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THE UNITED STATES LITERARY GAZETTE.
-Terms, $5 per annum, payable in July.
Published on the first and fifteenth day of every month, by Cummings, Hilliard, & Co. No. 1 Cornhill, Boston.-
BOSTON, JANUARY 1, 1826.
culties, has learned little of its precepts, and a deep feeling of reverence and dependence.
imbibed little of its spirit in the purer days Early associations, as well domestic as poliLetters on the Gospels. By Miss Hannah of his own being. While we are thus dis- tical and religious, were unreluctantly given
posed to ascribe much of the obscurity which up by his followers, wherever they interAdams. Boston. 1824. 18mo. pp. 216.
has been charged on Christianity to the state fered at all with the service he required of It has been objected to Christianity, that it of mind of the objector, we as freely ac- them. It was on their part the unheard of is not sufficiently simple for the mass of men; knowledge that there is much in it which service of self-devotion to God, and to man, that its doctrines are obscure, and not always requires explanation. This is particularly with the strange condition and early expereconcilable with one another. It is said, the case with all those parts of it which re- rience, of contempt, hatred, hardship, and more time is required of men to learn the fer to circumstances of place, manners, and suffering. Still it was undertaken and perrule of duty than their condition and occu- character of the age in which Jesus Christ formed. If imperfectly, this was not on acpations allow. It has mysteries, it is added, appeared.
count of any reservation in favour of former which are too deep for comprehension; and, There are two circumstances in its his- practice or belief. It was the reservation of nevertheless, these are articles of faith, and tory, about which we shall make a passing nature, and belonged to that infirmity which unless they are believed, the main pillars of remark, not because of any obscurity, but was essential to their human condition. Still Christianity are wanting,—our faith is vain. because they are parts of its evidence, and a vast change was made, a great effect was
These and other objections are urged because they have a connexion with the re- produced. A new standard of excellence against christianity, by individuals of vari- marks we are about to offeron the work named was given to men, and they were made betous conditions and different ages. They at the head of this article. One of these is ter by it. derive some of their claims to consideration the character, the life, and doctrines of the This effect was produced by the character from the classes who bring them; and there author of the religion, when contrasted with and instructions of Jesus Christ. We have is one class, which, while it furnishes most the times in which he lived. The other is already spoken of the first. It remains to instances, has still other claims on our re- the effect produced by all these on his fol- speak more fully of the last. The prevailing gard. It is the class of the young, who are lowers. Jesus Christ spoke as no man had character of the Gospels, which contain these coming into life ; who are making their way ever spoken before, and lived as no man had instructions, is naturalness. They were inin the world; who have good dispositions, ever lived. He is alone amidst his own age, decd accompanied and enforced by miracles. and whose characters are to be much formed and all the preceding. We have no difficulty | But these, however wonderful and appalling by things without and around them. The in finding him; and learn nothing of his his when they were wrought, never occupy the religious character to these is of great value. tory in that of any portion of our race. He front ground. They are subservient and They are within the reach of many and va- is without prejudice, where it was most ex- secondary every where to the instructions, rious influences. There is a joyousness inclusive; a disinterested and wide lover of the doctrines themselves. Jesus Christ did not their natures, which is occupied with every man, where selfishness was a tolerated prin- come to our earth to astonish its inhabitants thing they see and hear. Their natures go ciple both of religion and philosophy. Claim- by his wonderful works. His sole purpose before them in the pursuit of happy things; ing and demonstrating a direct communica- was to exalt and purify the moral nature, and they are never wearied, for variety is tion with beaven, he is poor and houseless and to fit it for the eternity which was its always before them. It is of great conse- on the earth.
destiny. Men were not to be forced into quence to such a state of mind, that the ob- Now this is wholly unlike all that had virtue any more than they had been before. ject which most interests it, should be of the been known of man before. Human expe. No overwhelming influence is exerted any least questionable character. It must be rience had never met with its likeness. In where in his bistory. He is said to have obvious and simple, while it is lovely. It all the preceding times men retained some- taught as one having authority; but it was should be lasting in its nature, to corres- thing of the earlier ages, and were fair pro- the authority of knowledge. He knew the pond with the natural freshness which every ducts of their own. Times indeed have their whole extent of moral infirmity, and while day will bring to it. It should be animating livery, but the latest is always some modi- he mourned over the ruin, he loved it; and in its interest, that the tone of the mind be fication of the preceding. Human infirmity was bent on its restoration (the object of his not weakened. It should be of perpetual has descended in an unbroken succession. coming), let the sacrifice to him personally and increasing interest, because the mind It is the strongest feature in the moral crea- be what it might. He knew what it would enlarges with its objects, and when these tion. A moral naturalist would find in it be, and its whole effect on the human race. are exhausted, it will swell over and beyond one of the strong characters by which to With such knowledge, and with such a purthem.
