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through all the exercises in Orthography,
adapted to produce a radical improvement Murray's Exercises; a new and improv-
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The Promiscuous Exercises in each of the four parts of False Grammar, in both volumes, have figures, or letters of the al
phabet, introduced, referring to the particular rule or principle by which nearly every. individual correction is to be made. Great care and vigilance have been exercised to prevent defects of the press in these editions, as well as to correct the numerous errors which have found their way into the various editions of these works now in circulation. There can be no hazard in saying, that there is no American edition, either of Murray's Exercises or Key, so correct as the English Teacher, and the Boston "Improved Stereotype Edition of the English Exercises."
These very neat and handsome school manuals will perform much service, save much time, and furnish teachers, private learners, and schools with those facilities which will enable the attentive and indus
trious student to trace with precision, pleasure, and profit, the great variety of principles, which, like the muscles of the body, spread themselves through the English language.
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Walker's School Dictionary, printed on
The American Arithmetic, by James Robinson, jr.; intended as a Sequel to the Elements. This work contains all the general rules which are necessary to adapt it to schools in cities and in the country, embracing Commission, Discount, Duties, Annuities, Barter, Guaging, Mechanical Powers, &c. &c. Although the work is put at a low price, it will be found to contain a greater quantity of matter than most of the School Arithmetics in general use.
The Child's Assistant in the Art of Read
ing, containing a pleasing selection of easy
The Pronouncing English Reader, being
It is to be regretted that so few fully understand the grammatical and accurate construction of their own language. There is a fashion already too prevalent in our country, which has long obtained in Eng- Adams' Geography; a very much approvland, particularly among the superior class-ed work, which has passed through numeres of society, and which has by no means ous editions. With a correct Atlas. been conducive to a general and extensive Temple's Arithmetic, with additions and cultivation of the English language. The improvements. Printed on fine paper. subject of allusion is an extravagant predi- Eighth edition. lection for the study of foreign languages, The Pronouncing Testament, in which to the neglect of our own, a language all the proper names, and many other which by us should be esteemed the most words, are divided and accented agreeably useful and valuable of all. This extrava- to Walker's Dictionary and Classical Key; gance has been justly censured by Mr Wal-peculiarly suited to the use of Schools. ker in the following remark. "We think," Conversations on Natural Philosophy, says he, "we show our breeding by a knowledge of those tongues [the French and Italian], and an ignorance of our own."
with Questions for examination, with addi-
Alger's Murray, being an Abridgement
A knowledge of other languages is truly desirable, and the acquisition of them ought, in a proper degree, to be encouraged by all friends of improvement; but it is devoutly to be wished, by every friend to the interests of our country and of English literature, that American youth would show The English Teacher, being Murray's a zeal, in this respect, exemplified by the Exercises and Key, placed in opposite colmatrons of ancient Rome; and, like them, umns, with the addition of rules and obsersuffer not the study of foreign languages to vations from the Grammar;-an admiprevent, but strictly to subserve the culti-rable private learner's guide to an accurate vation of their own. knowledge of the English language, and also an assistant to instructers. Alger, jr.
It is confidently believed that the English Teacher and Exercises are excellently
BY R. P. & C. WILLIAMS, 79 Washington-street, Boston,
A Letter from a Blacksmith to the Min
isters and Elders of the Church of Scotland, in which the manner of Public Worship in that Church is considered, its inconveniences and defects pointed out, and methods for removing them humbly proposed.
Be not rash with thy mouth, and let not thine heart be hasty to utter any thing before God, for let thy words be few. Eccl. v. 2. God is in heaven, and thou upon earth: therefore
I will pray with the spirit, and I will pray with the understanding also. 1 Cor. xiv. 15.
From a London edition. For sale as above, and by the booksellers throughout the United States.
