, such pupil has ducted, that the branches already acquired great importance to us, we shall be likely to expa- the more questions propounded directly to are almost constantly brought into exercise tiate on it at some length. That many things may him. This tends greatly to limit the atten- in attaining the new ones to which the scholar be preserved in good order, or spoiled through care tion of the pupils to their proper duties; is, from time to time, introduced. One of lessness, are observations which will, of course, occur to our minds. We shall even examine, how and by having them all on duty at the same his early studies will be arithmetic, another a thing, that, through long use or heedlessness, has time, little labour is required in governing writing; another, drawing. The use which been spoiled, may be made fit for use again. the school. The length of the exercises he will make of these will appear, when we

In our ninth exercise, we shall endeavour to de- depends on their quality, and on the capaci- say, that he will make books in most of the termine, and to point out the resemblance or simili. ties of the scholars. They are generally branches. He will construct his own maps, tude which two objects present to our senses. We short; but the pupils are frequently attended beginning with the town where he resides, shall therefore examine wherein the eye bears a resemblance to the car, what similitude exists be- by their idstructers in their amusements, and and proceeding gradually till they embrace tween a fly and an eagle, an ant and an elephant, in their excursions for obtaining means to the whole world. He will make his own betwixt winter and summer a finger and a nose, a illustrate the subjects of their lessons, so that dictionary and grammar. In geometry, by sunbeam and a weaver's beam. Many of my read little of their time is devoted to mere amuse- preserving bis drawings, he will have a ers will smile at the novelty of the idea, of finding a ment, and few things come under their ob- regular treatise. He is always enabled to resemblance betwixt such heterogeneous objects: servation without being made to furnish perceive the connexion between what he is but if they had my experience, instead of shaking their wise heads,

and perhaps taking me for a luna- some profitable instruction. Where the required to learn, and the use which it will tic, they would admire the immense power of mind means can be supplied, regular labour in promote. This is essential to his feeling which a child acquires through the means of such many of the useful and polite arts is requir- satisfied with his studies; but it cannot be exercises as are here hinted at. I have heard chil ed, -enough to teach the scholar practically pretended that the common mode of indren of nine and ten years of age, point out resem: the use of the knowledge which he acquires

. struction has any tendency to accomplish blances between objects more distant from each other than a beam of the sun is from a weaver's We have not room to enlarge on the advan- this object. beam.

tages of this part of the system, but we be- Having got fairly under weigh with this Our preceding operations will put our witty beads lieve them to be almost incalculable. subject, we should not know when nor where to the test.

Our readers cannot fail of remarking, that to stop, were we not reminded, by counting Our tenth operation sball prove a trial of our this method is admirably calculated to keep our sbeets, that we have only room for a consagacity; for in this latter exercise, we shall point the minds of children active without fatigu-clusion. We will, therefore, mention one out the differences there exist between the left eye and the right; between a kuife and a razor, ice and ing them, or rendering their studies tedious. more advantage of this method of instrucwater, a rose and a tulip.

We are not advocates for the system which tion, and trust to the good sense of our Our eleventh, and last exercise, will consist in converts all study into mere amusement, readers to supply the rest. making a plain, but accumte, an exact, but precise and indulges scholars in playing their way description of any given object, by melting together to the temple of wisdom; but we do believe, occur between the teacher and his pupils,

In the fainiliar conversations which daily in one mass, all that has been observed, examined, investigated, avalyzed, and determined in our pre: that the mind should be deeply interested on the several topics to which their atienceding successive operations. I hope my readers in what it is required to learn, that the tion is directed, the scholar cannot fail of acwill not imagine that this whole series of observa- exercise should be rendered pleasing in it- quiring a facility and accuracy in expressing tions will be performed in one day, in one month, self

, and exempted as much as possible from his ideas which the common mode of instrucor even in one year. They will, in all likelihood, all circumstances which are calculated to tion is not at all calculated to give. After engage our attention during at least four, and per- produce wandering thoughts and feelings, the scholars have severally expressed their baps five years, one hour every day. That is a long time granted--but, please to consider the lassitude or disgust

. Let the scholar's views on any topic, the instructer explains extensiveuess and importance of the business, and powers be called into full exercise, but let' to them how far they are correct; notices


duct, and that it is difficult, or rather im- est and importance, which are connected On the dim and misty lakes possible, to inake any useful application of with the subject, and they are very numer.

Gloriously the morning breaks,

And the eagle 's on his cloud: them for the regulation and improvement ous, I will discuss with you on some other

Whilst the wind, with sighing, woos of our morals. But Mr Parkhurst thinks occasion, if a convenient opportunity should

To its arms the chaste cold ooze, he refutes all the reasonings against them occur.

Yours, &c.

And the rustling reeds pipe loud. by insisting, in opposition to Dr Paley, on

Where the embracing ivy holds the perfectly strict observance of general


Close the hoar elm in its folds, rules. He will allow not a single excep

No. II.

In the meadow's fenay land, tion to these. Nothing will warrant a

And the winding river sweeps breach or a departure from them. Nothing

Winter Months.

Through its shallows and still deeps, can excuse falsehood; nothing can justify

A sad tale's best for Winter.

Silent with my rod I stand. deception of any sort. The rule once be

Winter's Tale.

