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into the meaning of every thing that belongs Verbs ending in ate, draw after them a family of responding rules in other grammars; but, to his lesson. This habit is so essential, that terminations in ant, or, ory, acy, ation, and ive; as, in general, there is little improvement. It the value of every school book must be con- from operate, come operant, operator, operative, is sufficient to say, that Mr. Picket has sesidered as depending in the degree in which and operation; from derogate, comes derogatory; lected the best part of other grammars; from expiate, comes expiatory.
it is calculated to promote it. Picket's Grammar will encourage inquiry, and satisfy it, far better than any other that we have seen,
Ize, or ise, is a verbal termination, and signifies that where he has deviated from them, he to make; as, apologize, to make apology; equalise, has made some improvement; that he has to make equal. ouring to make this science intelligible to set a very important example, in endeavthe scholar in every stage of his progress; and that most of his definitions of prefixes and affixes are very valuable additions to the common stock of grammatical knowledge.
Ize produces ist in the personal noun, and ism in the neuter noun; as, from baptize, come haptist, baptism; from catechise, come catechist, catechism. Ify, or fy, signifies to make, or to become; as, to beautify, to make beautiful; justify, to make, or prove just; signify, to make a sign; petrify, to
Adjective Terminations from the Latin. ticiple of the Latin language, changing ans into ant Ant, expressing quality, is purely the active parIt may be best explained by the English participle in ing; as, abundant, abounding; attendant, attending; pleasant, pleasing.
The reader will observe that no words are given, except such as are purely English, when the ter
mination is removed.
But the part of this book which we most highly esteem, consists of nine pages, in which the common prefixes and affixes of English words are defined. Whatever will aid the scholar in learning the exact meaning of terms, is of real value to him. We have already remarked, that, to ascertain the etymology of a word, generally aids the mind greatly in fixing its true signification. This idea is ridiculed by many, but it is not the less correct. No one pretends that the original word or words, of which a modern one may be found to be composed, furnish precisely the meaning now given to it; but to ascertain the radical meaning, and then observe the modifications in form and meaning, which it has undergone in us. Its meaning is the same as the preceding, and Ous is merely the Latin adjective termination in passing to its present state, exercises the may be expressed by the words having, or being. mind sufficiently to make a lasting impress- This termination also signifies plenty; as, advanion. Interest is excited, facts and circum-tageous, famous, dangerous, ruinous, courageous, stances are brought to light; and the sense furious, monstrous, &c. of the word, which, but for these, would have passed through the mind with little notice, will now abide in the memory.
Ent is the Latin participle under another form, but meaning the same as the preceding; as, adherent, adhering; indulgent, indulging; provident, providing.
this termination and the Saxon word wise, meaning manner; as, rightwise, for righteous.
There is a considerable resemblance between
Ar, signifies belonging to; as, angular, belonging to angle; circular, belonging to circle; singular, belonging to single.
Ward is derived from the Saxon verb wardian, to look, and signifies in the direction of looking to ward; as, forward, backward, eastward, westward. beggarly, that is, beggarlike; stately, statelike; Ly is, in all cases, an abbreviation for like; as frankly, franklike.
Yappears to express plenty of that of which the primitive is the name; as, wealthy, plenty of wealth; worthy, plenty of worth.
Horne Tooke applied the science of etymology to the most difficult class of words in the language. Let any person who has oracle, single, title, takes & into the last syllable Each of those words formed from angle, circle, used the Diversions of Purley say, whether but one, in conformity to the idiom of the Latin he has not a more definite idea of the mean-language, from which they were derived. ing of the prepositions, conjunctions, and adverbs, of which the etymology is there given, than he could possibly have obtained from common dictionaries, or from attending to the meaning given them by modern usage. We believe, that no person who reads that work attentively, can fail of observing, that those who disregard the science of etymology, however learned they may be in others, are very liable to use the minor parts of speech vaguely and incorrectly. Every one knows that the principal difficulties, attending the formation of a correct style, arise from this class of words. Few scholars have any means for determining, definitely, their signification. If they consult their dictionaries or masters, the case is equally hopeless. We greatly need a dictionary which shall give the etymological signification of these "winged words" in a manner so familiar, as to be comprehended by the mere English scholar, together with such examples as will show how they have passed to their present form and use.