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BOSTON, MARCH 15, 1825.
published in this country sooner or later,
Recollections of the Life of Lord Byron,
We believe that some have entertained an incorrect opinion respecting this work. It has been supposed that its publication was prevented in England by a chancery injunction; and that it therefore probably contained matter offensive to the relations of Lord Byron, or such as was, for other considerations, improper to be published. The truth is, that certain letters only, which originally formed a part of it, were forbidden to be published by the Lord Chancellor; and the question concerning these seems not to have been, whether or not they were improper, as containing personal or criminal allusions, but whether they were the literary property of the publisher. The law on this subject, as laid down by Lord Eldon, is as follows.
. If A writes a letter to B, B has the property in that letter, for the purpose of reading and keeping it, but no property in it to publish it.
The event proved the fallacy of human probability- Mr Dallas lived, at seventy, to see the death of Lord Byron, at thirty-seven..
-Terms, $5 per annum, payable in July.
ferent places abroad, a paraphrase of Horace's Art of Poetry, which would be a good finish to English dertook its publication, as I had done that of the Bards and Scotch Reviewers. *** He seemed to promise himself additional fame from it, and I unSatire. *** I looked over the Paraphrase, which I
had taken home with me, and I must say, I was grievously disappointed. *** In not disparaging this poem, however, next day, I could not refrain from expressing some surprise that he had written nothing else; upon which, he told me that he had occasionally written short poems, besides a great many stanzas in Spenser's measure, relative to the countries he had visited. They are not worth troubling you with, but you shall have them all with you, if you like. So came I by Childe Harold's Pilgrimage. He said it had been read but by one person, who had found very little to commend, and much to condemn; that he himself was of that opinion, and he was sure I should be so too; but he was urgent that the Hints from Horace' should have done. How much he was mistaken as to my be immediately put in train, which I promised to opinion, the following letter shows. *** Attentive as he had hitherto been to my opinions and sug
Mr Dallas found it nearly as difficult to persuade the booksellers to undertake the publication.
gestions, and natural as it was, that he should be swayed by such decided praise, I was surprised to find that I could not at first obtain credit with Lord Byron for my judgment on Childe Harold's Pilgrimage. It was any thing but poetry-it had been condemned by a good critic-had I not my> Much, however, of the contents of the self seen the sentences on the margins of the manoriginal manuscript is said to be omitted in uscript?'*** He at length seemed impressed by the present work, for obvious reasons. The my perseverance, and took the poem into considerauthor of it, Mr Dallas, sen., died soon any of the stanzas, but they could not be published ation. He was at first unwilling to alter, or omit after the settlement of the legal question; as they stood *** [and he afterwards] undertook to the editor is his son, who is in holy orders. curtail and soften them. *** I did all I could to These Recollections do not throw much raise his opinion of this composition, and I sucnew light upon the character of their sub-ceeded; but he varied much in his feelings about it, nor was he, as will appear, at his ease until the ject; nor do they tend to alter the opinion world decided on its merit. He said again and we expressed of his Lordship in our review again, that I was going to get him into a scrape of Captain Medwin's book. The author was with his old enemies, and that none of them would a very different person from the Captain, rejoice more than the Edinburgh Reviewers at an Mr Dallas contends that most of the let- to be sure. He was a relation of the poet, opportunity to humble him. ters in question were addressed to Lord and, as such, was proud of his talents, and Byron's mother, and given to him by his a little vain of being connected with him. Lordship, to dispose of as he should think He was deeply interested in his character best. Whatever passed between them on and conduct, and laboured with commendathis subject, however, was verbal and unwit- ble zeal to make him a good, as well as a nessed, and on that account not sufficient great man. Though his Lordship appears to take the case from under the law. The to have regarded him with some gratitude letters, therefore, could not be published and respect, Mr Dallas' attempt to improve without the permission of the executors, his moral and religious character was, as is Messrs Hobhouse and Hanson,-and this well known, completely unsuccessful; and soon after the period, when these RecolIf we understand the case, the work be-lections terminate, that is, about the year fore us is the same, or nearly the same, as it 1816, it was relinquished in despair. would have been if no injunction had been The most curious part of this book is the granted, with the omission of the letters literary history of the Childe Harold, of abovementioned. This omission was a matter which we shall extract several portions, of necessity in England, but it appears, from endeavouring, as far as possible, to give in the observations of the editor, that it was this way an abridgment of it, as here relatpublished in Paris in its original form. Weed. On the first interview between. Mr think, therefore, that the American pub- Dallas and his Lordship, on his return from lishers would have found little difficulty in his travels in 1811, the latter observed giving us the whole,-which would have that been much more acceptable; especially as He believed satire to be his forte, and to that he * It does not appear who this critic was. We there can be no doubt that they will be had adhered, having written, during his stay at dif- think he would hardly wish to be known,
permission was refused.
