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disparaging observation on our manners and guages, there is given a delineation of the The American Indians live in a state of customs, from the other side of the Atlantic. grammatical character of thirty-four Ameri- society which affords every encouragement Our republican feelings have been too ready can languages, and translations of the Lord's to the growth, and every facility for the to be irritated, by any intimations of our prayer into fifty-nine different dialects of development of, the sterner qualities of later birth, and induced us to show rather these languages

. Although much that is buman nature. The men live almost wholly an overweening jealousy, that our elder known upon these subjects is known but by the chase, and its vicissitudes make them brethren were disposed to snub us before imperfectly, and many facts and circum- babitually patient of fatigue and budger;company. But we are bappy to perceive the stances which would throw a strong light their hunting grounds are seldom very acsigns of a time, which is fast approaching, upon important subjects, are probably be- curately divided, and a herd of deer affords when we shall be sensible of our vast superi- yond the reach of investigation; still much a strong temptation to pass such lines of ority in those fundamental points, upon which has been recovered and added to the mass separation as there may be; and thus occathe true prosperity and happiness of a nation of human knowledge, which may be made sions for war are constantly occurring, and must depend; and have too much real pride to yield valuable instruction. All inquiries frequent wars give them all the qualities to be disturbed by any view of our deficiency respecting the Anerican Indians may be proper to the warrior. But their warfare in matters not essential; when we shall feel arranged into four general divisions, -as is rather characterized by stratagem and that there are worse practices than spitting they relate to their character, their religion, surprise than force; they seldom fight openly on the floor, and worse things than bad inns their languages, or their history. There and fiercely until all their tricks, all the and bad coaches; when we shall reflect, that certainly is at the present day a disposition, resources of their ingenuity are exhausted; it is neither impossible, nor very difficult, which is much more amiable than philosoph to be detected and out-manæuvred is almost to macadamize our roads, and induct Betty cal, to give these savages credit for all the the same thing as to be defeated, and the Chambermaid, Dick Ostler, and Sam Boots moral excellence and dignity which is in warrior has more frequent occasion to siginto places that have never get known any degree compatible with their known nalize himself by skill, or sullen, obstinate them; and console ourselves under the condition; and to throw into deep shade, or endurance, than by prowess in fair and open consideration, that these things will cost perhaps apologize for, all those follies and fight; and therefore their courage is passive time and money, by regarding the fearful vices which are attributed to them upon rather than active. Insensibility is with price at which the nations of the old world authority that cannot be questioned This them a point of honour; public esteem is must purchase, if they ever obtain them, is in great part but a reaction from the made to depend upon it, and it is carried to the privileges which we inherit.

prejudices and fears of those days when an extreme which astonishes those who do they were believed to have allied them- not recollect, that all men in all ages have

selves with the powers of darkness,-to equally acknowledged this power of public Sketches of the History, Manners, and Cus. “ kill and destroy by treachery, poison, and opinion; Curtius before the gulf in the fo

toms of the North American Indians. By sorcery ;" —when the courage of our fathers rum, the leader of a forlorn hope in modern James Buchanan, Esq;. His Majesty's quailed before the sad omen of a lunar days, and perhaps the Hindu devotee standConsul for the State of New York. Lon eclipse, because in the centre of the moon ing for weeks upon a pointed cone, all illusdon. 1824. 8vo. pp. 371.

