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SONG.

When dazzle thus his diamond sparks, and obscure men are coming forward, and for a dangerous thing. It is well for us to And brighten as they fall.

acting on the age, when science is antici- know truly as much as we can. Physical

pated, and discoveries of vast importance truth, we may all learn; and the arts themIf late I've staid, forgive the crime,

made, and by individuals whose fame and selves, however arbitrary in their rules, For reckless roll the hours, And noiseless falls the foot of time

history are without record. All this is felt and however exact they must be to be perIn love's and beauty's bowers.

where it should and must be felt. The fect, may be equally learned. They leave, Some of the author's best things are

philosopher, so called, feels it, and the pub- indeed, but little for the imagination. We his imitations ;

but we have no doubt lic feel it. One is called on for his ex- must learn much of what has been always that he could have written as well without planations, and for new applications of the known, and feel that men deemed ordinary imitating; and we earnestly advise him to discovery; the other, to know something of are far before us. Still, what we do learn make the attempt. The two following Scotch what is giving character to the age, and is truth; we have a sure possession in somethus promotes it by its patronage.

thing real; and if it be but one thing, we Soegs are very pretty, especially if we con

Science, too, has taken a new direction. feel in our labour for that, the mind has, for sider that a Yankee wrote them.

It has become practical and useful. It is once at least, been distinctly and positively

useful to its possessor as well as to others directed to some of its appropriate uses. In imitation of Purns' “ Nannie, 0." Nations have patronized it, and individuals It is no objection to public instructions in On ee'ning clouds a' skirt wi' blue have patronized it. Long tolerated evils in the sciences, that what we thus get can be The setting sun blinks cannie, 0;

some of the most important kinds of labour applied to nothing else. All truth is relatAn' I maun stap the weary pleugh,

have been investigated by the scholars of ed, and all knowledge has its application. Syne hame I'll gae to Nannie, O.

the sciences, their causes discovered, and A man who knows something listens with Ou re brae, owre linn, when Nannie ca's, danger averted. But what is peculiar, and an interest to those who know more. PoI leap wi' heart so bonnie, 0;

to which we shall more particularly advert, etry, novels, plays, sermons, orations, esI dinna fear the roaring fa's,

is the voluntary admission of the public of says, get much of their imagery and illus. My thoughts are a' of Nannie, 0.

all ranks, ages, and sexes, to the practical tration from the arts and the sciences; and Nae simmer smile on flowery braes study of the sciences which have most at- | if we would read or hear wisely, we must Is half sae sweet an' cannie, 0; tracted the age.

know something of their language, and As that aboon thy bosom plays,

This has long been the course of things something of their principles. There is My dear, my lovely Nannie, 0.

in Europe, at least in England. The pre- less excuse now than there ever was, for Gie me but that I'll ask nae mair, sent Sir H. Davy, Sir J. E. Sinith, and the total ignorance respecting these subjects; Gin days and night's be cannie, 0; Ástronomer Royal, gave courses of lectures we must know something about them, for O haith! I'll hae nae warly care,

to the most brilliant and polite, as well as the means of knowledge are ample, and of But live and love for Nannie, 0.

the best informed classes of the community. easy use. It has become fashionable too, Let ilka coof gang far awa

The Institution" was thronged by both to make use of the mind in this way; and For siller a' sae bonnie, 0;

sexes, and of the highest ranks. The best however trifling the motive in its ordinary On me can portooth never fa'

compliment, the truest respect was thus operation, we here feel a respect for it; we Sae rich wi' love and Nannie, 0.

paid to an honourable use of the mind, and feel for it somewhat as we do for habit TO À BUTTERFLY.

the expression of both has something re- when it keeps men from vice; for our imAwa!-awa !-insensate thing,

tributive in it. The honor returns on those pulses are not always towards virtue, or Frae morn tull night upo' the wing, who pay it.

learning Wha's life is but a simmer's day,

There is one feature in this mode of inAn' wasted a' in sports and play.

There is another view which the subject struction which deserves particular notice. / admits, and which we cannot pass unnoticSae mony a lassie gie's her time

It is the value it derives from those who ed. It has been particularly striking in To dress, to folly, or to crime,

give it. When such men as were just Dr Bigelow's lectures this season. The Content to die, to show her power named become our teachers, we feel a pre- study of the arts—and the same is true of Like ither insects o* the hour.