I carried it to Miller, and left it with him, enIn a few days, by appointment I called again to joining him the strictest secrecy as to the author. know his decision. He declined publishing it. He noticed all my objections; his critic had pointed them out; but his chief objection he stated to be the manner in which Lord Elgin was treated in the poem, he was his bookseller and publisher. *** Next to these I wished to oblige Mr Murray, *** I now had it in my power, and I put Childe Harold's Pilgrimage into his hands. *** He took some days to consider, during which he consulted his literary advisers, among whom, no doubt, was Mr. view. That Mr Gifford gave a favourable opinion Gifford, who was the editor of the Quarterly Reafterwards learned from Mr Murray himself; but the objections (religious and political] I have stated stared him in the face, and he was kept in suspense by the desire of possessing a work of Lord tion. We came to this conclusion; that he should Byron's, and the fear of an unsuccessful specula
Mr Dallas' perseverance was well rewarded. The first edition of the Pilgrimage was sold in three days, and its author, who, before its appearance, had become less anxious for that of the "Horatian Hints," at last consented to suppress the latter altogether. A singular circumstance attended the publication of the Childe Harold. It was announced for the first of March; but circumstances prevented its appearance, as intended, to the serious vexation of Mr Dallas, whose review of it in a periodical journal did actually appear on that day. Luckily the subject of it was issued so soon after, and excited so much admiration, that no one thought of ridiculing the review, which in fact proved an excellent advertisement for the poem, which was delivered as fast as it could be put up in sheets. It is unnecessary to speak of the adulation which was immediately lavished upon Lord Byron. But Childe Harold's Pilgrimage brought at once glory and ruin to its author. Among other gratulatory epistles, he received one from a lady, beginning with "Dear Childe Harold," enclosing a copy of verses, and concluding with the assurance "that though she should be glad to be acquainted with him, she can feel no other
print, at his expense, a handsome quarto edition, ings of the author of these Recollections, soon lose his wreath, but there are none the profits of which I should share equally with and we cannot but sympathize, in some de- who deny the great excellence of his prose him, and that the agreement for the copy-right This noble composition. His style is remarkable hom should depend upon the success of this edition. gree, with his indignation. ***While Childe Harold was preparing to be property was a grant from Henry VIII. to its vivacity and directness; the fervour of put into the printer's hands, Lord Byron was very the ancestors of the poet, and the estate composition is never quenched, never abatanxious for the speedy appearance of the imita- had ever since descended regularly in the ed; he understands himself well, and, as it tion of Horace, ***which I was nevertheless family. It was valued at more than half a must be with those who think clearly and most desirous of retarding at least, if not suppress-million dollars. Moreover, it came to his are in earnest, his language is perspicuous ing altogether. Lordship in the line of collateral descent, and strong. He appears to write with great he being only grand-nephew to the former facility; to throw off his thoughts as they proprietor, while he left behind him a arise, and in the garb which they voluncousin to inherit a barren title. As re- tarily assume, as if it were an unnecessary publicans, indeed, we must "abhor a per- and unworthy toil, to labour upon mere petuity," and congratulate ourselves that expressions. No doubt, his style is often our laws and customs alike prevent the en- elaborated with great care, and his finest tailment or continuation of estates, undi- passages owe probably as much of their exvided, through a series of generations;-cellence to his industry as to his ability. opposing in this respect the natural feeling, But he is artful enough to conceal his art; which leads individuals to desire such per- for no writer appears, especially to readers petuities in their own particular cases. who do not read to criticise, to labour less, Yet, as men, we cannot but entertain a or to abandon himself more