determine and describe the species. Jesus posé, the authority of his instructions was Now Christianity is, of all others, the Christ has not this cbaracter of human iden- felt and acknowledged by strangers and by subject itself about which such a state of tity, and in this simple fact, he comes to us friends. His instructions belong, if we may mind may be most safely and usefully em- with an hitherto unknown claim, not merely use the expression, to the mind itself. They ployed. Much that distinguishes it from all to distinction, but to belief.
reach its wants in their utmost extent and others, fits it especially for the susceptibility The miracle of his own character had its variety. They belong to it, because their of our natures when young. It brings dis effect on the followers of Jesus Christ. It effect is to give to it its highest dignity; and tinctly into view a character as lovely as rua counter to all their expectations, and thus to fit it for the eternity which they it is elevated; one who was particularly at disappointed their strongest hopes. But it every where declare to be its portion. They tracted by the beauty and simplicity of our was in beautiful harmony with all they were bring out, and keep in operation the whole nature, as exhibited in the young, and who taught, and with all the preternatural they powers of the mind; for their direct effect is even made children the illustrators of his witnessed. It thus became and continued to give it an interest, and the strongest insublimest doctrines. A work by such an a part, and a most important part, of the terest too, in topics wholly intellectual, such author must be fitted for such an age, and evidence on which the claims of Jesus Christ as its owo nature and purposes; the being it may be, that he who objects to it its diffi rested. With the belief was closely allied and attributes of God; the means of Korai
purity; and the relation of this to the fu-, and more readily convinced by a material, has afforded us to find that even literary ture state.
representation, than by an unadorned doc- conflicts may leave the moral dignity unThis character of the Gospels deserves trine; and would see the truth in an illustra- hurt, and to find that this latest work of a special notice, when taken in connexion tion, where the simple annunciation of the life devoted to letters, should have so truly with the prevailing opinions and doctrines same truth would be either not received or the spirit of the subject to which it is deof the times in which their author lived. It not applied. This was not true of the first voted. We close with a single extract, and does so in the next view we shall take of it. Christians merely. It is true of all men, with an unhesitating recommendation of the The instructions of Jesus Christ were not and of all ages. Jesus Christ availed him- volume to our readers. given for the use of a particular set of men, self of these facts in our moral history, and Our blessed Lord continues his discourse, by inor for a limited period of time. They are at the same time availed himself of every culcating heavenlymindedness, and the practice of designed for all ages, and for all men. It circumstance, however local or however virtues, to which the Jewish teachers were generalis in their leading, their sole object, that temporary, which might give attractiveness ly strangers. He warns bis hearers against covetthis unlimited purpose must be looked for; or power to his instructions. He used the tice of the Pharisees, who were very avaricious,
ousness; and reprehends, in particular, the pracand it is in the fact, that this object cannot intellectual and the physical language of and very much devoted to the world. They rebe wholly attained on earth, but may be the times. His doctrines were new, but sorted to any measures just or unjust, to obtain approached more and more nearly, that they they were for the mind as he found it, and riches. Our Saviour exhorted his hearers not to present a perpetual motive for the highest for the mind as it always would be. His : lay up treasures on earth, where moth and rust efforts. The great object of these instruc- illustrations are borrowed from the serene do corrupt, and where thieves break through and
steal.' In the Eastern countries, where the fashion tions being thus to act upon the mind and sky over his head, and from the beautiful of clothes did not alter, as with us, the treasures of heart, the direct effect upon the individual flowers in his path. The high mountain, the rich consisted not only of gold and silver, but is to preserve in him the consciousness of and the deep valley; the vast ocean, and of costly habits, and finely wrought vessels, liable his being an intellectual being. Now we the narrow river; the fowl of heaven, and to be destroyed in the manner here mentioned. Our value fairly what we have, just so far as we the wild beast of the desert, the whole ma- their treasure be on earth, there would their hearts
divine Instructer assured his hearers, that, should know its nature and its uses. And we value terial creation, are all made means of in. be also. Ye cannot,' says he serve two masters;
. ourselves too in an exact proportion to our struction. The same is true of habits and ye cannot serve God and Mammon.' Mammon direct influence upon others, by means we manners; and even etiquette, perhaps the was a Syrian word, signifying riches, which are understand, as well as can command. A most evanescent of them all, contributes here represented under the figure of a person wbo man who feels he has a mind, and knows so its share in unfolding the deepest myste- has been deified or rather been raised to universal much about it as to be conscious of its oper- ries, and discovering the most sublime and dominion by the folly of mankind. ations, and has found his dignity and his awful truths. If there be an apparent in- extreme anxiety respecting our earthly subsistence,
Our Lord proceeds to caution his hearers against pleasure too in these, has a real and lasting consistency in this, its reason and its motive and gives a striking exhortation to trust in the possession in himself. The mind is no longer are deep seated in ourselves. In this late day, providential care of our heavenly Father.