fect confidence in their instructions. They the sciences-is full of instruction concernThe Notes are entertaining, and the Pre have been long known, and known by what ing the progress of the mind. The ipsancy face is honest and fearless, without being they have done. It is because they are of the arts was the infancy of man. He impudent. It affords, indeed, a very pleas- prominent men in their times, that they originally had few wants, and the means for ani contrast to those with which the lite. have been selected to fill high and respon- satisfying these were many and near. Ilis rary aspirants of this day usually think it sible offices. They have been followed in wants have at length taken the start of the fitting to introduce themselves ;-and which all their labours by other minds, jealous for means, and from the moment when they it is difficult to read, without seeing, in themselves, or for their science; and ar- were just balanced, he has been reaching one's mind's eye, an awkward vulgar booby dently bent on discerning error or impos- forward for practicable good to the remote entering a parlour where twenty people ture. The public feels safe when they are and the uncertain, and his mind has gone on may look at him all at once, and striving favoured with the results of such labours, before him. It is a beautiful feature in the in vain to hide his consternation by an and if they are wise in their purposes in lectures just named-tbis history of our extra swagger.

listening to them, their own minds are en- race as it has been recorded in the arts; larged, and what seemed useful amusement and though it must have been at once nobecomes valuable learning.

ticed by all who have heard them, we could MISCELLANY.

We feel a decp interest in the success of not but thus express the pleasure it has attempts which have been made in our own given us. Man is the most interesting thing city and country for promoting the same presented to us in the vast universe ; and

objects. We feel obliged to the men who what faithfully illustrates him, must be One of the characteristics of these times leave the academy for a time, and come to studied and listened to with the deepest inis the liberality of letters. Learning is no the private lecture room, with their raised terest. longer an exclusive privilege, and learned means of instruction, their apparatus of all We would, in passing, acknowledge our men bave ceased to be a distinct class. kinds, brought from abroad at a vast indi. obligations to Dr Bigelow for the useful Learning has become united to art-a nat- vidual expense, and removed at great risk. gratification his lectures are yielding us; ural alliance. Men were once kept under We feel so too, because we are in some sort but this might get its worst name by some by the pressure of circumstances, and fine mitted in this way into the republic of let of our readers, and the lecturer wants neiminds were lost to the mass, because prc- ters; and who has ever heard of it without ther flattery nor compliment.

We are scription divided the directiou and uses of feeling some desire of citizenship? It is deeply obliged that professional and acathe intellect. But we live when unlettered I not true that a little learning is an useless demic leisure is occupied for our instruc

THE REPUBLIC OF LETTERS.

p. 13.

a

cause to be satisfied. The love, the adıniration, The spectacle ; sensation, soul, and form

And on the top of either pinnacle, the indifference, the slight, the aversion, and even All melted into him; they swallowed up

More keenly than elsewere in night's blue vault, the contempt, with which these Poems have been His animal being; in them did he live,

Sparkle the Stars as of their station proud. received, knowing, as I do, the source within my And by them did he live; thev were his life. Thoughts are not busier in the mind of man own mind, from which they have proceeded, and In such access of mind, in such bigh hour

Than the mute Agents stirring there:-alone the labour and pains, which, when labour and pains Of visitation from the living God,

Here do I sit and watch.—' pp. 83-85. appeared needful, have been bestowed upon them, Thought was not in enjoyment it expired. -must all, if I think consistently, be received as No thanks he breathed, he proffered no request; -Him might we liken to the setting Sun pledges and tokens, bearing the same general im- Rapt into still cominunion that transcends As I have seen it, on some gusty day, pression though widely different in value :

-hey The imperfect offices of prayer and praise, Struggling and bold, and shining from the west are all proofs that for the present time I have not His mind was a thanksgiving to the power

With an inconstant and unmellowed light. laboured in vain; and afford assurances, more or That made him; it was blessedness and love! She was a soft attendant Cloud, tbat hung less authentic, that the products of my industry

As if with wish to veil the restless orb; will endure.

We cannot believe that the critic was From which it did itself imbibe a ray

Of pleasing lustre. p. 319. The early prejudices against this author sincere in his remark upon this splendid are not wholly removed in this country ; passage ; if he were, we do not envy him

Already had the sun, and we should expect to be charged with that occupation of mind which had blinded

Sinking with less than ordinary state, having praised him extravagantly, if we him to the exquisite beauty of the poetry, Attained his western bound; but rays of lightdid not support, by adequate quotations, the or had deadened his ear to the majesty of Now suddenly diverging from the orb

Retired behind the mountain tops or veiled opinions we have expressed. This would its versification. of itself be a sufficient apology for copious The following extracts are from a tale

By the dense air-shot upwards to the crown

of the blue firmament-aloft--and wide : extracts; but we trust we shall not need narrated by the Pedlar, much too long to

And multitudes of little floating clouds, to be excused for giving to our readers be quoted entire. It is of a man, who, re- Pierced through their thin etherial niould, ere we, beautiful poetry, with which many of them duced from comparative plenty to want, at Who saw, of change were conscious, had become

Vivid as fire-clouds separately poized, must be unacquainted. Our quotations will length enlisted for a soldier, and whose wife

Innumerable multitude of Forms be confined to the Excursion, not only be- pined away and died with the “hope de

Scattered through half the circle of the sky; cause it is yet less known in this country, ferred that maketb the heart sick.”