But, to return to Mr Picket; who, we said, had done well to define prefixes and affixes. We shall give an example relating to affixes, commencing on page 120.
En is a verbal termination expressing force or energy; as, from the noun height, comes the verb to heighten; from the adjective dark, comes the verb to darken; from the adjectives less, hard, deaf, come the verbs to lessen, to harden, to deafen.
Ate, signifies to make or act ; as, alienate, to make
alien; personate, to act the person; assassinate, to act the assassin; criminate, to charge with crime; fabricate, to make a fabrication.
those qualities which the preceding confirm. The
and signifies to diminish; to take away; as, friend-
Termination of the Personal Noun.
Or is a Latin termination, having the same sense
Ary is also a frequent termination of the personal noun: as, adversary, one that is averse to any thing; missionary, one that goes on missions.
Eer is a variation of the terminatoin er; as, auctioneer, one who sells at auction.
Before closing this article, we wish to cial rules for writing and speaking would express the opinion, that nearly all artifibe rendered unnecessary by a work which should supply the deficiencies of our dic tionaries. We need little instruction as to the right manner of using words, which we perfectly understand. If any one is competent to give the etymology of English prepositions, conjunctions, and adverbs, and to define the radical ideas which they now portant service to philological science than express, we believe he can do a more imany man has yet done. A work of this character, faithfully executed, would render the greater part of every grammar unnecessary. It should contain illustrations examples; and also point out the common of the meaning of these words, by numerous errors which are committed, from ignorance of their true meaning. If Noah Webster, or any one else, can do this, we think he should for his labour. do it, and that he would be well rewarded
We mention Mr Webster, because we have no evidence, that any other gentleman in this country is so competent to the task; and, also, because the brief account of the work which he is now engaged in publishing, contained in the newspapers, permits us to hope, that he has attempted something of this kind.
Analysis of Vocal Inflections, as used in Reading and Speaking, designed to ren der the principles of Walker's Elements more intelligible. Andover. 1824. WE have understood that the Rev. Dr Porter, and that it was originally prepared for the of Andover, is the author of this pamphlet, use of his students. It may be thought not altogether a proper subject of criticism, but as it is an uncommonly practical, comprehensive, and judicious treatise, on an elegant accomplishment, and a useful branch of edu cation, we are not willing to lose the opportunity of recommending it to our readers.
The Analysis is designed to facilitate the study of Walker; and something of this kind was wanted. Walker was, perhaps, unrivalled as a viva voce exemplifier of those principles, the discovery and the exposition
of which do his name much honour. In the practical department of elocution, he may An, as a termination, signifies belonging to; it is have had no superior. But, as a writer, he one of the signs of the possessive case in the Saxon must be acknowleged to be often vague, language, and may be explained thus: he that is prolix, and obscure. His mind, if we may of, or belonging to; as, grammarian, he that pro-judge from his writings, does not seem to fesses to be acquainted with grammar; republican,
one belonging to a republic.