they discerned an unusual black spot, not a trate the power and energy of those feelings This work was written, or rather compiled, little resembling the scalp of an Indian;"- which support the Indian through his deathin this country; but the author is an En- when the venerable Hubbard could find no torture. There is no reason to believe that glishman, in the service of the king of Great language sufficiently expressive of his feel they are by nature inferior in point of inBritain, and his Sketches were published in ings towards these 66 perfidious, cruel, devil. tellect to Europeans, or those of European London. We may therefore consider it as ish, savage miscreants,”—and even went so descent. Education has done for some of an English work, intended principally to give far as to “ hope that God will find some them all that it could do for men born to a foreign people information respecting way to cut off the deceitful enemies of bis among civilized nations, and the instances the aboriginal inbabitants of this country. people, and not suffer them to live out half which have certainly occurred of half-eduThe subject will no doubt be interesting to their days !" Since those days, our relations cated Indians relapsing into an entirely many readers; for our Indians are a pecu- with these savages have changed ;-they savage life, prove little more, than that liar people, in whose history, customs, and now are the oppressed and desolate lew;- there is in the absolute freedom and irrecondition, there is much that will arrest we are the people of the land, and they are sponsibility of these children of the woods, and well reward the attention of every one the scanty, forlorn, and powerless intruders, something which is most fascinating to the who loves to look upon human nature in all who are glad to hide their misery in any weakness and pride of human nature. Many its actual varieties of situation and character. corner whither they may go, when we bid virtues are unquestionably compatible with Learned and able men have laboured to ac- them crawl out of our way. They fought the character which their condition and quaint themselves with every thing that can against us with the arrow, the bullet, and habits both reveal and create. No doubt a now be learned respecting the past and pres- the tomahawk, and they fought in vain;- benevolent and perfectly amiable being like ent generations of this expiring people. In in our contest with them, we have allied our Mr Heckewelder, might remember many our own country great and successful efforts selves with pestilence and famine, and that instances of mildness, forbearance, kindness, have been made to investigate the present far fiercer foe to humanity than either, and pure charity, which occurred during his condition of our Indians thoroughly, and the intemperance; and they are well nigh ex- long intimacy with them. But if, on the scholars of Germany have toiled with their tirpated. When the warwhoop disturbed one hand, it would be unfair not to admit usual energy and success to bring together the repose of our villages, and a savage foe that these instances prove the Indian charall the detached parts and fragments of beset every path, and men were obliged to acter to be capable of an occasional exhi. knowledge, which could be found in the bear their arms with them to the house of bition of these favourable traits; on the many works published in various lan- God, these ferocious and dreadful enemies other, it would be altogether unreasonable guages respecting different subjects con- were of necessity feared and hated beyond to infer from them, that these savages live in nected with different parts of this continent. the degree which different circumstances the habitual exercise of such virtues. Surely Their industry in these researches has been would have justified. For this there was there cannot be any doubt, that the Indians carried to an almost astonishing degree, excuse enough; but it will not be reasona- are rather ferocious than mild, rather im. and rewarded by a proportionate success. ble that we should go to the opposite ex- placable than forgiving, and rather less Probably all the principal customs of the treme, and suffer our sympathy and sorrow honest and trust-worthy than men among Indians are now known, and all of their past for these wretched remnants of nations, or whom deception and stratagem are more history is ascertained which ever can be even our remorse for the miseries we have dishonourable. We do not believe that learned; with respect to their languages, it inflicted upon them, to influence our opinions, there is any great and peculiar mystery in is enough to say, that in the “Miltiades,” when we are investigating their character the Indian character, or that the laws which a work upon the general science of lan- as an important fact in the history of man. I govern human nature in all other cases, do

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not apply in this. They have their virtues Journey to the Northern Ocean, and quoted which I was going. I mentioned the circumstance and their vices, and we see no reason for by Dr Jarvis, in his Discourse delivered be to the chief of the place, and told him that I thought believing that the proportion between the fore the New York Historical Society.

it impossible that we should have rain while the sky

was so clear as it then was, and had been for near good and the bad that is in them, constitutes any very striking difference between them him (Hearne) to kill one of his enemies, who was announced by some signs or change in the atmo

Matonabbee, one of their chiess, had requested five weeks together, without its being previously and other men. With the utmost good-will at that time several hnndred miles distant. To sphere. But the chief answered : Chenos knows to the cause which Mr Buchanan labours to please this great man,' says he, and not expecting very well what he is about; he can at any time advance, we advise him not to rest upon the that any harm could possibly arise from it, I drew predict what the weather will be ; he takes his peculiar excellence of their character, their a rough sketch of two human figures on a piece of observations morning and evening from the river claims to better treatment at our hands than paper, in the attitude of wrestling; in the hand of or something in it.' On my return from this place they have hitherto received.

one of them I drew the figure of a bayonet, pointing after three o'clock in the afternoon, the sky still

to the breast of the other. This,' said I to Maton- continued the same until about four o'clock, when The religious opinions, traditions, and abbee, pointing to the figure which was holding the all at once the horizon became overcast, and withrites of the Indians, have been investigated bayonet, ‘is I, and the other is your enemy.' Op- out any thunder or wind, it began to rain, and conwith great care, and many facts have been posite to those figures I drew a pine tree, over tinued so for several hours together, until the ground ascertained and used in support of many tree projected a human hand. This paper I gave

which I placed a large human eye, and out of the becaine thoroughly soaked. theories. That which has attracted most to Matonabbee, with instructions to make it as pub- of the American aborigines have been

It was not until lately, that the languages attention, identifies these savages with the lic as possible. The following year when he came remains of the ten tribes of Israel. Mr to trade, he informed me that the man was dead. studied with great care; and valuable re

sults have rewarded the labour bestowed Adair, whose means of obtaining knowledge Matouabhee assured me, that the man was in

perrespecting the Indians, were very great, and fect health when he heard of my design against upon these pursuits. Mr Duponceau, who more lately, Dr Boudinot, have urged with bime but almost immediately, afterward became is the best authority upon these subjects,

quite gloomy, and, refusing all kinds of sustenance, and whose authority is indisputable, declares great force, every thing which can be sug-in a very few days died.'