And giving back, and shedding each on each, than the best of his smaller poems, but be- A sad reverse it was for Him who long

With prodigal communion, the bright bues cause it affords the most perfect examples Had filled with plenty, and possessed in peace, Which from the upapparent Fount of glory of what we consider the true peculiarities

This lonely Cottage. At his door he stood, They had imbibed, and ceased not to receive. of our author's poetry.

And whistled many a snatch of merry tunes That which the heavens displayed, the liquid deep

That had no mirth in them; or with his knife Repeated ; but with unity sublime! p. 413. The author informs us in his title-page, Carved uncouth figures on the heads of sticks

With the following beautiful illustration, and again in his preface, that this poem is Then, not less idly, sought, through every nook

we shall conclude this class of our extracts, but a portion of a longer work, to consist of In house or garden, any casual work three parts, of which this is the second. Of use or ornament; and with a strange,

wishing that we had room for many more We have not time nor space for an analy

Amusing, yet uneasy novelty,

such which are scattered through the book.

He blended, where he might, the various tasks sis,-suffice it to say, that it is an account

Within the soul a Faculty abides,
Of summer, autumn, winter, and of spring.

That with interpositions, which would hide of an Excursion of a day or two, wbich the But this endured not; his good humour soon

And darken, so can deal, that they become author made in company with a friend, Became a weight in which no pleasure was :

Contingencies of pomp; and serve to exalt among the hills of Cumberland, and in the And poverty brought on a petied mood

Her native brightness. As the ample Moon, course of which they met with two other

And a sore temper: day by day he drooped, In the deep stillness of a summer even

And he would leave his work and to the Town, individuals, who joined their walks. The

Rising behind a thick and lofty Grove,
Without an errand, would direct his steps,

Burns like an unconsuming fire of light, speakers are the poet himself, his friend, Or wander here and there among the fields.

In the green trees; and, kindling on all sides a Scottish pedlar retired from business, a One while he would speak lightly of his Babes,

Their leafy umbrage, turns the dusky veil country clergyman, and a singular charac- And with a cruel tongue; at other times

Into a substance glorious as her own, ter, who, disgusted with the world and op.

He tossed them with a false unnatural joy: Yea with her own incorporated, by power

And 'twas a rueful thing to see the looks pressed with disappointment, had been left

Capacious and serene. Like power abides

of the poor innocent children. • Every smile,' to doubt the truths of religion. Upon this

In Man's celestial Spirit; Virtue thus
Said Margaret to me, here beneath these trees,

Sets forth and magnifies herself; thus feeds. slender foundation is erected a mass of what • Made my heart bleed.' p. 30.

A calm, a beautisul, and silent fire, seems to us almost unrivalled poetry. We

We presume that our readers will recog

From the incumbrances of mortal life, remember several years ago reading the

From error, disappointment,-nay from guilt ; nise the truth of this description. The followcriticism of the Edinburgh Review on this

And somctimes, so relenting Justice wills, poem. That criticism began with “This ing is equally true, and still more touching.

From palpable oppressions of Despair. p. 188. will never do ;" but the extracts which

Her Infant Babe

Dr Johnson died before the Excursion were made convinced us that it ought to do,

Had from its Mother caught the trick of grief, was published, or he might not have said

And sighed among its playthings. p. 43. and inevitably must do—in despite of the

that religion was an unsuitable subject for criticism. We procured the book from We must quote some of the descriptions poetry; though, as it now occurs to us, that England; it is of the London edition of of external nature, which, whether intro- great critic must have happened to forget 1820, and from that we must make our ex- duced as pure description, or, as is most the Psalms of David and the Prophecies of tracts-our volume of the American edition generally the case, made to illustrate some Isaiah, when he made this assertion. We not being at this moment within our reach. operation in the human mind, or some rela- think, that the loftiest and most affecting The first quotation, which we make, was, if tion between human beings, are alike cap- passages of Wordsworth's poetry, are those we remember aright, cited by the Edinburgh tivating to our fancy, our memory, and our in which he has embodied his religious reviewer as a specimen of unintelligible imagination.

musings. The first extract which we have rant.

I could not ever and anon forbear

made is of this class, and we shall now O then what soul was his, when, on the tops To glance an upward look on two huge Peaks, give our readers more. Of the high mountains, he beheld the sun That from some other Vale peered into this.