In examining the rules of syntax, we noticed a few which are better than the cor
have been trained and disciplined to methodical arrangement. His thoughts were constantly and exclusively directed to practical excellence; and, accordingly, his works
on elocution are, in many places, too diffuse and miscellaneous, and have too little of a systematic form to make good class books. With reference to Walker's remarks on inflections, Dr Porter says, "The conviction occasion. Oratory indeed is not the forte that he [Walker] was treating a difficult of the Scotch. I have heard but few speaksubject, led him to the very common mis-ers at the bar, but they were no better than take of attempting to make his meaning the professors. In short, I have not yet plain by prolixity of remark and multi- heard in pulpit, forum, or college chair, a plicity of rules; and, with regard to his single speaker, who would be considered own work," The view of these elements, above mediocrity on our side of the Atlanto which he [Walker] devotes about a hun- tic, and the majority are intolerable. A few days since, B and I visited dred and fifty pages, after he enters on in- They have here a custom, indecorous in Holyrood, where we saw a series of grim flections, I here attempt to comprise in a the highest degree, that of applauding the kings, from Fergus to James the Seventh, short compass. The rest of his work may lecturer by clapping and stamping; I hardly the greater part of whom never existed anybe read with increased advantage, if the new recollect when my nerves have been more where, except on the walls of the palace, classification which I have given, should be "horrified" than they were by the first or in the noddles of certain addle-headed intelligible." To our clerical readers, in specimen of this kind of salutation to a historians. The full length figure of Robert particular, we would recommend Dr Por- venerable professor. Moreover, as soon as Bruce is a very fine one, and that of Queen ter's tract. They will find that it bases the the hour appointed to each teacher expires, Mary, though somewhat defaced, is the most inflections of elocution on those of conver- the hearers rise without the smallest cere-beautiful picture I have ever seen of her. sation; that it compresses the phraseology mony, and leave him in the lurch. Once, I do not mean that the painting is remarkof the rules, and thus places the principles indeed, I knew this to happen in the very ably good, but only that it gave me a better of the rules in a much clearer light. midst of a story, of which the lecturer re-idea of the beauty of the original, than I sumed the thread the following day, as if have been able to get from any other. We nothing had happened. To do equal justice, were then shown Mary's apartments, in however, I believe the same, or similar cus-which, by the way, no genteel domestic of toms prevail in Philadelphia. the present day would endure to reside. Many of the churches are uncomfortable Rizzio's blood on the floor, Lord Darnley's beyond all conception. Last Sunday I was armour, boots, gloves, &c. were among the present at one, which, in this particular, curiosities of the place. The boots resemwould beggar description. I have been try-bled those which fishermen now use, on ing in vain to hit upon some mode of con- the banks of Newfoundland. In one of the veying to you some idea of it, but language apartments were two pictures, one of Jane was unfortunately made before people had Shore, and the other of Nell Gwinn, both any notion, that it was ever to be employed very beautiful faces, but the latter so exfor such a purpose. I have seen edifices, quisite, that it is difficult to cease looking in the construction of which, beauty was at it. I do not believe that any woman sacrificed to convenience, and vice versú; was ever so beautiful. but here beauty, convenience, light, and The days at this season have a very gloomy air were disregarded, without any one pos-appearance, even when they are perfectly sible equivalent. The fact is, that they di- clear. The sun is so low, that noon looks vide an old Gothic cathedral, when they like our evening, or rather afternoon just can find a whole one, into two, three, or before sunset. He rises and creeps along more separate places of worship, and crowd a few hours, just above the Pentland hills, them with pews, so narrow, that a seat in casting long shadows across the streets, and them is little better than one in a Yankee slides down again, leaving us in need of canstage-coach, containing sixteen insides, the dles by four o'clock, or earlier. He is now, last being rammed in by the driver, who, like however, on the ascent again. I cannot nature, abhors a vacuum, and, with his shoul-say that this arrangement suits me quite as der applied to the door, secures the whole well as our own more vertical suns, and am mass as effectually as the contents of one glad that I am not called on to remain here of their own trunks. In much the same the remainder of my days. To make up for manner was I crowded into one of the afore-the present short allowance of daylight, said pews, snugly constructed behind an immense pillar, which served to conceal the preacher, as well as a considerable portion of the congregation, and was fain to relieve the tediousness of a great portion of the service by decyphering the inscription on an old monumentai plate, which commemorated the assassination of the Regent Murray.
dissolve." You will hardly believe this pos- chandelier, the effect of which is excellent. sible, and yet it is literally the fact. It The music is likewise very good. The first requires two or three days' attendance to tune usually played in British theatres, is drill one's muscles into proper order for the God save the King," when all rise and uncover. The company is very tolerable, and the pieces, whenever I have been present, have gone off well; the house is best attended on Saturday evening, as private parties on that night must break up at twelve, and of course they are not so common as in the preceding part of the week.