that, the American languages in general gested in support of this hypothesis. Resemblances, some of which seem almost too deavour to confirm this disposition, and ac- cal forms, and that their structure is exceed

Their jugglers and priests, of course, en-are copious both in words and in grammatiexact to be referred to chance, unquestion quire a skill

and facility in carrying through ingly methodical and regular. That their ably exist between many rites and religious their impostures, which might well deceive peculiar and complicated forms, --which he customs observed by the Indians, and those which were imposed by divine authority of a juggler thus employed, which mr all these languages, from one extremity of

a wiser people. An instance of the sagacity calls polysynthetic,—appear to characterize upon the Jews. But it is difficult to ascertain Heckewelder relates, proves at least, that the continent to the other, and that they how far the authority for some of the most important may be relied on; and, without changes in the weather are indicated more differ essentially from those of the dead and adverting to the fatal objections against this distinctly and earlier, than casual observers living languages of the old hemisphere. The

of such things would suppose. theory which may be drawn from the physi

polysynthetic construction of language, Mr cal structure and peculiarities of language drouth happened in the Muskingum country, so that the greatest number of ideas are comprised

In the summer of the year 1799, a most uncommon Duponceau explains to mean, “that in which of the natives of this country, it

may

be

every thing growing, even the grass and the leaves in the least number of words." This is efsafely asserted, that many nations of the of the trees, appeared perishing; an old man named fected in the Indian languages by constructold continent are as closely assimilated to Chenos, who was born on the river Delaware, was the Jews, by an identity of religious ritual, applied to by the women, to bring down rain, and ing compound words, by interweaving toas are the aborigines of this. Somewhat was well feed for the purpose. Having failed in gether the most significant sounds or syllasimilar ceremonies are practised by nations

his first attempt, he was feed a second time; and bles of each simple word, in such a manner who have not gone beyond a certain degree obliged me to pass by the place where he was at those ideas which the primitive words would

it happened that one morning, when my business as to excite in the mind immediately all of civilization in all parts of the world. work, as I knew him very well

, I asked him at once Sacrifices, the worship of the principal what he was doing? 'I am hired," said he, * 10 do have singly expressed; and also by combin

ing the various parts of speech, particularly heavenly bodies, and of spiritual powers in a very hard day's work.' various forms, and some measure of vener

Q. And, pray, what work?

the verb, so that the various forms and inflec

A. Why, to bring down rain from the sky. ation for consecrated periods and places, are

tions will express, with the principal action,

Q. Who hired you to do that? always found among the savage nations of Å. The women of the village ; don't you see how moral and physical subjects connected with

the greatest possible number of the ideas of the old world, and have always

been among much rain is wanted, and that the corn and every it. Thus there are many words of these them, if we may trust to the evidence of thing else is perishing? records, and of monuments which go back

Q. But can you make it rain ?

languages, which are made to convey very beyond all record; and they are now ascer

A. I can, and you shall be convinced of it this different ideas by the simple addition or subvery day.

traction of a letter. “Wunachquin” means tained to bave existed among all the tribes He had, by this time, encompassed a square of the nut of a tree, the leaves of which reof American Indians. Perhaps the only about five feet each way, with stakes and barks, so conclusion which can be rationally deduced that it might resemble a pig pen of about three feet semble a hand;" and "nadholineen” means

come with the canoe, and take us across from these facts, is, that all the religions in in height, and now, with his face uplifted and turned the world had one common origin;-that closely shuuing up with bark the opening which between the northern and southern lan

towards the north, he muttered something, then the river.” With regard to the similarity there was a time when the parents of the had been left on the north side, he turned in the inhabitants of the earth knew, from sources same manner, still muttering some words, towards guages, in respect of grammatical conwhich are now closed, that God is, and what the south, as if invoking some superior being, and struction, we will give Mr Duponceau's He is, and what are the laws and relations having cut through the bark on the southwest cor- own words. It will be remembered, that which govern and connect the various parts her, so as to make an opening of two feet, he said: such is the difference between the words of of his creation ;--and that as the weakness the river the sound of setting poles striking against nations of America can understand each

* now we shall have rain enough!' Hearing down these different languages, that the principal and wickedness of men varied in character a canoe, he inquired of me what it was? I told him other no better, than different nations in and measure, this knowledge was lost or it was our Indians going up the river to make a bush perverted in different modes and degrees. net for fishing. Send them home again!" said he ; | Europe or Asia.