How beautiful this dome of sky, Rise up, and bathe the world in light! He

And the vast hills, in fluctuation fixed looked

the clouds,

At thy command, how awful! Shall the Soul, Ocean and earth, the solid frame of earth

The mist, the shadows, light of golden suns, Human and rational, report of Thee And ocean's liquid mass, beneath him lay

Motions of moonlight, all come thither-touch Even less than these ?-Be mute, who will, who In gladness and deep joy. The clouds were And have an answer-thither come, and shape

can, touch'd,

A language not unwelcome to sick hearts Yet I will praise thee with impassioned voice : And in their silent faces did he read And idle spirits :--there the sun himself

My lips, that may forget thee in the crowd, Unutterable love. Sound needed none,

At the calm close of summer's longest day Cannot forget thee here ; where Thou hast built, Nor any voice of joy ; his spirit drank

Rests his substantial Orb;-between those heights For thy own glory in the wilderness !

p. 159.

p. 398.

p. 143.

P. 169.

Me didst thou constitute a Priest of thine,
And Intuitions moral and divine)

Sniall Creature as she is, from earth's bright
Fell Human-kind-to banishment condemned

flowers
In such a Temple as we now behold
Reared for thy presence: therefore, am I bound That flowing years repealed not: and distress Into the dewy clouds.-
To worship, here, and everywhere-as One And grief spread wide ; but Man escaped the
Not doomed to ignorance, though forced to tread,

doom

The primal duties shine aloft-like stars; From childhood up, the ways of poverty; Of destitution ;-Solitude was not.

The charities that soothe, and heal, and bless, From unreflecting ignorance preserved, -Jehovah-shapeless Power above all Powers,

Are scattered at the feet of Man-like flowers. And from debasement rescued.-By thy grace Single and one, the omnipresent God, The particle divine remained unquenched; By vocal utterance or blaze of light, And, 'mid the wild weeds of a rugged soil,

Or cloud of darkness, localized in heaven; Many, very many passages equal to any Thy bounty caused to flourish deathless flowers, On earth, enshrined within the wandering ark; we have extracted, we have passed over From Paradise transplanted. Wintry age

Or, out of Sion, thundering from his throne Impends; the frost will gather round my heart; Between the Cherubim--on the chosen Race

with regret that we could not quote them; And, if they wither, I am worse than dead! Showered miracles, and ceased not to dispense

but we must bring this article to a close. -Come Labour, when the worn-out frame re- Judgments, that filled the land from age to age We have not endeavoured to give our readquires

With hope, and love, and gratitude, and fear; ers a full and adequate representation of Perpetual sabbath ; come disease and want : And with amazement smöte ;--thereby to assert Wordsworth's mind. An attempt so preAnd sad exclusion through decay of sense ; His scorned or unacknowledged Sovereignty. But leave me unabated trust in Thee

And when the One, ineffable of name,

sumptuous could not have succeeded ; not And let thy favour, to the end of life,

In nature indivisible, withdrew

only because the limits, within which we Inspire me with ability to seek

From mortal adoration or regard,

must confine ourselves, are far too narrow, Repose and hope among eternal things

Not then was Deity engulphed, nor Man, for this purpose; but because such a task Father of heaven and earth! and I am rich The rational Creature, leit, to feel the weight could only be accomplished by a genius And will possess my portion in content !

Of his own reason, without sense or thought kindred to his own. We certainly hope
Of higher reason and a purer will,
To benefit and bless, through mightier power.

that our feeble efforts will help to bring

bis poems into notice; and this is all we Thou-Who didst wrap the cloud

can desire. For we trust there are few Of Infancy around us, that Thyself,

We must premise, that the first of the Therein, with our simplicity awhile Might'st hold, on earth, communion undisturbed following extracts relates to a burying- who can read them without pleasure and Who from the anarchy of dreaming sleep,

ground, and the second to the feelings profit ;-without recognising in them all the Or from its death-like void, with punctual care, which lead men to set apart and preserve and paying willingly the tribute of admira

grandeur, eloquence, and beauty of poetry, And touch as gentle as the morning light, such places.

tion to Restor'st us, daily, to the powers of sense,

-To a mysteriously-consorted Pair
And reason's steadfast rule-Thou, Thou alone
This place is consecrate; to Death and Life,

“ The highest, holiest raptures of the lyre, Art everlasting, and the blessed Spirits, And to the best Affections that proceed

And wisdom, married to immortal verse.' Which thou includest, as the Sea her Waves :

From their conjunction. Consecrate to faith
For adoration thou endurest; endure

In Him who bled for man upon the Cross ;
For consciousness the motions of thy will;
Hallowed to Revelation ; and no less

MISCELLANY.
For apprehension those transcendant truths

To Reason's mandates ; and the hopes divine Of the pure Intellect, that stand as laws,

Of pure Imagination ;-above all, jubinission constituting strength and power) To Charity, and Love, that have provided,

ON THE COMMON SYSTEMS OF ENGLISB Even in thy Being's infinite majesty!