entirely to the mean opinion of the heart, which was either impulses of his heart or imagination. There so destitute of that feeling, or had so far are scholars, who are men of fine sense and diminished its power by yielding to the in- much general ability, but are not gifted with fluence of debasing passions, as to be will- the power of fluent and varied expression. ing, without urgent necessity, to set a price They are poor in words; and this poverty upon a mansion which had been the "home of language, whatever may be thought of it, of his forefathers" for three centuries. But has an injurious influence, if not upon the this is not the worst. He had given his mind, at least upon its literary creations. solemn and written promise to his mother, The attention is diverted from the thought and pledged his honour repeatedly to Mr to its exponent; words must be sought with Dallas, that Newstead and he should be effort, and labour bestowed upon them, forever inseparable. which might be employed otherwise to advantage;-but there is a greater evil yet; when the march of thought and imagination is stopped at every moment, while the reluctant memory yields up the necessary words, it must be difficult to urge the mind forward with such force and activity, that its own motion may enkindle it, and give to its emanations brightness and warmth. No impediments lie in the path of Mr Southey; his affluence of language is limited only with the reach of his native tongue, and his words come not unwillingly. He seems to deliver himself up to his subject; and, though often eloquent, pathetic, or even sublime, there is a naturalness in the most splendid and powerful passages, which compels the reader to believe, that his loftiest flights are reached almost without consciousness, and always without effort. There is too in the very harmony of his diction, something of the same character; it is occasionally carried quite too far, as there are passages which cannot be read without the regular cadence of measured rhythm; but it seems to be the result, not of artifice, but of the willing obedience by which a thronging multitude of words acknowledge the sway of a tuneful ear.
emotion for him than admiration and re
gard, as her heart is already engaged to
This, as the editor observes in another place,
led immediately to the most disgraceful liaison of which he has not scrupled to boast. There was
something so disgusting in the forwardness of the person who wrote, as well as deterring in the enormity of the criminal excesses of which this letter was the beginning, that he should have been roused against such a temptation at the first glance. But the sudden gust of public applause had just blown upon him, and having raised him in its whirlwind above the earth, he had already begun to deify himself in his own imagination; and this incense came to him as the first offered upon his altar. He was intoxicated with its fumes; and closing his mind against the light that had so long crept in at crevices, and endeavoured to shine through every transparent part, he called darkness light, and the bitter sweet, and said peace when
there was no peace.
It may be observed that the copy-right of this poem, as well as of some others, was given to Mr Dallas by his Lordship, who made a principle, at that time at least, of not receiving any thing for his literary performances.
A copy of Lord Byron's maiden speech is here given. It is eloquently written, and was well received, but. according to Mr Dallas, his delivery was bad, resem bling that of a school-boy repeating from
I have heard [says Mr Dallas] that the purchaser means to remove the Abbey as rubbish, and to build a modern villa upon its site. It may be as well for the poet's fame; for though his genius might mantle every stone from the foundation to
the pinnacles, it would not cover the sale ;
and we agree with him entirely.
In the course of this work we noticed many circumstances which tend to confirm the opinion which we expressed, in a preceding number, of the general authenticity of the Conversations of Captain Medwin. The author seems to have imagined that his Recollections would tend, on the whole, to place the character of Lord Byron in a more favourable point of view than it has hitherto enjoyed. We differ from him in this particular, and are rather afraid that the more we learn of his Lordship's feelings and conduct, the less we shall like them.