We regret that the author of this pamphlet did not add to his analysis of inflections, a simple theory of tones as expressive of emotion. No department of elocution is, in our opinion, less understood than this; and in none are there more or worse errors in reading and speaking. The whole apparatus of analysis, definitions, and rules, are no where more wanted than here. What is commonly called a tone in reading or in speaking, is nothing else than the substitution of the tone of one emotion for that of another, or the expression of emotion where none is implied. Now the best possible remedy for such faults, is a thorough analytic investigation of tones. We cannot but hope, that an author so well qualified for the task, as the writer of this analysis of inflections, will be induced to publish a brief and practical treatise on this interesting subject.
LETTERS FROM A TRAVELLER.
Edinburgh, January 5, 18—.
MY DEAR FRiends,
The number of students attending the lectures, during the present session, is about twenty-five hundred, of whom six or seven hundred are medical. The lecture rooms are by no means so beautiful as those in our own Medical College, nor do the professors generally lecture as well, that is, not as eloquently, though perhaps more learnedly. Dr Hope, for instance, rants as badly as any understrapping actor, whom I remember to have heard; and any thing like rant, connected with a performance so rigidly didactic in its nature, as a chemical lecture, produces an effect of the most ludicrous kind. Just conceive of a professor in a black gown, delivering such a sentence as this: "The sea-water is evaporated in large shallow pans," with arm extended, and all the circumstance of a school orator spouting, "Yea, all which it inherit, shall
There are a great many Americans here this session, and a considerable portion of them are Yankees. There is no city, if you will allow me the parody, but is vexed by their phizzes. Strangers, however, are no vexation to Auld Reekie, for the gude town is in a great measure supported by visitors of various kinds.
The theatre in Edinburgh is small, but very pretty. It is illuminated by gas-lights, arranged in the form of a single superb
they have a superfluity of it at midsummer, when there is scarcely any darkness. The weather is quite mild yet, nor is it ever so cold here as with us, but the winters are more unpleasant, rainy, and foggy, and the streets are shockingly muddy. Indeed, to judge from our experience hitherto, a Scotch winter is certainly a very different matter from a New England one. It is fall weather, and that is all. There has nothing appeared, as yet, like snow, and hardly any frost. I do not know where Thomson got his description of a man perishing in a snow-storm. The inhabitants, however, seem to be agreed, that the present season is unusually mild. They are generally very careless of themselves. Every one seems to have a cold, and there is sometimes so much coughing in the lecture rooms, that it is difficult to
hear the lecturer. They laugh at me, sometimes, when I go out in the evening muffled in a plaid cloak, and they are quite welcome so to do; I have no ambition to make one in the interesting class of consumptives, which abound here, as might be expected.
I see, occasionally, in my walks, the robinred-breast, so famous in nursery ballads. It is a pretty, sociable little bird, and I feel a great respect for it, on account of that affair of the Babes in the Wood. It is very like a wren, or small sparrow, having the neck and breast brownish red, and quite different from either of the birds which go by the name of robin in New England. As winter approaches, it becomes very tame.
It is a custom in this city, on the eve of the new year, for the lower class of people to run about the streets, as soon as the clock strikes twelve, with the most extravagant demonstrations of joy, wishing every one a happy new year, shaking hands with all the men, and kissing all the females, which ceremony, every one, whether gentle or simple, is obliged to submit to, who happens to be abroad, even ladies in their carriages, if the mob choose it; though, of course, no female ventures out, without urgent necessity, if she has any objection to the process, and I sallied out about one, when the uproar was at the highest; our hands were nearly shaken from our bodies, but, fortunately, we were assailed by none but those of our own sex, in which we had better luck than H, a former comrade of mine in the medical staff of that renowned body, the Massachusetts militia. One of the fair sex seized him, and insisted upon his kissing her, which he was obliged to do as a refusal would have been not only ungallant, but somewhat dangerous.