Within these precincts, a capacious bed
This Umverse shall pass away-a frame

GRAMMAR.
And receptacle, open to the good
Glorious! because the shadow of thy might,
And evil, to the just and the unjust;

No. II.
A step, or link, for intercourse with Thee.
Ah! if the time must come, in which my feet

In which they find an equal resting-place:
Even as the multitude of kindred brooks

It is difficult to assign any competent
No more shall stray where Meditation leads,
By flowing stream, through wood, or craggy

And streams, whose murmur fills this bollow vale, reason for a distinction between Nouns and

Whether their course be turbulent or smooth, wild,

Pronouns. The custom of distinguishing Loved haunts like these, the unimprisoned Mind

Tbeir waters clear or sullied, all are lost

them probably arose from the erroneous

Within the bosom of yon chrystal Lake,
May yet have scope to range among her own,
Her thoughts, her images, her high desires.

And end their journey in the same repose !

opinion that pronouns have no absolute sig

nification, but derive all their meaning from If the dear faculty of sight should fail,

the particular nouns to which they are, at Still, it may be allowed me to remember What visionary powers of eye and soul

—And whence that tribute ? wherefore these re- any time, made to refer. But if they have In youth were mine; when, stationed on the top

gards?

not in themselves a radical meaning, or, Of some huge hill-expectant, I beheld

Not from the naked Heart alone of Man

what serves the same purpose, an absolute The Sun rise up, from distant clines returned

(Though framed to high distinction upon earth

signification established by custoin, then it Darkness to chase, and sleep, and bring the day

As the sole spring and fountain-head of tears, His bounteous gift! or saw him, tow'rds the Deep

His own peculiar utterance for distress

could make no difference at any time what Sink-with a retinue of flaming Clouds Or gladness) No,' the philosophic Priest pronoun is used.

They would be so many Attended; then, my Spirit was entranced

Continued, 'tis not in the vital seat

cyphers, which might be used indiscrimi. With joy exalted to beatitude ;

Or feeling to produce them, without aid

nately. But if each pronoun has a deterThe measure of my soul was filled with bliss,

From the pure Soul, the Soul sublime and pure; And holiest love; as earth, sea, air, with light,

With her two faculties of Eye and Ear,

ininate meaning, it is important that this With pomp, with glory, with magnificence?

The one by which a Creature, whom his sins

should be accurately defined ; and such deHave rendered prone, can upward look to heaven; finitions would properly constitute the whole

The other that empowers him to perceive grammar of pronouns. Nothing more would Upon the breast of new-created Earth

The voice of Deity, on height and plain be necessary to their being used correctly: Man walked ; and when and wheresoe'er he

Whispering those truths in stillness, which the But our Grammar-makers are very careful

Word, moved,

to avoid this and whatever else relates to Alone or mated, Solitude was not.

To the four quarters of the winds, proclaims.'

the philosophy of language. Hence we He heard, upon the wind, the articulate Voice Of God; and Angels to his sight appeared,

There are a multitude of exquisite pas- ively to several of their artificial classes,

find the same pronoun belonging successCrowning the glorious hills of Paradise ; sages scattered over all of this poem. We and frequently becoming some other part Or through the groves gliding like morning mist have left ourselves small space for these of speech. It is almost equally impossible Enkindled by the sun. He sate--and talked gems; but there are many like the following for children and for men to parse that, as, With winged Messengers; who daily brought To his small Island in the etherial deep

Our thoughts

what, mine, both, and several others, acTidings of joy and love.-From these pure

Pleasant as roses in the thickets blown,
Heights
And pure as dew bathing their crimson leaves.

cording to any rules extant. This part of (Whether of actual vision, sensible

grammar is in complete confusion, and it To sight and feeling, or that in this sort

must remain so until we substitute absolute Have condescendingly been shadowed forth

Before your sight

definitions for accidental relations. How Communications spiritually maintained,

Mounts on the breeze the Butterfly-and soars, can these accidental relations be well un

p. 242.

p. 145.

p. 245.