We shall conclude our observations on this book by remarking, that the hand of the book-maker is rather too obvious, and that all which is really interesting to the American public, at least, might have been comprised within a much smailer space.
The Book of the Church. By Robert Southey,
It might well be expected, that all the works of this author must be interesting in no common degree; and the “Book of the Church" is eminently so. Few readers will lay it down until they have gone through it, and few, we think, will wish it had been MR SOUTHEY is unquestionably one of the less. It has, however, faults of a serious best prose writers of this day. There are nature;-which will lessen its usefulness. various opinions respecting the merits and with all readers, and its interest with those character of his poetry; the Laureate of who require that a work, the end of which England, if his rank were to abide the is instruction, should be characterized by judgment of some powerful critics, would ❘ due regard for truth and impartiality. "The
Book of the Church" is intended to be, and is, lent party, who identify church and state,
have overthrown the liberties of England.
The narration begins with the religion of the ancient Britons. Some account is then given of the religion and philosophy of the Romans, and of the doctrines and rites of the Danes and Anglo-Saxons. The history of the introduction and establishment of christianity into England, is exceedingly interesting. Unquestionably many circumstances of that period, related by the monkish historians of a later age, are to be considered as resting upon slight authority. Enough, however, is certain, to astonish one with the rapid progress and wide spread of christianity in its earliest ages. Perhaps no single instance is more striking than the conversion of the king and people of Northumbria. Edwin had been driven from his throne in childhood, by Ethelfrith, and fled to Redwald, king of East Anglia, who, after protecting him for some years, was about to comply with the demand of Ethelfrith, and give him up.
This resolution was taken at night-fall, and immediately communicated to Edwin by a faithful friend, who went to his chamber, called him out of doors, exhorted him to fly, and offered to guide him
Sectarians will of course be governed by their respective partialities in judging of the merits and character of this work. They who love and venerate the Church of England, will regard it as a candid, eloquent, and irreproachable history of their church; while the dissenters, whose "pestilent errors" it is intended to beat down, will be disposed to bring against the author a heavy charge of guile and falsehood. Our opinion lies between these; and is precisely that which a consideration of Dr Southey's character, condition, and avowed object would have led us to form, if, we had never seen his book. He stands forth the cham- to a place of safety. But Edwin would not again encounter the perpion of his church;-and it must be remem-petual danger and anxiety of a wandering life. To bered, that he is enthusiastic, and wants, inny, he said, would be a breach of confidence on his his valour, its better part, and often merges part; he had trusted to the Uffinga Redwald, who, his judgment in his feelings, and is the same as yet, had offered him no wrong; and if he were to be delivered up, better that it should be by the man now, as when, at the age of twenty-one, Uffinga himself than by an ignoble hand. And, he wrote Wat Tyler, and, after his years indeed, whither could he betake himself, after havwere doubled, wrote and published a lettering, for so many years, in vain sought an asylum to a member of parliament, in defence of through all the provinces of Britain? Resolving, this most miserable farce. He is the cham-therefore, to abide his fate, whatever it might be, pion of the church, and its enemies are his he sate down mournfully upon a stone before the enemies; the "ungrateful" and "disaffect- palace, when a venerable person, in a strange habit, ed" to the hierarchy are also disaffected to fore he was sitting there, and keeping watch at an is said to have accosted him, and inquired wherehim, and do what in them lies to stain his hour when all other persons were asleep? Edwin good name, by the exposure of all his errors omewhat angrily, replied, that it could be no conand faults. Moreover Dr Southey is hon-cern of his whether he chose to pass the night with oured by the institutions incorporated with that he knew the cause, and bade him be of good in doors or without. But the stranger made answer, that church, and his temporal interests are cheer, for Redwald certainly would not betray him; strictly the same with those of that preva- he assured him further, that he should regain his
father's throne, and acquire greater power than any of the Anglo-Saxon princes had possessed before him; and he asked of him, in requital for these happy fore-tidings, that when they should be fulfilled, he would listen to instructions which would then be offered to him, and which would lead him into the way of eternal life. This Edwin readily promised; with that the stranger laid his hand upon the head of the royal exile, saying, When this sign shall be repeated, remember what has passed between us now, and perform the word which you have given.