It addthe mere instrument of circumstances, and is not the providence of God as freqnently ed a peculiar force to our Saviour's words, that adapted to these by accident, as the eye and rocognized and acknowledged in the protec- they were delivered in view of the surrounrting the ear are to the distances of different ob- tion it affords to the sparrow or the lily, as the air, and the flowers of the field, and show his
beauties of nature. He could point to the fowls of jects of sight or sound. It is felt to be a in its daily care for us? and are not the auditors, that the whole creation attested the truth power of vast and strange attributes, plan- storms of the unconscious elements more of his instructions. “Behold the fowls of the air: ning all, and doing all
. The Gospels
have eloquent and powerful with us, than the in- for they sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather this power every where in view. Their telligent nature, the strong power of con- them ; are ye not much better than they?. The
into barns, and yet your beavenly father feedeth purpose with it is its indefinite progress to-science, the noble intellect, with which God ravens
, in particular, are mentioned in Luke's Goswards the good and the great. They distinct has endowed us ?
pel, and our Lord, in directing his disciples to trust ly call upon men to recognize this power in This clothing of bis instructions with the in God for their subsistence, bids them consider the all they do, and in the perfection of its oper- times and places in which they were given, ravens. It may appear to some surprising, that so ations with us, it reveals to us some of the is a cause of obscurity to us, with whom abject a creature should be so frequently recoguised mysteries of a spiritual being. times are so altered, and places so wholly Preserver of all things. When the Most High
in Scripture, as an object of care to the Maker and 'We have been led to these reflections by unlike. But the scholar of the bible reads challenge. Job out of the whirlwind, he demanded, the design of the author, in the “Letters on it with its history; and the obscurity van • Who provided for the raven his food? When his the Gospels,” as stated in the Preface. They ishes. Our author has done it for those young ones cry unto God, they wander for lack of are written for the young, to enable “them who have not time or incliaation for a col- meat.
The Psalmist uses it as an argument for to read the New Testament with more pleas- lateral history, and thus has inade the Gos praising God. "The Lord giveth food to the young
ravens which cry. The ravens are sometimes ure and advantage, and that they may be pels accessible to the young. This little driven rather prematurely from their nest, before induced to make the sacred Scriptures the volume is written with great simplicity. they are all able to subsist by their own industry
; object of their daily study, the role of their The language is perfectly fitted to the In this case, pinched with hunger, and abandoned life, and their guide to everlasting happiness.” author's great object. She writes as one by their parents, they fill the air with their cries; The difficulties which it is in part the ob- always may, who has habitually, and for a destitute and helpless condition. Nor do they can
as it were complaining to God concerning their ject of these Letters to explain, may seem long time, thought seriously about, and in vain, the Almighty Benefactor supplies all their to contradict the views offered above. The studied her subject. It seems the ordinary wants. But the care of Providence is not confined Gospels were said to be perfect in their occupation of her mind, that she has car- to the young. It extends also to their parents character, and of perpetual and universal ried to her book ; not the result of its oc- (who • neither sow nor reap, bare neither store application. They allude, however, to much casional direction, and after long intervals. house nor barn”), and provides food for them from
his inexhaustible stores. Even the meanness of that was purely local and temporary, and it is hence all equally well done, and the the character of this bird may serve the more of course of limited and accidental experi- interest which is excited to read it, keeps strongly, in a considerate pind, io excite and estabence. But the propriety and wisdom of up till the whole is read. We have been lish a firm reliance on the wise and bountiful ar; this can be shown by a moment's con- bighly gratified with this work. We ex- rangements of Providence. The argument of our sideration ; and so far from diminishing the press ourselves freely and fully about it, Lord is exceedingly strong and pointed. po the force of our argument, it will give it new because we would pay our tribute, however Almighty bear not in vain the croaking of a young confirmation. The doctrines of Jesus Christ small it may be, to one who has been so plications of bis people.
raven, he surely will not turn a deaf ear to the supwere entirely new, and his authority to long known among us in the high ranks of Our divine Instructer again turns our attention teach them was shown by miracles. But the most dignified and useful literature. It to the beauties of nature, to demonstrate the proni they were addressed to men, using their own has not been a career without its troubles, dential care of our heavenly Father. minds; who were to be taught, as other men that the author has so honourably pursued. they toil not, neither do they spin; and yet I say
says he, “the lilies of the field, how they grow; are; who understood language as it is ordi- We would not have alluded to them, but for unto you, that even Solomon, in all his glory, was narily understood; who would be more struck, an opportunity to express the pleasure it not arrayed like one of these. It is,' says Sir J.