*tell them that this will not be a fit day for fishing! Perhaps there have been no nations more

I beg leave to adduce one single example to illusI told him to let them come on, and speak to them trate the extraordinary similarity which subsists superstitious than the Indians; many in himself, if he pleased. He did so, and as soon as between the languages of the north and south. The stances are known of individuals losing all they came near him, he told them that they must Abbé Molina, amidst a number of compound verbs strength and health, from the anxiety and by no means think of fishing that day, for there in the Araucanian language, instances the verb horror which some unlucky omen or fearful should come a heavy rain which would wet them iduancloclavin,' 'I do not wish to eat with him. circumstance had caused, and literally dying in a jocular manner, give us only rain, and we any similar verb in the Delaware, and he immedi

all through. No matter, Father!' answered they I once asked Mr Heckewelder whether there was from the fear of death. A remarkable in- will cheerfully bear the soaking. They then passed ately gave me n'schingiwipoma, 'I do not like to stance of this is related by Hearne, in his / on, and I proceeded to Goschachking, the village to cat with him.' A stronger feature of resemblance

9

in point of grammatical construction between the languages and antiquities should discover ways of each of these two entrenchments, which lay idioms of nations placed at such an iminense dis distinctly their origin and successive condi- within a mile of each other, were a number of large tance from , , be , and with this and the references I have above made; tions, or that any record should be any where fat mounds, in which the Indian pilot said, were

buried hundreds of the slain Talligewi, whom I shall I believe I may, for the present, rest satisfied. * *

discovered, which would tell them and us bereafter, with Colonel Gibson, call Alligewi. Of Indeed, from the view which he (Mr Heckewelder) whence they came, and through what these entrenchments, Mr Abraham Steiner, who was offers of the Lenni Lenape idiom, it would rather changes they have passed. But if these with me at the time when I saw them, gave a very appear to have been formed by philosophers in their nations have no records, they have tradi- accurate description, which was published at Pbilaclosets, than by savages in the wilderness. If it should be asked how this can bave happened, I can tions, and the authority of these traditions delphia, in 1789 or 1790, in some periodical work

,

the name of which I cannot at present remember. only answer, that I have been ordered to collect is confirmed by many unquestionable facts.

If these traditions are believed, they still and ascertain facts, not to build theories. There it is known, by the character of their lanremains a great deal yet to be ascertained, before guages, that the inhabitants whom our leave the earlier history of these tribes unwe can venture to search into remote causes.

known. But the same obscurity enwraps fathers found in possession of the vast re

the origin of other nations. There seems The peculiarities of the Indian languages gions of this continent, may be arranged

sufficient reason for supposing that the are considered, by those competent to de- in three principal divisions, viz. the more cide upon the subject, as decisive against civilized "Indians in Middle and South American Indians are all a kindred people the hypothesis of their Hebrew origin. We America, as the Mexicans and Peruvians; with the Asiatic aborigines; and that one would only remark upon one fact, which the Lenni Lenape with their kindred tribes; America the ancestors of that people who

overflow from the heart of Asia poured into seems to us to suggest an argument that we and the Huron or Iroquois nations. Besides do not recollect to have seen urged. The these, there are the Esquimaux in the north, were afterwards driven south, by hordes of Jews were separated from the nations for and many smaller and disconnected tribes in savages who escaped from the opposite conthe sake of the Scriptures, which were to the south. The mounds and barrows in tinent when it bad again become too crowded be given them; a characteristic of these North America authorize the belief, that for all its inhabitants to remain there and

live. Scriptures is, that they teach the absolute other nations once dwelt here before those existence of the Deity. Now this is a truth who were found here. The Lenni Lenape Clinton, in his Discourse delivered before

This hypothesis was advanced by Mr which no Indian language can express. An have a distinct tradition to this effect,—that Indian cannot speak of being, without also many hundred years since, they resided far and supported by no less eloquence than

the New York Historical Society, in 1811, describing the mode of being; he cannot to the westward of the Mississippi. That, am eating,” but “ l'eat;" there is no word ney, they reached the Mississippi, and found tion of it many traditions and facts of rasay, “I am walking,” but “I walk,”—“I having begun to migrate, after a long jour: ingenuity; Since then, Mr Heckewelder's

Historical Account has brought in confirmayet discovered in any Indian language, the Mengwe or Iroquois, who had likewise which answers to the verb to be. It is emigrated from a distant region, and struck rious kinds, which Mr Clinton could not

a therefore a singular fact, that the phrase this river somewhat higher up. They had anticipate, which may be called the definition of God's ascertained by their spies, that a powerful