Edwin afterwards subdued his enemies, recovered his kingdom, and married a christian princess. One day, while he was meditating in solitude, Paulinus, a missionary
from Rome, entered the room,
and laying his hand upon the king's head, asked him if he remembered that token? Startled at the appeal, as if a spirit was before him, the king fell at his feet. Behold,' said Paulinus, raising him up, thou hast, through God's favour, escaped from the enemies of whom thou wert in fear! Behold, through God's favour, thou hast recovered thy kingdom, and obtained the pre-eminence which was promised thee! Remember now thine own promise, this temporal kingdom, may deliver thee also from and observe it; that He, who hath elevated thee to eternal misery, and take thee to live and reign with himself eternally in heaven! Edwin, overcome as if by miracle, hesitated no longer. He called his chiefs to council, that, if they could be persuaded to think and believe as he did, they might be baptized at the same time: and when they were assembled, he required them each to deliver his opinion concerning the new religion which was preached among them, and the propriety of receiving it.
Coifi, the Chief Priest of Northumbria, was the
first who spake: As for what the religion is, which is now propounded to us,' he said, O King, see thou to it! For my part, I will assert, what I certainly know, that that which we have hitherto held, there is no one who has given himself more diliis good for nothing. For among all thy people, gently to the worship of our gods than I; and yet many have received greater benefits, and obtained higher dignities, and prospered better in whatever they undertook. But if these gods had possessed any power, they would rather have assisted me, who have endeavoured so carefully to serve them. If, therefore, after due examination, you have perceived that these new things, of which we are told, are better, and more efficacious, let us, without delay, hasten to adopt them.'
Another speaker delivered an opinion, more creditable to his disposition and understanding than that which had been given by the Chief Priest: O King, the present life of man, when considered in relation to that which is to come, may be likened to a sparrow flying through the hall, wherein you and your chiefs and servants are seated at supper, in winter time: the hearth blazing in the centre, and the viands smoking, while without is the storm and rain or snow; the bird flies through, entering at one door, and passing out at the other; he feels not the weather during the little minute that he is within; but after that minute he returns again to winter, as from winter he came, and is seen no more. Such is the life of man; and of what follows it, or of what has preceded it, we are altogether ignorant. Wherefore, if this new doctrine should bring any thing more certain, it well deserves to be followed.' The rest of the assembly signified their assent to the change; and it was then proposed by Coifi, that Paulinus should fully explain to them the nature of the new religion, which they were called upon to receive. When the prelate had concluded his discourse, the Chief Priest exclaimed, that he had long understood the vanity of their old worship, because the more he sought to discover its truth, the tars and temples of the idols, and the sacred incloless he found; he proposed, therefore, that the alsures in which they stood, should be overthrown and burnt. The king demanded of him who ought