THE UNITED STATES LITERARY GAZETTE
275 E. Smith, “natural to presume that our Saviour, ac-scientific, and philosophical subjects; and danger lest this should be the case; and we cording to his vsual custom, called the attention of information, too, which he would not be apt doubt not that she will take our warping in his hearers to some object at hand; and as the fields of the Levant were overrun with the Ana- to forget, and which it would be well for good part. She professes to think that it
Now these works are would be presumptuous to write books for autumn, afford one of the most brilliant and gor. highly honourable to their authors, and they children, after Miss Edgeworth and Mrs ryllis Lutea, whose golden liliaceous flowers, in bim to remember. geous objects in nature, the expression of Solomon are most excellent and serviceable in their Barbauld, were pot for the circumstance, in all his glory, arrayed like one of these, is pecu- degree; but they are also worse than un- that the works of these distinguished authors
.of probably same species of Power is given hy Mp Salt, in his profitable, if the limitations and true nature are emphatically English. From her Prefvoyage to Abyssinia. · At a few miles from Adowa,' of their real use are mistaken or forgotten. ace, we should infer, that she wrote in the says he, we discovered a new and beautiful species One good which they effect, is the teaching hope of making her productions equal in inof Amaryllis, which bore from ten to twelve spikes of useful knowledge; but there is a greater terest to those of the authors referred to, by of bloom on each stem, springing from the common good which they may, and should effect; compensating for the want of their “ simple receptacle. The general colour of the corolla was they may form in the mind a habit of en- elegance of expression,” or their “ pointed
, with a single streak of bright purple in the middle
. The houver joying the acquisition of truth; they may purity of moral,” by introducing American was sweet scented; and its smell, though much inature the love of knowledge with needful scenes or characters. But we doubt not more powerfnl, resembled the lily of the valley: aliment, and thus strengthen it, and greatly that she had a higher aim; and we hope,
Our Saviour's words, Consider the lilies,' &c. promote the improvement of the intellectual that she will make her works American, acquire additional force aud beauty, when we call character, by helping to establish a deep not merely by talking about American facts, to mind, that they were suggested by the sight of and abiding association between pleasure but by making thein better suited to the the splendid species of Lily which abounds in Palestine. We may imagine our Lord, when delivers and advancement in learning. But they growing character of this country, and freeing his divine Sermon on the Mount, pointing to cannot be made to do the whole work of ing them from evils which are attached to those superb flowers, which decked the surround- education, nor any thing like it. The pri- the best works of this sort. She loses no ing plain, and deducing from their beauty lessons of mal obligation of labour is still in full force; opportunity of illustrating and enforcing the contentment, and reliance on the bounty of our it cannot be evaded by any subterfuge, nor great principle, that use is the only measure heavenly Father.
got rid of by a compromise ; it refuses to of value; and she may, we believe, give to
admit of an exception in favour of any per- her future productions characteristics which Evenings in New England. Intended for son or thing, and imposes upon all who share will make it quite unnecessary to apologize
Juvenile Amusement and Instruction. By man's nature, the law, that no true good is for writing after Miss Edgeworth. This an American Lady. Boston. 1824. 18mo. to be won without full payment of the pur- highly gifted and very celebrated lady bas
chase money. We believe, that the steps faults, which we doubt not that the author This work is another added to the many which lead to the highest learning may be of these “ Evenings” will avoid. As to Miss existing proofs, that American writers can so arranged, that the ascent from each to Edgeworth's code of morals, we rather insupply all the departments of letters from the next may be easy; and therefore great cline to think she favours that philosophy our own resources. Perhaps no kind or genuises may improve the manner of teach- which identifies the most perfect morality class of literary productions now remains ing by amusement, until all things knowable with the inost sagacious selfishness. Be this unattempted, though true it is, that in are thus taught. Still the great objects of as it may, she certainly, so far as she is an some, not to say many of them, high ex- education remain to be accomplished. The author, habitually and systematically excellence is as yet unattained. The book intellect is not disciplined ; its powers have empts the beart and the mind from the connow before us belongs to a peculiar class, not been developed and fortified by habits trol of the highest, most operative, and most the invention of which was reserved al- of patient, strenuous, and incumbent exer- universal motives; and thinks processes and most until these days; it is intended at tion. Perhaps it has acquired all that it can means of improvement may be devised which once to amuse and instruct children, and so get, but it has not done, nor learned to do, will be sufficiently pure and powerful withto do this, as that these two apparently dis. all that it could and ought to do. Learning out having any regard to these motives. We tinct purposes shall be so far from opposing is but one of the objects of education ; and are certain that the principles and the syseach other, that they may be effected by the it is a sad mistake to regard it as the prin. tem of our author will be very different. If same means, and in fact be blended into one cipal object. We have thought that the she regards it as her vocation, to provide identity. Unless we misrecollect, Mr Day's writers for children in England, exhibited a food for the childisb or youthful mind, let Sandford and Merton was the first book, in strong tendency to mistake an accumulation her acquaint herself with the wants and charwhich distinguished talents were strongly of facts in the memory for a general im- acter of the understanding, in that stage of exerted to give to children important infor-provement of the intellect. We hope that its growth for which she must suit the alimation, in such a way as to make them seek ibis mistake will not be adopted here; and ment she offers ; let her acquire accurately and love it. Miss Edgeworth, Mrs Bar- that works, which belong to the class of the knowledge she would communicate; and bauld, Mrs Hannah More, and a host of which we have spoken, however full of use- let her labour in her employment, and bow other lesser names have followed in this path. ful information they may be, and however her mind to it in good carpest, and she will Such has been their success, that at this cunningly they may insinuate this informa- surely succeed. It is obvious,
