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mental school of artillery. It is related on the like authority that the same Semmes has avowed, manifestly to the satisfaction of a considerable portion of the British public, that the pirate crew who escaped would continue to receive wages in England, and would remain there in his unlawful service until he should, in August next, take to the sea again in a new Alabama, understood to be forthcoming from a British port.

Once more, it is stated that the wounded pirates were received at once and cared for in a national British naval hospital, in or near to Southampton.

While these occurrences were happening in England, the escaped commander of the Alabama is said to have been the object of hospitalities and demonstrations from British subjects in Southampton, which could have been reasonably bestowed only upon the supposition that, in robbing or burning or sinking American merchantmen on the high seas, in all quarters of the globe, and finally in engaging the Kearsarge off the port of Cherbourg, he was acting with the implied consent and in the interest of Great Britain as an enemy of the United States. This government experiences much pain in reviewing these extraordinary incidents of the late naval engagement. The President earnestly desires, not only a continuance of peace, but also to preserve our long existing friendship with Great Britain. He is, therefore, indisposed to complain of injuries on the part of British subjects whenever he can refrain consistently with the safety, honor, and dignity of the United States. In this spirit we are ready, as we are desirous, to learn that many of the statements to which I have referred are erroneous. But when we have made considerable allowances in that way, there yet remain very large grounds for representation on our part to her Majesty's gov


I desire, however, to be understood as speaking with sincerity and frankness when I say, that this government does not for temoment believe that any of the proceedings which I have related were adopted under any orders or directions, or with any knowledge, on the part of her Britannic Majesty's government. On the contrary, I have to declare, without reservation, my belief that the proceedings herein recited of the pirate Semmes and of the yacht Deerhound, and of the British subjects who have sympathized with and unlawfully aided and abetted the pirates, are the unauthorized acts of

individuals, and that those proceedings will be regretted and disapproved by her Majesty's government.

The President will expect you1to carefully gather information, to weigh it well, and then to make a proper representation to her Majesty's government upon the whole subject I have thus presented. The Secretary of the Navy will give special instructions to Captain Winslow to answer your inquiries.

Unless the cases shall be materially modified by the result of your inquiries, you will be expected to say, in the first place, that the incidents I have related, if unexplained, seem to confirm the soundness of the opinion heretofore held and insisted upon by this government, that the Alabama is justly to be regarded as a vessel fitted out by British subjects, engaged in making unlawful war against the United States.

Secondly, this government is of opinion that Semmes and his confederates having been rescued by unlawful intervention of the Deerhound, and conveyed within the jurisdiction of Great Britain, they ought to be delivered up to the United States.

Thirdly, it will be your duty to remonstrate against the conduct of any British authorities or subjects who may be engaged in furnishing supplies or paying wages to the escaped pirates of the Alabama, and to ask for their conviction and punishment.

Fourthly, the occasion will warrant you in asking her Majesty's government, with earnestness, to adopt such measures as shall be found necessary to prevent the preparation, equipment, and outfit of any further hostile naval expedition from British shores to make war against the United States. If, however, you find the facts established by your inquiries to differ materially from the statements thereof, herein assumed to be true, you will be at liberty to modify your representations, accordingly; or if you prefer you will report the result of your inquiries and apply to this government for further and specific instructions.

July 12, 1864. The insurgent movement in the Shenandoah valley, which I mentioned in a late despatch, developed at the close of last week. A column, reported at 30,000 or 40,000, under Breckinridge, passed the Potomac fords above Harper's Ferry, crossed the South Mountain, and entered Frederick, in Maryland, Saturday, the 9th instant. Major-General Wallace, with about 7,000 men, hastily

1 Mr. Adams.

drawn from Baltimore, met the whole or a considerable portion of the enemy's force at the bridge at Monocacy, which opens the way equally to Washington and Baltimore. A deadly conflict was maintained from nine in the morning to five in the afternoon. Our forces, overpowered by double their number, gave way and retreated to Ellicott's Mills.

Insurgent cavalry on Sunday spread themselves over a portion of Maryland, extending from the Gunpowder Creek, on the north, to the border of this city on the south, and from the Potomac eastward, approaching the Washington branch of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, threatened Baltimore and Washington. They captured and destroyed a train of cars on the railroad at Gunpowder Creek, and broke the telegraph line at that point. The main column is believed to have been moving across the country from the bank of the Potomac near Rockville, towards Bladensburg, at a distance of perhaps eight miles north of this city. The enemy's cavalry approached and skirmished with our cavalry and pickets immediately in front of our north line of fortifications, which extends from the west branch of the Potomac to Bladensburg, on the east branch. The enemy's column is understood to be about 20,000. Arrangements have been made for the defence of Baltimore. But this morning it is reported that there is no considerable force in the vicinity of that place. Vigorous measures have been taken to improve the defences of Washington, and every hour increases our strength. It is supposed now that the force of the enemy has not yet effected a concentration. Last night passed off without an assault, and this morning telegraphic communication between Washington and the north is completely restored. Our communication with General Grant at Petersburg has not been interrupted. The railroad between Baltimore and Philadelphia will be speedily repaired. In the mean time communication is carried on between Baltimore and Philadelphia through the canal which connects with the Delaware. General Henter is at Martinsburg, but not yet in communication by telegraph., General Grant still persists in his siege of Petersburg and Richmond. General Sherman has crossed the Chattahoochee, and there are indications that the enemy will retire from Atlanta.