Of the literary character of Mr Buchancannot be, as far as is yet known, precisely on the eastern side of this

river. This peo without much method or purpose. Of the 371 nature given by himself, “I am that I am," people, who had many large towns, dwelt an's work, much cannot be said. It is merely

a compilation from well known writers, made and adequately translated into any language ple were called the Talligewi or Alligewi, not of European origin, which is spoken on and the Alleghany river and mountains were pages which his book contains, an Appendis, this continent. Mr Duponceau speaks of named from them. When attacked by the consisting, wholly of extracts, occupies 59; this circumstance, in a note to a part of his Lenape and Mengwe, they were generally Report, both inserted entire, fill 100 more ;

Dr Jarvis' Discourse and Mr Duponceau's Report on the Languages of the American defeated ; their fortifications were taken, and of the remainder, Mr Heckewelder supIndians.

and they were obliged to migrate to the Molina, in his Grammar of the Othomi language, south leaving the invading tribes in pos, and speeches, mostly' reprinted from very

plies a large portion, and Indian treaties gives the conjugation of a verb, which, he says, session of the countries in which they had corresponds to the Latin sum, es, fui ; but I am in. dwelt. We suppose that these Alligewi common books, make up almost all that is clined to believe that be is mistaken, and that this became the Mexicans and Peruvians. The

left. We do not think that Mr Buchanan verb answers to stare, sto

, as in the other American Lenni Lenape often call themselves by the can point out fifty pages of his own writing,

, used in conjunction with an adjective, and that to generic name of Wapanachki, or “Men of and those which appear to be his, are cerexpress

, for instance, I am rich, the adjective takes the East;” and, unless we greatly misrecol- tainly not the most valuable parts of the the form of a verb, and is itself conjugated, as in lect, Humboldt mentions à common tradi- work. From the Preface, we had expected Latin, sopio, “I am wise, frigeo, "I am cold. Nor tion among the Mexicans, that their fathers a somewhat different course; he says, is it ever used as an auxiliary in the conjugation of had come from the north. It would seem

I had abandoned all intention of placing myself other verbs. Therefore I do not see how it can be

before the public; but upon my arrival in London applied in its mere substantive sense. In the Mexi- that the Lenape bave pointed out some of in the summer of 1820, having casually spoken of can language, Zenteno acknowledges that it is abso- the forts or mounds which have excited so the interest I bad taken in the present state of the lutely wanting, and that it is impossible to translate much wonder, as the fortifications of the North American Indians, it was suggested, that from into that idiom the I am that I am,' of the sacred Alligewi. We extract the following from my observations and researches, which extended 10 writings. (Arte Mexic. p. 30). I have in vain Heckewelder's Historical Account.

other tribes than those more particularly noticed by endeavoured to obtain a translation of that sentence

Mr Heckewelder, together with extracts from such into Delaware from Mr Heckewelder, and I believe Many wonderful things are told of this famous parts of his useful and interesting volume, as tend to it cannot be literally rendered into any American people. They are said to have been remarkably confirm and illustrate the facts I had collected, or language.

tall and stout, and there is a tradition that there the views I had taken of the subject, the public Strong proof is requisite to make a rational were giants among them, people of a much larger might be presented with a work, in sone degree mind believe, that the Hebrew language tbey had built to themselves regular fortifications favour of the Indians.

size than the tallest of the Lenape. It is related that calculated to facilitate the adoption of measures in could be so changed by any circumstances, or entrenchments, from whence they would sally as that, while it became greatly improved out, but were generally repulsed. 'I have seen

Upon the whole, while we acknowledge in some important respects, it should have many of the fortifications said to have been built by that Mr Buchanan may do some good, by lost the power of conveying an idea, or them, two of which, in particular, were remarkable. helping to spread the knowledge of facts, rather a proposition, which, in its original which empties itself into the Lake St Clair, on the are compelled to say, that his endeavours to

One of them was near the mouth of the river Huron, which have been long before the public, we forun, it expressed with wonderful force and north side of that lake, at the distance of about add to the information which other writers exactness, and upon which depends every twenty miles northeast of Detroit. This spot of thing which gives to that language a value ground was, in the year 1796, owned and occupied had given, have been wholly fruitless. or sanctity.

by a Mr Tucker. The other works, properly enThe early history of these tribes is prob- thrown up, with a deep ditch on the outside, were

trenchments, being walls or banks of earth regularly Conversations on Natural Philosophy ; in bly lost forever. It seems almost unreason on the Huron river, east of the Sandusky, about six

which the Elements of that Science are faable to hope, that further inquiries into their or eight miles from Lake Erie, Outside of the gate- miliarly explained, and adapted to the