I have several times mentioned the variable nature of Scottish weather. This is more remarkable, perhaps, in Edinburgh than elsewhere. The following are instances of this: A few days since, the morning, at eight o'clock, threatened a storm, or rather it was something between clear and stormy, and somewhat cold, with a high wind. Nine o'clock gave some intimation of fair weather; at ten the clouds began to break away, and the sun seemed on the point of appearing; at eleven, twelve, and one, it rained torrents, blew a hurricane, and was as dark as black clouds could make it; so that one could hardly see to read; at two it began again to be clear, and at three we had a lovely, mild afternoon, with bright sunshine, almost unclouded sky, and scarcely any wind; at half past three, rain again; at four, clear, with a prospect of a fine evening; at five, thick, dark, misty, and clondy; at six, beautiful moonlight, with a few fleecy clouds; from seven to ten, cloudy and dark; at eleven, moonlight again, and clear; and half an hour after, as dismal a night as one would wish to witness. The other evening, being at B's, without an umbrella, I felt some alarm at hearing the rain pattering against the windows. I remained a short time longer, and the scene was changed to a fine moonlight evening. My walk home occupied about twenty minutes; before I
had gone half way, it rained, and when I nite present and the indefinite past; and,
We call both the present tense and the
Among the phrases in frequent use in this city, none is more troublesome to us Yankees than the word "clever." It means here smartness and intelligence, while, with us, it may be, and indeed commonly is, applied to persons of moderate abilities. Here it is high praise, but at home, it is at best but a nugatory denomination, and an old acquaintance of mine used to assert, that his father was once prosecuted for slander, because he had called one of his neighbours a clever kind of a man.
In like manner, the past time does not define the time of the action, but merely denotes it to be past. When accompanied with auxiliaries, it is made to express the time of the action with any degree of precision that is required; these auxiliaries make no part of the verb, and they more frequently consist of what are termed adverbs and nouns, than of verbs. It is often necessary to use a great number of them, in order to mark the time with exactness; as, I dined at half past two on the twentyI hear little of home; D's engage-second day of last February. If we admit ment was the latest piece of information. This did not surprise me much; for, as old Burton saith, "how should it be otherwise? The opportunity of time and place, with their circumstances, are so forcible motives, that it is unpossible almost for young folks, equal in years, to live together, and not be in love; especially where they are idle, in summo gradu, fare well, live at ease, and cannot tell otherwise how to spend their time." But, however this may be, I trust you will all, time and place fitting, follow so good an example, and, as old Edie says, "that I'll live to see it." Farewell.
ON THE COMMON SYSTEMS OF ENGLISH
THERE are only two tenses expressed by
the use of auxiliaries in forming tenses, all the words in the above sentence are of this class, except the first two; and it might be that all the words in a volume, with the exception of one term, would be auxiliaries. They would not be auxiliary verbs, but they are used not the less to aid in forming and fixing the tense of the verb. If we admit tenses of sense as well as of form, we shall therefore have as many as there are different times expressed by combinations of words. We can imagine no reason for limiting the number to six or even six millions, if we exceed the two which are expressed by different forms of the verb. Why should we make the English language conform in this respect to the Latin, rather than to the Greek? We can express, with the aid of other parts of speech, and sometimes with the aid only of verbs, many more tenses than are given in the grammars of other
languages; and why should we not give them as high a rank as the four mixed tenses which we now adopt? The Arancanian, a language more regular in its formation, and more copious than almost any other, has nine tenses formed by established variations of the verb itself. We can translate all these into English, as easily as we can translate the Latin tenses; but this furnishes no reason for making nine English tenses, while our verbs cannot express them by regular variations of their form.
All our grammarians contend that the first and great division of tenses is into present, past, and future; but they go on the false principle of making metaphysical tenses, or tenses of sense, instead of verbal tenses, or those formed by variations of the verb itself. If this general division be adopted, while auxiliaries are required to express the future tense, authority is certainly given for forming an infinite number of tenses as subdivisions. We are aware that we shall be considered as inordinately heretical in rejecting the future tense; but we will acknowledge our error, when it shall be shown, that English verbs have any form for denoting future time. The consideration, that the common division of time is into present, past, and future, has satisfied grammarians, that our verbs must mark this division; but they might with equal propriety have decided, that our verbs have 25567 tenses, because that is the number of days in a man's life, who lives three score and ten years. If we are to estimate the number of tenses by the number of imaginable periods of time in which an action may be done, how many shall we have?