that her inmoment the most entertaining books which tion into the reader's mind, will be still re- tellect has strength and brightness enough, can be put into a child's hands,—those garded as only preparatory to education. If and needs only culture and discipline ; which he would be most apt to seek in his they are made to lead the youthful mind whether it be peculiarly adapted to this play-hours, and beg as a favour, are at the gradually and naturally to those exercises kind of work, yet remains to be fully same time eminently instructive; more so in which it will put forth its strength forci- proved. For ourselves, we think this is a in fact than most of those which aim only bly, and advance by its own efforts, then good book, well adapted to its purposes, and at instruction. As striking instances of they will be useful, and worthy of all en likely to do good to many; and we will now what we mean, we would select from Miss couragement; but if the reading of such proceed to describe its contents somewhat Edgeworth’s works, “ Lame Jervas,” and books is permitted to supersede more effi- more particularly, and make such extracts "Murad the Unlucky.” Judging from our cient modes of intellectual discipline, then, as shall give a just notion of its character. own feelings, or rather from the recollec- and just so far, will they be injurious. All the pieces are short, and most of them tion of our feelings when we first read them We have not prefaced our notice of the are in the form of dialogues between an many years since, we should say that more “ Evenings in New England” with these re-aunt and her nephew and niece. The subinteresting and entertaining tales never marks, because they are peculiarly applica-jects are various, and for the most part are were written; and certainly it would be dif- ble to this work ; indeed there is no indica- well chosen and well treated. The followficult to indicate the same number of pages lion that the author estimates the value and ing may serve as a specimen. in many works, which would give the young importance of her employment above its true reader so much information upon moral, rate. But, as she is human, there is some tory. I have been two or three months studying
Laucy. Aunt, I am tired to death of reading His
Rollin ;- but now I have come to live with you, I are there none to assist other countries, besides centuries ago, when the world was more ignorant trust you will suffer me to employ myself about that of England ?
than it now is, these marvellous things were more something more amusing
Aunt. There probably are, though I know of but generally and more firmly believed. The Grecian Aunt. Why,my dear Lucy, you have now almost few. When we read Robertson's Scotland, The priests well knew that there was nothing about ceased to be a child--and I trust you are aware of Abbot will increase the interest which he excites which mankind were so anxious as concerning how much importance a knowledge of historical in the story of their last unfortunate queen, Mary what would happen to them in time to come. Ac events will prove, when you come forward in so- | Stuart. In order to remember James III, and his cordingly, they made them believe that the gods ciety. It is one of those things which are so com quarrel with the famous house of Douglas, we may spoke to men through certain images, fountains
, mon that nobody can be tempted to be proud of possibly turn aside to read the Lady of the Lake; dec.; and that if any one wished to know whether them, and yet so necessary that one ought certainly and perhaps I may indulge you with Marmion, that he should be successful in any undertaking he was to blush for any deficiency.
you may better recollect Mary's grandfather, James about to commepee, he had only to offer a rich Lucy. So my mother always told me; but I must iv, who fell at the battle of Flod len Field. sacrifice to the god in order to ascertain. People acknowledge 1
am weary of such kind of reading. Lucy. And are there none connected with the flocked from all parts of Greece, bringing gold, All I can remember is a jumble of battles and revo- French?
precious stones, and every thing that was costly, as lutions, -of kings murdered and princes poisoned. Aunt. Undoubtedly. However, I know of but an offering to these oracles. The designing priests There are ever-so-many Dukes of Buckingham, and three; and those are, Quentin Durward, Jane of returned what answers they chose, and appropriated and how can I possibly recollect to distinguish be- France, and Anne of Bretagne. They all refer to the gifts to their own use. tween them? very nearly the same period.
Lucy. But how could th-y always answer rightly? Aunt. All this confusion originates in a want of Lucy. How delightful it will be to read all these Alexander did conquer the world as they foretold. judgment in your course of study. You should things. Do let us begio Hume in-night.
Aunt. There are very numerous instances where read, in course, those books which nearly relate to Aunt. To-morrow we will commence. But there their predictions were wrong. As for Alexander, the same period. If you wish to attain a knowledge is another part to my project. You must write they saw that he was a bold, resolute, ambitious of the sixteenth century, for instance,--there are down all that you remember of any reign, and the man, who was resolved to conquer the world, and Charles V, Leo X, and the Life of Luther, which thoughts which the subject naturally suggests. This so they ventured to predict that he would; and no are very proper to be read together; and perhaps must be done as if you were talking to a companion, cloubt some nations gave up to him because they a few years hence, you might with advantage add not as if you were writing a book. The more you believed it impossible to resist the fate which the Villiers on the Reformation. For the present win. | improve in this task, the more willing I shall be to oracle had decreed. The priests were generally ter, however, I will tell you a plan which will make devote an evening to the recreations I have men- very cautious in their answers. Sometimes when History delightful as well as instructive.