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comprehension of Young Pupils. Illus- | the answers to the questions, it will be isting state of society. Such excellencies trated with Plates. By the author of necessary to read, and read carefully, the or defects of character are exhibited as “ Conversations on Chemistry,and Con- whole of the context; this, we conceive, is are common to many in these days, and versations on Political Economy.Im- all that is necessary to be done. The sys- they are rewarded by a recompense of proved by Appropriate Questions for the tem, indeed, of arranging school books by good or evil, for which reality may afford Examination of Schools ; also by Illustra- questions and answers, is by no means new, sufficient precedent. But in the Crusaders tive Notes, and a Dictionary of Philo- and we were induced to make these re- she goes back to the 12th century, and desophical Terms. By the Rev. J. L. Blake, marks, because we have heard doubts start- scribes persons and events which can now &c. Seventh American edition. Boston. ed with regard to their utility.

be only imagined. We are not so well 1825. 12mo. pp. 252

The position of the plates in the present pleased with this tale as with most of its We avail ourselves of the opportunity af- edition is better than it is in the former; predecessors

. It does not seem to us so forded us by the publication of a new edi- we think they would have been still more successful in its purpose of usefulness ;

improved had they been constructed so that the lessons which it teaches are not taught tion of this deservedly popular work, to recommend it, not only to those instructers

who they might be unfolded and placed immedi- so impressively ;-the advantages of integmay not already have adopted it, but also ately under the eye of the learner while rity, courage, and perseverance in good generally to all readers who are desirous reading the explanation in the text

. Mr conduct are inculcated, but it is by exam

Blake has also added many Notes which ples which cannot be realized. Some of of obtaining information on the subjects of

illustrate the passages to which they are which it treats. The book itself has been

our readers may thank us for a brief ablong before the public.

appended, and the Dictionary of Philosoph- stract of this tale.
Mrs Bryan, the
ical Terms is an useful addition.

Theodore, the hero, is educated in obauthor, is advantageously known by her

scurity by a woman of humble rank, who treatises on Chemistry, and on Political

While attending a Economy, both of which are so excellent Theodore, or the Crusaders. A Tale for passes for his aunt: in their kind, that they are in general Youth. By Mrs Hoffland, author of « The tournament, given in honour of the nupuse in our schools and colleges; and unless Son of a Genius," The Daughier of a

tials of a neighbouring noble, he is of some we are much mistaken, this work has also Genius," and other Tales for Young service to the bridegroom, and is invited taken its place as a text-book in many of People. Boston. 1824. 12mo. pp. 180. by his father to accompany him to the Holy

Land. He goes, endears himself particuour literary institutions. But it is not so It is seldom that authors meet with more larly to king Richard, is taken prisoner by much our purpose to add to the general decided success than has attended Mrs Saladin, and resists every endeavour to voice, in commendation of the work itself, Hofland's later productions. She has obey- shake his faith and convert him to Islamism. as to call the attention of the public to the ed the spirit of the age, which calls upon Upon the peace, which Richard concluded present edition of it.

The editor has in- gifted minds to use their strength in the with Saladin, he recovered his freedom, troduced some valuable improvements, and service of the young. She has imagina- and after being instrumental in procuring tbrown it into a form that particularly re- tion, knowledge, good taste, industry, and the release of Richard from the German commends itself to the instructers of youth. all other qualities, if any other there are, prisons, he returns with him to England, Any one who is conversant with these sub- which may encourage an author to hope for and soon after discovers that he is of high jects, cannot but have observed, that in fame, and to seek it; but she has sought rank, and heir to large estates, and recog, comınitting lessons for recitation, the pupil and found something better. Her name nises in his mother a captive whom he had is very apt to select those passages which will not go down to posterity, as one who known at the court of Saladin. are most easily committed, and which are entertained or deeply interested the read

It must be obvious, from this slight not generally those expressive of the more ing world, and made large and lasting ad- sketch of the story, that it affords opporimportant facts; and all the urgings of the ditions to the literary treasures of the age, - tunity for introducing many interesting master, in whatever shape they may be but she will be remembered by parents scenes. That which represents Cæur de conveyed, are found insufficient to lead who love to give their children books which Lion, upon his trial for the murder of the them to select for themselves those parts of will profit while they amuse them, and suc- Marquis of Montserrat, before the emperor the sentence which convey the principal cessive generations will recollect in their and princes of Germany, is particularly information. Under such circumstances, maturer years, with grateful acknowledge- well drawn. This tale will be the more the next resource of the instructer is to meni the pleasure which they owed to her in useful from the author's faithful adherence point out to the pupil, viva voce, the lead- earlier days. It is impossible that her tales to historical truth in all the principal charing facts to which particular attention should not interest all who are capable of acters and events. must be paid, and in which he will be chief- understanding and enjoying them, or that ly examined. After all his labour and use they should fail of doing good to those less exhaustion of lungs, the only point whom they interest, if they are capable The Badge. A Moral Tale. By the author gained may be, that the pupil has selected of improvement. They are professedly and

of the Factory Girl, James Talbot, fc. as worthy of peculiar attention, another actually written for children; the moral