P. 56.

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derstood, where the meaning of the word, the mind. They do not of themselves ex-gible manner, nor is it grammatically coris not first determined ? Men of indepen- press definitely all Modes of being, action, rect. Take for an example, " Penelope is dent minds continue to get along by adopt- and passion, and all Times of being, action, loved by me.” If we admit the common ing their own notions where the grammar and passion ; and, hence, they do not an- definition, that “a Passive verb implies an seems incorrect or incompetent; but with swer their object. A whole sentence, and object acted upon, and an agent by which children the case is hopeless.

often a whole volume, is necessary to de- it is acted upon,” and the common ruleIn declining the personal pronouns, the fine the mode and time of an action ; and that “ Participles govern the same cases as example of Mr Murray has been followed if we allow the use of auxiliaries to ex- the verbs do, from which they are derived;" by all our other writers

. The second per- press them definitely, nearly all the words in what case shall we call “ Penelope?" It son singular must be thou, thy or thine, thee

. in the language must be recognised as of is certainly the objective of the transitive Thus we teach our children, while nine this class.

participle, " loved,” and bence is in the obtenths of the books they read, and all of the It may be said, that an important object jective case. The pronoun, “me," is obviconversation they hear contradict it, and of grammar is, to show what words may ously the agent; and hence, according to give you, your or yours, you, both in the sin come together, and how they should be ar- every Grammar, is in the nominative case. gular and plural. So far is this carried in ranged in the construction of sentences; Transpose the sentence, and change the most of our common schools, that even and that this object is promoted by the agent and object, the one for the other, when the antecedent of the pronoun you usual composition of modes and tenses. and say “ I am loved by Penelope.” In this is singular, the pronoun and its verb are We admit this object to be important, but example, the pronoun is the objective of called plural; and our grammarians would we think it would be attained with much loved;" and, if there be any sense in be greatly shocked, were they told that are greater facility by defining with precision English cases, it must be in the objective. and were should be called singular, when the use of every word in a sentence, than If by cases we are to understand the differthey agree with you, having a singular an- by giving the common vague definitions and ent relations of nouns and pronouns, then tecedent. Our Quaker brethren must pro- rules to such squads or parties of words, as it is obvious that every noun or pronoun, duce abler grammarians than Mr Murray, are generally allowed to be sirnamed, to which is the nominative case to what is before they can prove that their solemn save analyzing them.

called a passive verb, is also in the objecstyle is more correct than our common fa- We have heard of a few instructers, tive, and governed by the participle of the miliar style. We shall have occasion to who have adopted, with great advantage, same verb; for it has this double relation allude to this subject again when we come the method which we would recommend, of being nominative to the verb to be, and obto the conjugation of verbs.

parsing every word by itself,—defining jective to the participle. It is somewhat remarkable that none of it as well as possible, showing its connex- In our next number we shall treat of our grammarians should have stated that ion with other words, and naming its Modes and Tenses. Our readers will nothe word mine is a compound term and variations. This is what parsing should be, tice that we are not criticising the work of has generally two cases. It signifies my and what every teacher should endeavour any author; but that our remarks apply to own, that is my property; own being an to make it. It is, however, impossible to the Grammars in common use. All with abstract term, used at present only pro- adopt this method with complete success, wbich we are acquainted are nearly use nominally for whatever is emphatically the while our elementary books are so deficient less in the study of the English language. property of any person or thing. Accord- as they are at present.

They are totally destitute of analytical ing to common rules of parsing, it should It may now be asked, how many modes method, and embarrass the minds of scholbe considered as governing the pronoun be- and tenses there are in the English language. ars with an unexplamed and inexplicable fore it in the possessive case. “ Give me We are not quite ready for this part of our technical phraseology. We sh

endeavyour book and you shall have mine." In subject, but would ask grammarians if the our to offer occasionally som

nfs of this example, mine is both possessive and following be not the true principle. The their incorrectness, which we by objective. “ Your book was saved, mine number that should be recognised in any degrees, lead those who are cu was lost.Here it is possessive and nomi- grammar, is so many as are expressed by examine the subject more atten. Dative. These remarks apply equally to the the regular and established variations or give this science an intelligible anu pronoun thine. The pronouns ours, yours, verbs, without reference to what are com- cal form. and theirs are likewise compound, and should monly called auxiliaries. If you depart be parsed like mine. We sometimes use own from this rule, you may have millions. before a noun; as, my own house, mine The division of verbs into active, pas

(We do not wish to make our Gazette obnoxious house, his own house. In such cases, it be- sive, and neuter, is objectionable, because to the charge of too great attention to any one procomes an adjective noun.