tioned; because I shall be convinced that you do a great personage inquired concerning an important Lucy. Pray what is it?
not hurry through your history for the sake of read- / expedition, they would return no answer at all; and Aunt. After you have read the reign of any par. ing novels
, plays, and poems, --but that you love still oftener, they would return one that might be ticular king, I will read some novel or play imme. novels, &c. on account of the useful information taken two different ways. Thus, when Cræsus indiately connected with it. By this means you will they afford, as well as for their interesting stories quired whether he should be fortunate if he crossed no longer feel as if you had only heard of the char- and poetic language. After all, you must remem- the Halys, the oracle replied, If Cræsus pass over acters, but as if you had actually seen and talked ber that there are many things necessary for you to the Halys, he shall destroy a great empire.' He with them.
to learn, which cannot be obtained except by hard passed the river, and destroyed his own great eniLucy. But, Aunt, I have heard people say, it was study. It is, no doubt, pleasant to find instruction pire. When Nero applied to the famous oracle at wicked to read novels and plays.
in the train of amusement; but she is not always Delphi, the answer was, “Seventy-three may prove Aunt. It is, no doubt, wrong to read such books there-and she is so valuable, that we must be will- fatal to Nero.' From this, the emperor concluded very frequently,-and very unprofitable to read ing to follow her through long and tedious roads, that his life was safe from accident, or disease, until them at all, without inuch discrimination; but every now and then turning aside to rest on a little spot be was seventy-three years of age; but he was soon thing is valuable according to its use; and when covered with grass and wild flowers.
afterwards deserted by his people, and Galba, who the lighter kinds of reading serve to impress some
Divers persons of our acquaintance might in his stead. He was then willing to believe that
wa, seventy-three years old, was proclaimed king thing more valuable upon our minds, they answer an exceedingly good purpose.
consider and remember these remarks upon the oracle referred to that event. When Pyrrhus Lucy. It seems to me there are not many novels novels, with great advantage. The dialogue intended to go to war with the Romans, he inquired of this description.
on Oracles, beginning on page 46, is one of whether he should prove victorious. The answer Aunt. You probably have seen a multitude of the best in the book, and with this we must was, Aio te, Æacida, Romanos vincere posse; ; I
, son , dily glad that you do not like them. But if you will close our extracts. Besides these dialogues
, Romans shall conquer. This he supposed a favourreal only such ones as are pointed out by judicious there are short sketches and stories of the able omen; but it must have proved a true oracle in friends, and, even then, read them sparingly, you same general character. We had marked either case,--for it may mean, You shall conquer might find some of real advantage to you. With one or two of them for quotation, but find the Romans,' or · The Romans shall conquer you." regard to the plau I proposed, I cannot furnish you we have left ourselves no room.
Lucy. Was the Delphian oracle the only one? with either a novel or a play for every reign in the
Aunt. They were very numerous. The mos: English history; but I can for very many. Shak- Lacy. I learned a lesson in Grecian History to remarkable were those of Delphi, Delos, Dodona, speare provides a large fund for us on this occasion; day, where it relates that the oracle had proclaimed and Trophonius. The Delphian oracle was near and, luckily for our purpose, there is a family that whoever should untie the Gordian knot, should Mount Parnassus, the fabled resort of the Muses. Shakspeare published, in wbich most of the unin- conquer the world; and that, in consequence of this A splendid temple of Apollo was erected there, in teresting and useless parts are omitted. The even. declaration, Alexander the Great, after trying in the midst of which was a cavity, from whence issued ings are now perceptibly lengthening, and if you rain to untie it, cut it with his sword; and the the most unhealthy and noxious vapour. Out of will follow my plan, I think you will acknowledge priest declared the oracle fulfilled in him. I felt this the oracle was supposed to proceed. It is said that they have passed away pleasantly, as well as very curious to know what these oracles were, and to have been discovered in the following manner. profitably. how they knew what was to happen.
A number of goats, that were feeding on Mount Lucy. Do, dear Aunt, let us hear the whole of Aunt. Oracles may probably be classed among Parnassus came to a place which was deeply peryour plan; and what books you think you shall other superstitions by which mankind are to this forated, from which issued a steam that seemed to read.
day willingly deceived. I suppose you have heard inspire them They played and frisked about in Aunt. You shall read Hume's History aloud, - a great many signs and forerunners, which the igno- such an extraordinary manner that the goatherd and whenever I think of any thing connected with rant consider as infallible?
was tempted to lean over the hole, and see what the subject, we will obtain it at the library, and Lucy. Yes, indeed. I know an old lady who will mysteries the place contained. He was immedi spend a few evenings in becoming acquainted with never begin any thing on Friday, because it is an ately seized with a fit of enthusiasm, and his wild the characters, to whom Mr Humne has slightly in- unlucky day. When the tallow falls over in a and extravagant expressions were taken by the troduced us. After we have finished the reigns of peculiar form in the candle, she is frightened be- ignorant people for prophecies. Richard I, and his successor, we will read Ivanhoe cause it resembles a winding-sheet. And she says Lucy. Was it not very strange that he should be and Shakspeare's King John. Shakspeare will like she never knew a dog to howl under the window, affected in that manner? wise serve to fix the events connected with Henry without some death happened in the family soon Aunt. Not at all strange, my dear, The vapour IV, V, VI, and VIII, and likewise of the Second and after.