It is not necessary to add to these remarks on tenses, for every one is competent to apply the principle which we have stated, by rejecting from his system of parsing, all combinations of terms, whether they be of the same or of different names, and parsing every word by itself. If the scholar understand the meaning of his sentence, he will always know whether the time described or implied be present, past, or future, and will generally have occasion to mark it with even greater precision; but let him not be taxed with the vain effort to determine the time by the conjugation of the verb. The simple form of the verb or indefinite present, is to be distinguished from the declension or indefinite past; and the present and past participles are to be distinguished in the same manner. What is called the compound perfect participle, and all the compounded tenses and participles should be entirely rejected.
In closing these remarks, we will anticipate one objection which will be felt by many teachers, even if they do not choose to express it. In order to parse in the manner we have recommended, every term must be well understood, and this will require a measure of knowledge rarely possessed. To cast several words into a group, and give them a name which will denote only the use which they serve collectively, is the constant resort of those who are too ignorant or too lazy to analyze the sentence
and define the exact meaning and use of every word. We advise such instructers to learn first to define every word in the situation in which stands, and to parse it first by itself; let the scholar be taught to do the same; and then we care not how many combinations and groups are formed, nor whether any thing more is done than to decide to what part of speech a whole book belongs. W.
O thou, whose awful wings unfurled
Sweep on, sweep on! thine awful course
Child of eternity! once more
Secure from thee and all thy powers
Throughout His boundless, endless reign;
DIRGE OVER A NAMELESS GRAVE. By yon still river, where the wave
Is winding slow at evening's close, The beech, upon a nameless grave, Its sadly-moving shadow throws. O'er the fair woods the sun looks down Upon the many-twinkling leaves, And twilight's mellow shades are brown, Where darkly the green turf upheaves. The river glides in silence there,
And hardly waves the sapling tree: Sweet flowers are springing, and the air Is full of balm, but where is she!
They bade her wed a son of pride,
And months went sadly on,-and years :-
Then came a gray old man, and knelt
With bitter weeping by her tomb:And others mourned for him, who felt
That he had sealed a daughter's doom.
The funeral train has long past on,
THE RESTORATION OF ISRAEL. Mountains of Israel! rear on high Your summits crowned with verdure new, And spread your branches to the sky, Refulgent with celestial dew. O'er Jordan's stream of gentle flow; And Judah's peaceful vallies smile, And far reflect the lovely glow Where ocean's waves incessant toil.
See where the scattered tribes return;
The fruitful fields again are blest,
The jubilee of man is near,
When earth, as heaven, shall own His reign;
Since our previous notices of this nobleman, Mr Hobhouse has published a pamphlet in contradiction to many circumstances in Capt. Medwin's book, and in a "Narrative of Lord Byron's Voyage to Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia, in 1821, in the Mazeppa." It is melancholy to observe how little faith can be put in any thing published to gratify public curiosity. Mr Shelley, who is reported to have been converted in a storm at sea, on board Lord Byron's yacht, "the Mazeppa," is proved never to have been at sea with Lord Byron in his life; Lord Byron never to have had a yacht called "the Mazeppa"-and, moreover, no yacht whatever at the time mentioned.
Capt. Medwin makes Lord Byron say, "I have been concerned in many duels as second; but only two as principal; one was with Hobhouse, before I became intimate with him." Mr Hobhouse declares he never fought a duel with Lord Byron; and not only that, but that Lord Byron never fought a duel with any body. The above may serve as specimens of flat contradiction.
The story told by Lord Byron to Capt. Medwin, concerning the duel between Capt. Stackpoole and a Lieutenant, has also been publicly contradicted by some friend
of the former, and its misstatements exposed.
LORD BYRON'S SPEECHES.