the terms active and neuter do not convey fession ; but the remarks contained in the followIt cannot be said that in the example to the mind any idea of the uses of these ing Essay, which we have just now received, are given above, mine may be governed by two classes of verbs in construction with at once so true in themselves, and so important to book, expressed or understood, because it is other words. Transitive and intransitive some of our readers, that we trust we shall be obvious that it cannot be placed with that are more definite, because they distinguish thanked by them, and stand excused of all, for afterm without implying repetition. The between those which govern, and those fording it the space it will occupy in our pages. sense is complete as it stands, and the force which do not govern other words. The

EDITOR.) of the verb falls immediately on the com- passive verb is not a species distinct from pound pronoun. There is no more difficulty the others, but formed by combining the in calling these pronouns compound, than verb to be with the perfect participle of a The complaint uttered by Cicero, in his in calling what compound, and there is an transitive verb. In those languages in Treatise de Legibus, concerning the meaequal necessity for it.

which it is a distinct form of the verb, there greness of a jurist's reward, may be justly Before remarking on the errors in the is no objection to styling it the passive adopted by the compilers and editors of common method of parsing Verbs, we must voice ; but we totally destroy the simplici- law books in the United States. Quid tam make a few general observations.

ty of English syntax by endeavouring to exiguum quam munus eorum ? Only one anThe custom of taking several words to make it agree with that of other languages. cient reporter has been republished in this gether to form one part of speech, is totally We shall have occasion to say so much up- country with annotations and the editor in inconsistent with the analytical mode of on this subject, when we come to treat of that instance, we have the means of knowteaching. The compound modes and tenses Modes and Tenses in a future number, that ing, did not ultimately receive day wages of verbs, formed in this way, instead of defin- we are not willing to add more in this for his labour in that behalf. Mr Day has ing the meaning of a sentence more clear place.

rendered valuable services to his brethren, ly, and determining the precise influence or The common mode of parsing passive by adding notes to about twenty-five voluse of every member, tend only to confuse I verbs does not explain them in an intelli-l umes of modern reports; but he has been

LAW BOOKS.

a

EDINBURGH REVIEW.

a

by no means adequately compensated. He purposes of eliciting truth, preventing chi- manufacture of the United States, may lefirst undertook Espinasse's Reports of Cases canery, and securing an orderly investiga- gally be carried from place to place, and at Nisi Prius, which has been, perhaps, the tion. A defendant knows not whether the exposed for sale; yet, a fine of not less than most popular book of reports ever publish- plaintiff's evidence is closed, until the jury ten, por more than one hundred dollars, is ed in the United States. The success of is sent from the bar. He may, thereupon, to be inflicted on the offender, who shall be this work induced a bookseller in New pretty safely conclude that no further tes- so hardy as thus to carry abroad and sell, York to republish the two first volumes of timony will be admitted, even though it or expose for sale, those pernicious artiMr Campbell's Reports, in 1810 and 1811, may be offered. Such loose practice surely cles, ycleped indigo, feathers, books, tracts, without additional notes. The two last vol- deserves no toleration where the rules of prints, maps, playing cards, lottery tickets, umes, with notes by Mr Howe, were pub- the common law are the proiessed guide of jewelry, and essences. Now, as the lowest lished in 1821. The notes are evidently courts.

price of any article of trade must include from the pen of a learned and discriminat- Notwithstanding the want of pecuniary the value of the risk incurred in that trade, ing lawyer, and greatly enhance the value encouragement, there have been many it is evident that a repeal of the aforesaid of the edition. The cases reported are American editions of English law books, statute would enable the travelling seller worthy of attention,* and are recommended which are greatly increased in value by the of law books to offer them, on safe mercanby the circumstance that they are among addition of notes and references. The ex- tile principles, at a yet lower rate; and the last decisions of that most eminent nisi tent of the market induces booksellers to thus we gain a still further insight of the prius judge, Lord Ellenborough. If we ex. republish, and a commendable desire of im- great regular profits. cept his too strong inclination, in some proving the jurisprudence of the country,

Sic vos non vobis cases, to rely on what may be called a and affording facilities of investigation to moral estoppel, we can hardly find a fault the profession, has incited its members to in bis judgments. Indeed, Sir James Mans- a gratuitous contribution of their labours. field, near the close of his long judicial life, We hope every future edition of foreign

NUMBER LXXX of this journal contains expressed his most unqualified admiration publications on legal subjects may contain an amusing article upon America ; from of the correctness and ability of the Lord references to our own decisions. Chief Justice of the King's Bench, as dis- There are said to be in the United States for the good of those of our readers who

which we propose to make some extracts played in the reports of Mr Campbell. more than six thousand practising lawyers. happen not to take the Review. It is evi