Boston. 1824. 18mo. pp. 33. part equally unimportant with that from of each one of them is distinct, obvious, The writer of this tale is favorably known which he has been driven, and equally re- and never forgotten; the incidents and to the public as the author of several little quiring new explanations, new urgings, characters all refer to it; and not only the stories. We had occasion to notice one of and new recitations; till the instructer, general result of the story, but every part them, “The Factory Girl," in a former numwearied by these repeated and fruitless at- of it, is made to enforce the useful truth, ber. The story now before us has the same tempts, has recourse to his pencil, and which the whole is intended to inculcate. good objects in view with that, but is designmarks between brackets those definitions Still, the didactic character of her works ed for a rather younger class of readers. and explanations of which particular ac- interferes so little with their power of amus- The Badge seems to us, to perform all the count must be given. If he does this, the ing and their general literary merit, that promise of its title page;-it is truly a moral probability is, that those only which are mature and cultivated minds may and do tale ; and its morality is not only pure and ihus marked will be the parts committed. read them with pleasure.

elevated, but is adapted to the comprehenTo Mr Blake then are instructers as well In the work now before us she has de- sion of children, and presented to them in a as pupils much indebted. By questions ar- parted somewhat from her usual course. manner which must be attractive. The ranged at the bottom of the pages in In her former tales some individual whose story is interesting; and it is written in a which the collateral facts are arranged, he character and condition belong to her very free, animated, and graceful style, and directs the attention of the learner to the country and to this age, is made to pass with a simplicity and good faith which many principal topics ; and a slight inspection will through a variety of circumstances wbich authors of more ambitious fictions might make it apparent, that in order to get at are not at variance with the actually ex- envy. It is evidently the production of one

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296 familiar with the character and babits of|to tempt men into enterprises of great haze i real harmony in its compound being ;-wben children, and their peculiar modes of think- ard, which have been repeatedly made the mind proposes to itself, a great object, ing and speaking, and of one who feels a without success, and which have not un- beset with difficulties, all of which are to deep interest in their welfare. We are frequently terminated in the death of a come into contact with, and to act upon frequently reminded of Miss Edgeworth by greater or lesser number of the party im- the body.

the experience in the Some of the best examples of this are the unaffected graces of expression; by the mediately concerned. felicity with which the most suitable occa- Africa is most commonly adduced in an- voyagers and travellers. Other men will sions are seized upon for inaking a moral im- swer to this inquiry, and surely there is find others. The armies and navies of the pression upon the youthful mind; and, above enough in that experience to make the world may be looked to for them, and, all, by the fascination of truth and nature, beart sink, though it may not settle the without doubt, admirable ones might bé so hard to be analyzed, but which ever question. What are the motives, it is ask- found in both. These, however, are not claims the attention to the passing page. ed, to these undertakings; and do the ends instances precisely of what we have now in Children, however, are of course the best justify the means? Is it a contingent or view. They are not parallel cases. The judges of what interests them; and the voices a certain good you have in view, and is life motives of all are not alike, and their of all whom we have questioned upon the ever to be jeopardized by a mere contin objects are far different. They differ prinsubject, are unanimous in favor of the Badge. gency! Shall we minister to enthusiasm, cipally in this; that while one of them has

The following letter is so charming and when death is in its progress; or patronize a specific object in view, and pursues it faithful a representation of the feelings of genius, when the road it makes for itself with tried means, the other has an object boy hood, that we cannot deny ourselves the has in and about it a reality of horror and to find, and feels his means to be purely pleasure of giving it to our readers. danger, which could hardly be equalled by contingent. This last lays his account M*****, Oct. 22, 1824.