probably contained some gas, which had a powerful Third Richard. Kenilworth and Miss Aikin's Court Aunt. That must be unfortunate for the inhabi-effect on the human frame. You recollect cousin of Queen Elizabeth will give you a correct idea of tants of a city, who may chance to hear the bowling Willian, said he behaved like a crazy man when he that queen, and the persons who were most con- of dogs every night in the week. The truth is, if a inhaled the exhilarating gas. Probably this bad spicuous during her reign. The Fortunes of Nigel
, person chances to die soon after such a noise has similar effect on the brain. Whatever it was, it and Miss Aikin's Court of King James, faithfully been heard, the circumstance is recollected and re- gained great credit with the people. A temple was portray the character of her successor; and Peveril peated; but if nothing extraordinary happens, it is erected over the spot, and dedicated to Apollo. A of the Peak makes you well acquainted with Charles all forgotten, or, at most it is only remembered that priestess, who was called Pythia, or Pythiness, was II, and his gay favourite, the Duke of Buckingham. some poor dog had lost his master, and was straying ordained to receive the oracles and deliver them to
Lucy. Why indeed, Aunt, I did not think there round, mourning his loss. In this way, people are inquirers. A lofiy tripod, decorated with Irurel, had been so many as you have mentioned; but always willing to deceive themselves; and many I was placed over the hole whence the vapour issued:
and after the priestess had bathed in the renowned exactly, what it should be. The author thus Questions and Answers. The 'Interrogative Castalian spring, she ascended the tripod, and states his plan in the Preface.
Systein' of teaching has now become very general breathed in the noxious air from beneath. When she inhaled unusual quantities, she was often seized
" 'Tis education forms the common mind,
in almost every branch of school education. Its
introduction may be traced to the 'Scholar's Arithwith violent paroxysms; and once her symptoms
“Just as the twig is bent the tree's inclin'd.'
metic,' in 1801. Some improvement in this system were so terrible, that the affrighted priests ran out The above couplet has been frequently quoted, has been attempted by the Author in the Reading of the temple, and left her alone, as they supposed and if the sentiment it inculcates be admitted as part of his School Geography, which is introduced to expire. When she was in these fits, she uttered true, we need never expect the agricultural to be here, where, instead of printing the question at strange and incoherent speeches, which the priests come a reading community, particularly as it re. length, which necessarily swells the book, a characpretended to interpret, and which the people were spects subjects relating to their occupation, until the ter (9) is introduced, intimating both to the Teacher credulous enough to believe proceeded from the god study of agriculture, in some shape or form, shall and the Pupi!, that a question is required, and this himself. All who came to consult the oracle, brought be introduced into our common schools, and the character is invariably placed BEFORE the word rich preseats. In process of time, the wealth of the minds of youth shall there first be 'inclind to or words intended to ask the question, and to which priests was immense, the temple magnificent be, agricultural inquiries and pursuits. And, indeed, the answer, FOUND BY READING THE SENyond description. It was crowded with marble and why should not this be done? There is time enough TENCE, is to be a direct reply. For example, brazen statues, paintings, gold, and precious
stones. for it in every school; for as youth must be allowed take the first sentence; the character is placed be. So numerous were the iniages, that when Nero re-time and provided with books for learning to read, fore the words "first employment;' the question moved five hundred statues of brass, the loss was by making these inquiries the subjects of their read then is, What was the first employment of ihe eartoo small to be noticed. There
are still some re- ing lessons, the two operations of learning to read, liest inhabitants of the world? The answer, from mains of this celebrated place. The steps by which and learning to think on those subjects, may be reading the sentence, is evident—The cultivation the priestess descended to the Castalian fountain, prosecuted and go on together, without any aduli. of the earth.' are still distinctly visible. Dodona is principally tional expense, either of TIME or MONEY.