But when sultry suns are high ing established that you ought not to do To a melancholy man there is a feeling

Underneath the oak Ilie, any particular kind of actions, that you of intercourse and good fellowship existing

As it shades the water's edge,

And I mark my line, away should not misrepresent, for example,-you between himself and winter, and in the

In the wheeling eddy, play, cannot frame a reason, you cannot imag-language of its hollow voice and whistling Tangling with the river sedge. ine a state or combination of circunstances winds, he finds its communion with him. which will authorize you to violate it, or There is a vigorous impulse and reaction be

When the eye of evening looks

On green woods and winding brooks, excuse you for even the slightest voluntary tween the hearts of men and external things;

And the wind sighs o'er the lea, deviation from an exact compliance with and though philosophy has long endeavour- Woods and streams,-l leave you then, its precepts. This seems to be absurd ed to solve the problem, yet the doubt still While the shadow in the glen enough on the face of it. But allowing it remains whether the energies of feeling

Lengthens by the greenwood tree. to be true, the difficulty is not at all re-are influenced and directed by surrounding Winter, though to many a comfortless moved. The same objections lie against objects to a greater degree than that in season, is a time well suited to meditation. this as against Dr Paley's theory. I should which the heart changes every thing, An opening year finds us changed as times like to ask Mr Parkhurst where these gen- that the eye rests upon, with its own and seasons have changed. There is vacant eral rules are to come from? Who is to cheerful or melancholy light. For me, chair by our social fireside and a vacant be the framer of them? On what princi- even the winter wind has a voice of elo- niche in our hearts,love may have grown ples are they to be made ? Is there any quent emphasis. As I sit retired by my cold and friendship deserted us, and we limit to their number? Suppose two or evening fireside, and mark the strong light may have outlived those, who we hoped more to conflict with one another, which glare out upon the old furniture of my would outlive Perhaps we have shall prevail? And who is to be the judge chamber, and hear the wind in motion parted forever with them, from whom we in all these cases ? Does not our author among the bare trees without, and sharply never before parted, -the feet of strangers perceive that these rules in morality are, whistling through every chink and crevice, may tread upon the sepulchres of our with a very few exceptions, of mere human there seems to be something articulate friends, and a tender remembrance may be invention, and if utility alone is to be the in the sound it utters; for it brings me tid all that remains of them. It is as true as it criterion by which they are made, every ings of leafless woods and desert walks. is trite, that we seldom value friendship as man will take the business into his own But desert as they are, in thought I visit we ought, until we feel in some degree its hands, and frame them to suit his own ideas them again. There is, indeed, no voice to logs. But when our parent earth has foldon that subject ? No single action stands welcome me there; and I stand amid the ed to its cold bosom the child of clay, and by itself and alone. There are other simi- tall and widowed trees, like one that revis- has incorporated with its substance the lar ones, which

may be classed and arrang- its in the winter of his life those scenes, form whose affections were incorporated ed with it. Even the exceptions to one gen- which its summer had gladdened. The with our own, we then feel how hard it is eral rule are so, only because they belong forest and the valley and the upland are to relinquish the communion of friendship. to another. So that, on the principles of silent around me, save when the icicle The voice of humanity is loud within us, this utility system, if we wish to screen or drops from the withered branch and slides and tells us that a powerful attraction holds justify some doubtful action of ours, all away on the crusted snow, or my footsteps within the limit of society the individuals we have to do, is to draw up a rule, which startle the heron from his fountain, and he that compose it; and that we exist but in will embrace and take it under its protec- wings his noisy way upwards. The giant the mutual intercourse of heart with heart. tion. The combination probably will sup- oak heaves out its arms to the wind, -the Yet how little we think of these hidden symport it, and it will receive its character en- withered vine hangs, covered with hoar- pathies. We pass away from the earth, tirely from the company, where we have frost, from the brown elm, and the dark and the world, with its cares and gayeties, the good fortune to find it a place. moss is frozen upon its trunk. And yet so goes on the same without us as with us

But it is high time to bring this letter to strong a principle of association is contra. Our death brings no change to the face of a close. It has been prolonged now infi- riety, that the changing beauty of the other nature. The woods and the waters are as nitely beyond the limits I originally assigned seasons seem to pass over the woods again, green,--the skies are as fair, and the air as to it. And what is worse, I find that I have even whilst I stand with them. The buds full of freshness and the trees of melody, as devoted a great deal too much of it to the of spring swell out afresh,--the summer when we were on earth. O, how the dead discussion of questions, which are not of cloud overshadows the forest, and the sum- outmultitude the living but nature is fresh the greatest value either in the science or mer wind plays in the green leaves :-and and fair with buds, and ripening fruits, and the practice of morality. The abstract in- again there is beauty in the many-coloured changing seasons.

Here indeed the conquiry, What constitutes virtue? is interest- bills of autumn. I see the trees resume nexion is not mutual ; but it is between ing and curious rather than important; and their verdure, and again they bend ourselves and the rest of our race. Interis of comparatively little moment, whether

"In branching beauty and in living green"

est is linked in with interest, affection anwe decide that an action is virtuous because whilst the angler, with rod and line, sings swers to affection! And hence it is that it is useful, or useful because it is virtuous,

. though the latter supposition seems much on his way to the silent river.

when a friend leaves us forever, and death more satisfactory to me. These things,


seals up the volume of his life, the cares of however, have a place in the books of all From the river's plashy bank,

the living soon call us from the grave of our moral writers, the oldest and the latest

Where the sedge grows green and rank, the dead, and his memory is lost to the and the most able of them. It is this cir

And the twisted woodbine springs, cumstance alone which has led me on in

Upward speeds the morning lark

mind as his form to the sight. To its silver cloud-and hark!

Winter, apart from its being a season so my inquiries. The matters of more inter

On his way the woodman sings.

well adapted to moral thought, is also suit

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