July 14, 1864.-I sympathize with you1 as the whole American people do, in the grief and sorrow which you express on the occa

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sion of the death of General Wadsworth. He was an eminent type of the sublime virtue which is saving and regenerating the Republic. There is scarcely a family in the country which has not been bereaved, and you may therefore be sure of universal sympathy when you mourn for one near to yourself who was stricken down upon the battle-field.

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July 18, 1864. My despatches were delayed last week by reason of the interruption of the postal and telegraphic lines between this city and Philadelphia. An insurgent force, of unascertained strength, was then in front of this capital, but it had not excited serious alarm. The enemy withdrew by night, on the 12th instant, and has since retired into Virginia. Not only the actual number of the intruding force, but also its expectations and purposes, yet remain a subject of earnest speculation. I express on these points conclusions which I have drawn chiefly from my own inquiries and observations.

General Hunter, in May last, leaving a considerable portion of his command at Harper's Ferry and its vicinity, proceeded up the valley of Virginia to operate upon the western and southwestern military communications of Richmond. He effected his object. Before that time, however, Lee had organized a column and sent it out to resist and chastise Hunter. This column is understood to have been twenty-two thousand men, besides cavalry. It largely exceeded Hunter's forces. Hunter retired before it, and proceeded safely to the Ohio River. There he gathered transport, and put his weary column in motion upon the river, designing to disembark at Parkersburg, and return thence by railroad to Harper's Ferry. A season of unusual drought intervened, and the waters of the Ohio fell, rendering the moving of the transports slow and difficult. The residuary force at Harper's Ferry was not formidable, and so, practically, the valley was left open for the insurgent columns which Hunter had left behind him at Lynchburg. That column remounted the dismounted cavalry with horses taken in its progress, and was probably reinforced by recruits also, and thus strengthened came down the valley. General Sigel retired before the intruders, first from/Martinsburg to Harper's Ferry, and then across the Potomac to Maryland Heights, on the opposite bank. The enemy once more broke the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, and unopposed made their way over the upper fords of the Potomac, crossed the South Moun

tain, and arrived at Frederick. In the meantime Hunter's forces, arriving at Parkersburg, were making their way, although too late, yet with good success towards Harper's Ferry, and General Grant, at Petersburg, sent up the 6th army corps to insure the safety of Baltimore and Washington. The 19th army corps, from Red River, then at sea, were under orders to join the army of the Potomac on the James River. Orders were now given, that this 19th corps, on coming in at Fortress Monroe, should, without disembarkation, proceed to Washington. While the enemy approached Frederick, General Wallace, combining a few troops that could be spared from the garrison at Baltimore with Ricket's division, the only portion of the 6th corps that had yet arrived, then proceeded to Frederick, expecting there to effect a junction with Hunter; but he had not yet reached Harper's Ferry. General Wallace, with his very scanty forces, on the 9th instant took a position in front of the bridge at Monocacy, which is a key equally to Washington and Baltimore. The enemy, with a force double that of Wallace, and also a great advantage of position, after a bloody battle, which lasted eight hours, carried the bridge, and Wallace fell back along the line of the railroad to Ellicott's Mills. The loss of the enemy was at least equal to our own in that protracted and heroic conflict. The enemy, however, encountered no opposing force in Maryland. They scattered their cavalry northward, eastward, and southward, and struck the Pennsylvania Central railroad, and then the Philadelphia and Baltimore railroad at Gunpowder Creek, the suburbs of Baltimore, the suburbs of Washington, and the Washington branch of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, near Bladensburg. Their infantry and artillery forces were under command of Early, who was supported by Breckinridge and McCausland. They deployed in a south-easterly direction from Rockville to Leesburg, which is on the continuation of what is known in this city as 7th street. From this line ey threw forward a considerable force for observation, and thus menaced Fort Stevens.

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This observing force remained in that position from Monday morning until Tuesday evening, and the space between thein and the fortifications was a scene of uninterrupted skirmishes between the cavalry and sharpshooters of the respective parties. While the enemy were making these demonstrations, the fortifications which were threatened were duly manned by the troops belonging to

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