Where the construction of the sentence suggests famous for being the most ancient oracle. It was Such is the plan here contemplated. · The no particular form in which to put the question, it consecrated to Jupiter; and, according to the fables Agricultural Reader' is designed to be used as a may be, What is said of, &c.; as for instance in of those times, it was founded by a dove. Pwo reading book. Copious explanations of terms, the fourth paragraph, when the character is placed black doves took their flight from Thebes in Egypt; fundamental principles of agriculture, examples of before the words commerce and manufactures, one of which flew to the temple of Jupiter Ammon, good and bad husbandry, domestic economy, indus- the question may be, What is said of commerce and the other to the temple of Jupiter at Dodona iry, neatness, order, temperance and frugality,
are and manufactures ? in Thessaly or Epirus. in a human voice, they in- subjects embraced within its pages-subjects, which,
Let the class be directed to meditate answers la formed the inhabitants that Jupiter had consecrated in one way or another, come home to every man's the questions to be asked on those subjects or the ground, and would from thenceforth utter oracles business and bosom,' and in which it cannot be a words before which the character is placed. After there. These oracles were sometimes supposed to matter of indifference, that youth should be well reading, let those questions and the words also to proceed from the doves, and sometimes from the instructed, before entering on the theatre of active be defined, be put by the Teacher, and answered by oaks and statues in the neighbourhood; but in all life, whatever may be the parts there assigned them the class, in rotation. These exercises, it is beprobability it was the artifice of the priests, who respectively to act. Much of the matter and the lieved, will be found both profitable and enterconcealed themselves behind the trees, and thus de manner are such as is believed will engage their taining, ceived the superstitious multitude. Another famous attention, affording at the same time many fine exOracle was at the cave of Trophonius. Noises and ercises for reading as respects cadence, emphasis, to improvements. The work would be more
We bave only one suggestion to make as voices were said to be heard in this cave; and those modulation, and inflections of the voice. Every useful and interesting, if it contained more who entered to ascertain their fortune, always came thing otherwise pertinent to the subject is studiout pale, frightened, and melancholy. This effect ously avoided, which would be improper to be of the natural history of animals and vegetwas likewise probably produced by some powerful read by either sex in school.
ables. When the present edition has been vapour in the cave, upwholesome for the human langs.
The book commences with explanations sold, the reputation of the work will doubtLucy. Have oracles ceased in all parts of the of agricultural terms, which are designed 10 less make it safe to increase its size considworld
be thoroughly learned. These will make erably, by adding the most interesting facts Aunt. I believe they are now entirely extinct
. our scholars in the country familiar with respecting the uses, to which the various Many impositions of the priests were discovered, the common technical language in works animals and vegetables referred to, are apand the Greeks at last became ashamed of their credulity. Nations which are enlightened by Chris of science relative to most subjects con- plied in different countries.
This work will doubtless be followed by tianity, not only perceive the impossibility of dis. nected with their occupation. Every thing covering future events in this manner, but they are which will tend to render intercourse easy
a Mechanic's Reader, a Merchant's Reader, likewise convinced how very useless such knowledge between the literary and scientific, and the and some others, according to the same would prove; since our Merciful Father provides labouring class of the community, is of principle. We shall be glad to see them, for nations and men in a way that must tend to the very great value; and we think it too plain and we hope our bookmakers will suffer no eventual good of both
to need proof or explanation, that the plan delay in producing them. The public mind
of Dr Adams will tend to that object. The is prepared for such improvements, and the The Agricultural Reader, designed for the author is true to the new principle, that labour of making them will be well reUse of Schools. By Daniel Adams, M. D. scholars should be made to understand every
warded. Boston. 1824. 12mo. pp. 264.
thing thoroughly as they proceed. To effect Dr Adams has already acquired considera- this, he has a method of interrogating: Of An Easy Introduction to the Study of Geog: ble reputation by his Arithmetic and Geog- which we believe he is the inventor. We raphy. We are highly gratified by discovo were not aware that the interrogative sys
raphy, on an Improved Plan; compiled ering, from the work before us, that the tem originated with bim, nor that it bad
for the use of Schools, with a view to ren
der the acquisition of Geographical Scispirit of the age in which we live is taking been in use only twenty-three years; and full possession of his mind, and that he has we want more evidence of the fact. We ence easy and pleasant to the Student, selected an important means for aiding in will not search for many examples of works
Accompanied by an improved Atlas ; exthe good cause of a reformation in our sys- constructed on this principle previous to
hibiting the Elevation of Mountains, tem of education. The improvements which that period, but mention the one that we
Length of Rivers, and Population of have been made, and are making, in favour first think of-the Assembly's Catechism.
Cities, from the best authorities. By
Thomas T. Smiley, Teacher. Second of the Pestalozzian or analytical mode of Others, in the baser sciences, might be
edition, improved. Philadelphia. 1824. instruction, will, we think, make his former mentioned. To explain Dr Adams' method, publications less valuable to him; but we which we think very good, we copy the fol
18mo. pp. 243. are not willing to doubt that he is suffi- lowing notes, pages 27, 28.
We think this book too small; it is well to ciently disinterested to sustain cheerfully
The definition of words is an exercise too much introduce learners to the study of all scien. any loss to which such improvements may neglected in our schools. To render this exercise ces, by elementary works, but it is possible subject him, or that he will receive an ample practicable and easy both for the Teacher and the to make these elements of knowledge too compensation in the sale of his Agricultural Pupil, certain words to be defined are designated by simple. In the present case, the most genReader.
a character (d) placed immediately BEFORE them; eral facts respecting all the countries in
and definitions of the words so designated are given We have not much to say about this book, in a GLOSSARY at the end of the Book, where they the world are very briefly stated; but we except that it appears to be nearly, if not are to be studied by the pupil.
think the statements so much compressed,