to set the example of violating them, and the priest | long descent which even tradition and fable the primate are imputable, because he was in poshimself offered to begin. He asked the king accord- can scarcely measure, has stricken them session of great part of the sequestered lands. He ingly for arms and for a horse; girt a sword to his side, mounted, and took a lance in his hand. When deep into the natures of the people who supplied soldiers enough to overpower the knights of Becket's household, and the people of Canterthe people beheld him, they thought that he was cling to them. But we think there are other bury, if resistance should be attempted. They enseized with madness, because in bearing arms, and circumstances of great moment, which Mr tered the city in small parties, concealing their riding on a horse, he broke through the prohibitions Southey does not duly consider. One of arms, that no alarm might be excited. The abbot attached among them to the sacerdotal office. He, these is, the unity of doctrine and ritual of St Augustine's, who was of the king's party, rehowever, rode resolutely towards the temple, and then existing in christendom. A missionary joined counsel with them. About ten in the morn ceived them into his monastery, and is said to have at once desecrated it, by throwing his lance within of that day spent no part of his time in un-ing, they proceeded with twelve knights to Beckthe enclosure; his companions then, as he exhorted them, set fire to it. The scene of this memorable doing the work of his brother; nor was the et's bedchamber; his family were still at table, but event was a little east of York, upon the river Der-willing neophyte perplexed by seeing men, he himself had dined, and was conversing with went, at a place then called Godmunddingaham, the all claiming to be christians with equal pre- some of his monks and clergy. Without replying home of the protection of the gods. The village which tension, accusing each other, with equal to his salutation, they sat down opposite to him, on now stands upon the site, retains the name, with no zeal, of dreadful falsehood. It is not easy Fitzurse said they came with orders from the king, the ground, among the monks. After a pause, other change than that of a convenient abbreviation to see how this hindrance can be wholly and asked whether he would hear them in public from five syllables to three, Godmundham. avoided, however honest and zealous indi- or in private? Becket said, as it might please him vidual missionaries may be,-while chris- best,--and then, at his desire, bade the company tians of all denominations live among the withdraw; but presently apprehending some vioprincipal pagan nations, and most established lent proceeding, from Fitzurse's manner, he called them in again from the antechamber, and told the sects make exertions to spread their tenets, Barons, that whatever they had to impart might be and Papist and Protestant, Calvinist and delivered in their presence. Fitzurse required him Arminian, Trinitarian and Unitarian, con- to absolve the suspended and excommunicated prelscientiously believe, each that his opponent ates: He returned the old evasive answer, that it holds dangerous, if not fatal, errors. When it in his power to take it off. A warm altercation was not he who had passed the sentence, nor was the nations of the heptarchy were converted ensued, in which Becket insisted that the king had to christianity, the whole diposable force of authorized his measures, in telling him he might, by christendom, so far as that force was avail- ecclesiastical censures, compel those who had disable for the purposes of proselytism, was at turbed the peace of the church to make satisfaction; the control of the sovereign pontiff. The this, he affirmed, had been said in Fitzurse's preschurch of which he was the supreme head, to that purport;--and indeed Becket himself must ence. Fitzurse denied that he had heard any thing drew into its bosom the finest and strongest have known that if such permission had ever been spirits; it offered not only the best asylum given, it certainly was not in the latitude which he for the meek, but the highest rewards for now chose to represent. the able and ambitious, and the widest scope for the efforts of the active. The extract which we have just quoted, shows us the recompense-it may or may not have been the object-of Paulinus. The missionary pilgrim, after he had won his bishopric, might stretch forth his hand for the cardinal's hat, and hope for the papal tiara. It was a necessary consequence of this state of things, that a large proportion of the moral and intellectual energy of that age was devoted to the work of prosely tism.