The parliamentary speeches of Lord Byron have been printed from copies prepared by his Lordship for publication. They are only three. The first delivered 27th February, 1812, on the "Frame-work bill," which he characterized as "fit only to be carried into effect by a jury of butchers with a Judge Jeffreys to direct them;" the next, April 21, of the same year, on the Earl of Donoughmore's motion on the Catholic claims; and the other on present ing Major Cartwright's petition for parlia
Hugh Campbell, LL. D. &c., the illustrator of Ossian's Poems, is about publishing the Love Letters of Mary, Queen of Scots, to James, Earl of Bothwell; with her love sonnets and marriage contracts (being the long missing originals from the gilt casket); forming a complete history of the origin of the Scottish Queen's woes and trials before Queen Elizabeth.
NEWSPAPERS IN GREAT BRITAIN.
If we make due allowance for the few
little words we have italicised in the above notice, it will not seem very strange, if in the end, the virtues of this celebrated engine should be found to exist principally in report.
we come to add to the list of London pa- quite applicable to the purposes of warfare.
91,000l. 336,6664. 13s. 4d.
It is not an extreme calculation to state that there are, upon the eight morning papers, and the six evening papers published in London, at least one hundred and twenty literary gentlemen, receiving weekly salaries to the amount of 600l. exclusive of those who are paid for their communications. If to the daily papers we add about forty Sunday papers, and papers published twice or thrice during the week, we shall make a weekly sum total, for literary services upon the establishments, exclusive of what is paid for in another way, of about 1000l.; and if we add, to this amount, the sums paid by the whole of them, to printers, publishers, and others, in the way of regular salary, we shall have an increase of 15007, making a weekly sum of 2500l., or 130,000l. per annum, paid by the London newspaper press, in salaries only; and to this we may add, at least 1,2001. weekly, or 62,400l. per annum, for the remaining expenses, exclusive of stamps and paper, making altogether nearly 200,000l. per annum. With respect to the number of persons employed upon the London newspapers, directly and indirectly, taking in editors, reporters, publishers, printers, pressmen, and others, deriving from them their subsistence, we are quite able to state it, The biblical world is at present occupied at the very lowest, at fifteen hundred, many of whom derive emoluments which enable in the investigation of a Hebrew roll of them to live as gentlemen, whilst none are great antiquity, found in a vessel captured without a handsome competence; for it is a by the Greeks, which roll has recently fact, that, in no employment are persons paid been brought to England. The enormous more liberally than upon newspapers. The sum of twelve hundred and fifty pounds has compositors have, upon morning papers, been asked for this relic; half that amonnt each 21. 88. weekly, and upon evening pa- is said to have been offered for it by an pers, 21. 38. 6d.; and the pressmen are paid eminent Hebrew capitalist. equally well, although their labour has been much diminished by the introduction of] printing machines instead of presses. When
721,266l. 138. 4d.
We have here more than 700,000l. exclusive of advertisements, expended by the 360,000%. go to the government for stamps newspaper press, annually, of which about and the excise duty on paper.
PERKIN'S STEAM GUN.
THE UNITED STATES LITERARY
beginning with the Second Volume, will be
LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS
By Cummings, Hilliard, & Co.-Boston. Outlines of the Principal Events in the Life of General Lafayette. From the North American Review.
Dalzel's Collectanea Græca Majora. Stereotype edition.
Triumphs of Liberty; the Prize Ode, 1825. By Ebenezer Bailey. recited by Mr Finn, at the Boston Theatre, on the anniversary of Washington's Birth-day, Feb. 22,
Revised Testament. The New Testament of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ; in which the Text of the Common Version is divided tered, and some words not in the original expunged. into paragraphs, the punctuation in many cases al
By T. P. & J. S. Fowle-Boston. American First Class Book. By John Pierpont, author of " Airs of Palestine," &c. Sev enth edition from a new set of stereotype plates.
The Rational Guide to Reading and Orthography. By William B. Fowle.
Chambaud's French Fables, new edition. Practical Geography, as taught in the Monitorial School, Boston. Part First. By Wil
"Mr Perkin's steam gun is said to be liam B. Fowle.