its wildest imaginings ? Shall we tempt with conjecture at best, and goes without MY DEAR BROTHER,

men from the safety and comfort of home, the poor meed of human probability, where As I can't write joining hand yet, Mrs Mason to the desolate and waste places of the human nature, as he has known it, has nev. said if I would tell her the words I wanted to send earth, and be made happy and famous our er been; nothing remains with him but the to you, she would write them down. First then, I selves, by the only half-voluntary misery of consciousness of his own identity, and the thank you for your letter, and dear mamma for the others? These, and many similar questions sustaining persuasion, that if he has desertbooks she sent. On, Charles, it is very pleasant here; I have got a beautiful play-ground, it is all have been asked, by the readers of travels ed the works of man, he is stiil among the even, and the grass is very green ; and I can begin and voyages. As abstract questions, they works of God. The motives of these two at the front door with my horse or wheelbarrow might be answered negatively. It is wrong classes of men are widely different. A and run all round the house without any fence to to furnish means for enterprises which are warrior is moved by something foreign to stop me; and then at the side of this great yard always dangerous, and frequently fatal, and himself. He has do pecessary concern there is a hill-if it was winter I could coast down it. I thought till yesterday I did not want any thing the accomplishment of which may be un- with the occasion or purpose of his acting. but to bave you come. But oh, Charles, yesterday important however successful. But this is He has a prescribed field of duty, and something happened—I hate to come to that—but ! not the kind of reasoning which is at all though it may be wide and responsible, it must tell you about my poor paroquet. When applicable to the present case. Voyages has limits, which others have fixed. He came home from school Mrs Mason gave me a seed and travels are not necessarily more dan- meets his fellow, though it may be only to cake, and I ran to the cage to give Pinky some, but he would not come forward to take it; he stood on gerous than many other, and far more com- kill; and is social though cruel. The men his perch, and looked dull, and would not speak a

mon pursuits. And when we consider the of whom we speak are moved by the imword ; presently his head shook a little, and then he character, the whole intellectual state of pulse of their own mind. They owe nothfell right down on the bottom of the cage. I believe I those who undertake them, and follow them ing to circumstances such as ordinarily afcried very loud, for Mrs Mason came, and she took in the path of danger, and mark their un- fect men. Opportunity is all they require. Pinky out of the cage, and she said he had a fit; he subdued endurance of evil in all its forms They can learn but little, if any thing, came to a little, but he fell down again and then he died. Oh Charles, I cried a great deal ; and I feel and in almost all its degrees, we trust them from others; for the peculiarity of their vodull now, and I almost wish mamma would come for fearlessly and hopefully wherever they may cation consists in this, that it generally nie. But I will try to stay as long as she wants me go. Nor is the want of success to be urg- calls them where other men have never to. My dutiful love to dear Father and Mother; ed against these pursuits. They are never been. If they learn any thing, it is to and give my love to your paroquet; and send me entirely unsuccessful. If nothing new is foretell the misery that probably awaits word whether he talks as much as ever; it makes me laugh now when I think how smart he looks discovered about the earth, something new them. when he hollows out, "Charley is a good boy." is learned of the mind. It is showed to us, We know of no beings who excite so inWhy cannot you teach him tu say, “ Eddy is a good in these instances, in new aspects and un- tense an interest as these voyagers and trav. boy." Poor Pinky had almost learned it when he der new circumstances. It seems in them ellers. Their histories, or journals as they died. Your affectionate Brother,

an irresistible power, and we come at better and more truly call them, have an EDWARD EDGERLY.

length to be more, far more surprised at interest with us akin to that of works of This story in some few passages betrays failure than success.

fiction. There is a high poetry in all their marks of haste and carelessness in the com

The exercise of human power is most conceptions. They have the widest field position. It seems to us also that the author striking when the body, as in these cases, for the imagination in the scenes of their has not succeeded in giving a very distinct is made immediately the agent of the mind. fearless choice ; and, as if there was a resemidea of patriotism. But these defects de- When the body must suffer to the farthest blance, between the conceptions of a bold tract but slightly from the merits of a work, point of human endurance, and live. We mind, and the realities of unknown regions, which cannot but prove highly agreeable

are accustomed to look upon the pure, un- we find coincidences which sometimes asand instructive to those for whom it is de- mixed labours of the mind, as upon the tonish and always delight us. Their jour signed.

greatest results of the exercise of human nals, the faithful records of what they daily power. The poet and the moralist are the see and daily suffer, though made up of

exception and the example, when we would little more than human experience in an MISCELLANY.

contrast ages, or illustrate them. But in unknown region, have the power of a work these instances the mind has been alone in of the fancy. We have a hero who is inits labours, the body has been at rest, and deed one of ourselves, and who powerfully

it may be, has fared sumptuously every day. teaches us what we should in like circum“Cælum et animum."

They have hardly sustained their human stances surely feel. The difficulty with us

relations to each other, and we have talked is to reconcile what we read with the noIt has been seriously questioned whether of the men as divine, nay, called them so tions we have of human sufferance derived governments or individuals have, in strict Human nature is in its perfect proportions, from our own experience in ourselves. We morals, any right, by bounty or otherwise, when it furnishes us with an instance of I have never been out of the human race.

TRAVELLERS AND VOYAGERS.

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