The new converts acted with indiscreet zeal in thus destroying what appears to have been the most noted place of heathen worship in Northumbria. It had been the wise advice of Gregory to Mellitus, that the Anglo-Saxou temples should not be demolished; but that he and his fellow-missionaries should cast out and consume the idols, and then purify the buildings themselves with holy water; and erect altars and place relics there, in order that the people might be better disposed to receive the new religion, seeing its rites performed in the fanes which they were wont to frequent. Godmunddingabam having been destroyed, a wooden oratory was hastily erect ed in York for the ceremony of the king's baptism, which was performed there on Easter-day, A. D. 627. A church, of stone, was immediately commenced upon the same spot, inclosing the oratory It was conferred upon Paulinus, as his see, and he superintended the building. The king's example was readily followed by the people; and Paulinus is said to have been employed six-and-thirty days, from morning till evening, in baptizing the multitudes who flocked to him at Yevering. Oratories had not yet been built, nor baptisteries constructed; the converts, therefore, were baptized in rivers, by immersion, according to the practice of those
Mr Southey devotes a chapter to the consideration of the causes which promoted the success of christianity among the AngloSaxons. Contrasted with the slow, imperfect, questionable success of the missionary efforts of these days, it seems indeed miraculous. We cannot give even an abstract of Mr Southey's views upon this subject. Some, perhaps all, of the causes that he assigns for the different results which have attended efforts for a similar purpose in different periods, operated with great force; but we think there were other causes, of which he does not rightly estimate the efficiency. No doubt the missionaries prevailed the more, because they came from Rome, the heart of the civilized world,-the sovereign city, whose name was still great upon the earth, and whose majesty survived in the inherited feelings and opinions of men, long after her actual supremacy had departed. Certainly, too, these missionaries were favoured, in that the paganism they were called to combat, was not deeply rooted in the hearts of the people. The Druids had been chased from their sacred groves by the Romans, whose religion, if religion it was, ere many ages, encountered the horrors of that Scaldic mythology which the Danes brought with them. Thus the heathenism of the Saxons was fluctuating and uncertain; of various origin, and sanctified by no long and universal tradition. It is otherwise with the superstitions with which christianity must cope now; ages have rooted them, and a
The history of the church in England, during that stormy period while the popes and their ministers were perpetually conflicting with the civil government, and almost always subduing it, is very interesting in itself, and loses nothing in the hands of this author. He chooses to relate it by fixing upon prominent individuals, and narrating their lives with great minuteness. Dunstan, Lanfranc, Anselm, and Becket have each many pages given to them. The biography of Becket occupies one hundred pages. At his death, we may say by his death,-the papal power triumphed. We have never seen the particulars of his assassination narrated so circumstantially as in this work; taken in connexion with some passages of his life, they almost compel one to believe, that this turbulent, ambitious, and obstinate rebel, actually believed himself labouring and dying in a good cause.
The result of Henry's counsel was the legal and proper measure of sending over three Barons to arrest Becket. These messengers were too late. The ministers of vengeance, who were before them, landed near Dover, and passed the night in Ranulf had excommunicated on Christmas-day, and to de Broc's castle,-one of the persons whom Becket whom interested motives for his marked enmity to
quired, that he, and all who belonged to him, should The four Barons then, in the king's name, redepart forthwith out of the kingdom, for he had broken the peace, and should no longer enjoy it. Becket replied, he would never again put the sea between him and his church.' Their resolute manner only roused his spirit, and he declared, that if Roman See, or the right of the church, be that man any man whatsoever infringed the laws of the Holy who he would, he would not spare him.-' In vain,' said he, do you menace me! if all the swords in England were brandished over my head, you would find me foot to foot, fighting the battles of the Lord!" He upbraided those of them who had been in his service as chancellor. They rose, and charged the monks to guard him, saying, they should answer for it if he escaped; the knights of his household they bade go with them, and wait the event in silence. Becket followed them to the outer door, saying, he came not there to fly, nor did he value their threats. We will do more than threaten!' was the answer.
Becket was presently told that they were arming themselves in the palace-court. Some of his servants barred the gate, and he was with difficulty persuaded by the monks to retire through the cloisters into the cathedral, where the afternoon service had now begun. He ordered the cross to be borne before him, retired slowly, and to some who were endeavouring to secure the doors, he called out, forbidding to do it, saying, You ought not to make without being shut; neither did I come hither to a castle of the church; it will protect us sufficiently resist, but to suffer. By this time the assailants, after endeavouring to break open the abbey gates, had entered, under Robert de Broc's guidance, through a window, searched the palace, and were now following him to the cathedral. He might still have concealed himself, and not improbably have escaped. But Becket disdained this: with all its errors, his was an heroic mind. He was ascending the steps of the high altar, when the Barons, and their armed followers, rushed into the choir with drawn swords, exclaiming, Where is Thomas à Becket? where is that traitor to the king and kingdom?" No answer was made; but when they called out with a louder voice, Where is the Archbishop?" he then came down the steps, saying, 'Here am I;