From the character of almost every re- Mr Griffith, the compiler of the United dently an honest article, and moreover, concent English treatise on legal subjects, we States Law Register, has announced, by tains a good deal of truth, which it should are disposed to believe that reports may be way of recommendation, no doubt, of his be gratifying to us to find English writers more profitably consulted than elementary volumes, that he has the names and places willing to allow, and which it ought to do works. These last contain, of late, no prop- of residence of the gentlemen of the bar in the English public some good to learn. The er scientific arrangement of the decisions, fifteen states, amounting, in 1821, to four writer sets out thus : and are too often grossly deficient in matter thousand eight hundred and forty-one. He as well as arrangement. Learners will not estimates the number of judicial officers, in who are dreadfully afraid of America and every

There is a set of miserable persons in England, be well instructed by them; and those who the several States and Territories, at twen- thing American-whose great delight is to see that have already learned much, will derive very ty thousand. We think he must include country ridiculed and vilified and who appear to little profit from them. In this day of mak- the worshipful host of Justices of the Peace imagine that all the abuses which exist in this ing many law books, the profession will in this last class, in order to obtain such a country acquire additional vigour and chance of probably obtain more advantage, at a given formidable aggregate. Assuming, however, forth its venom and falsehood on the United States.

duration from every book of Travels which pours expense, from a thorough perusal of reports, that there are but six thousand men in our We shall, from time to time, call the attention of than from any other means. There is much country, who would ever incline to open a the public to this subject, not from any party spirit, in them, it is true, which is apochryphal; law book, it is manifest that almost every but because we love truth, and praise excellence but not less in the recent treatises, the au- work that issues from the over-teeming wherever we find it; and because we think the exthors of which boast of having intruded presses of the “law printer to the king's ample of America will, in many instances, tend to no impertinent comments of their own upon most excellent majesty," and of others in open the eyes of Englishmen to their true interests.

The Economy of America is a great and importthe wild conceits which they embody and Great Britain, might be reprinted here ant object for our imitation. The salary of Mr disseminate. We can except from this with tolerable safety to the pockets of the Bagot, our late Ambassador, was, we believe, rathcensure a very few treatises that have late- publishers. One in twenty of those who er higher than that of the President of the United ly come under our notice from England; rank among professional men, may well be States. The Vice-President receives rather less and with great satisfaction we assure our hoped and expected to become a purchaser and all salaries, civil and military, are upon the

than the second Clerk of the House of Commons; readers that a native Essay on Insurance, of any legal publication of passable merit. same scale ; and yet no country is better served which has recently issued from the press in This would secure a sale for three hundred than America! Mr Hume has at last persuaded the this city, is liable to none of these objec- copies, which, at the price generally de- English people to look a little into their accounts, tions, but is every way worthy of the sub- manded for books in law binding, would en- and to see how sadly they are plundered. But we ject, and does honor to the talents, learning, sure the printer and bookseller, quicquid consider whether we have not a very momentous

ought to suspend our contempt for America, and and acumen of the author.

honorarium more valuable than the pur- lesson to learn from this wise and cautious people One benefit may be hoped from an ex- chasers often receive for any single profes- on the subject of economy. tensive circulation of the English reports of sional service. Indeed, since we have seen A lesson upon the importance of Religious Tol. cases at nisi prius : we mean a correction new law books, fresh from the press, hawk- eration, we are determined, it would seem, not to of the very loose and slovenly practice in ed about our villages like tin ware, and of learn-either from America, or from any other some of the American courts, of presenting fered at prices so very far below the book- York, last year, was a Jew. li was with the ut

of the globe. The High Sheriff of New

quarter evidence to a jury. Almost every thing is store mark, we have been led to infer (er- most difficulty that a bill was carried this year to admitted,—de bene esse at least, -and wit- roneously perchance) that the profits of allow the first Duke of England to carry a gold nesses are examined, cross-examined, and the regular trade must be greater than we stick before the King—because he was a Catholic! reexamined, without any regard to the rules before suspected. The pedlar of tin ware, brand yet we think ourselves entitled to indulge in which we find applied in the English courts, by the way, has one advantage over the did not depend more upon making wise laws for

impertinent sneers at America,-as is civilization and which are so wisely adapted to the itinerant venders of law books, which is not the promotion of human happiness, than in having

to be overlooked in an estimate of regular good ions, and post-horses, and civil waiters. The not of men, we know of nothing more striking than Massachusetts

. Whereas, by a statute of Cherokee, if he could be brought to understand As an illustration of a government of laws, and profits. His is a lawful traffic, at least in circumstances of the Dissenters' marriage bill are

such as would excite the contempt of a Chictaw or the case of Beaurain vs. Sir W. Scott, Vol. Ill. that state, though goods, wares, and mer- them. A certain class of Dissenters beg they may page 388.

chandise in general, if of the produce or not be compelled to say that they marry in the

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