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year 1861

Secretary of State for War, moves a Vote of Thanks to the officers and men engaged in the China Expedition-His Speech, giring an account of the operations of the War-The Earl of Derby gives his cordial assent to the Motion, and compliments the Military Department on the organization of the Expedition-Remarks of the Duke of Cambridge, Earl Grey, the Duke of Somerset, Earl of Ellenborough, and other PeersThe Resolution is adopted, nem. con. -A similar Resolution in the House of Commons is moved by Lord Palmerston, seconded by Mr. Disraeli - Remarks of Mr. White, Sir James Elphinstone, Lord John Russell, and other MembersThe Motion is voted unanimously-Law of BANKRUPTCY The Attorney-General again introduces his Meusure, somewhat altered since last Session, for the Amend. ment of the Bankrupt Laws-He explains the various provisions and details of the Bill-A general approval is expressed by the legal and mercantile Members of the HouseThe Bill is brought in-Death of H.R.H. the Duchess of Kent on the 16th of March-Addresses of Condolence moved by Ministers in both HousesTheir Speeches

The Addresses are agreed to, nem. con. THE internal state of the coun

at home, attention was chiefly try at the opening of the bent upon the progress of af

was generally pros- fairs abroad, especially upon the perous and tranquil. The harvest gradual development of Italian of the preceding autumn had, unity, in which a warm interest indeed, proved deficient, even to was felt, though the attitude of a greater extent than was at first neutrality was strictly maintained apprehended, but the policy of by our Government. The sucfree-trade had happily, in a great cessful and honourable terminameasure, obviated the effects of tion of the war in China was domestic scarcity, and very large hailed with cordial satisfaction. importations of grain having On the other side of the Atlantic, been received both from Europe the first scene of a revolution and America, the cost of the of great importance, no less than prime necessary of life was kept the disruption of the hitherto within moderate bounds, and United States into two hostile occasioned but little pressure sections, had just begun to excite upon the poorer classes. The

a warm interest in this country. state of the agricultural and The sympathies of England were manufacturing interests at the at the outset distinctly engaged opening of the year was appa- on behalf of the Northern States, rently sound, and a spirit of con- the national abhorrence of slavery tentment and political tranquil- producing a strong alienation lity generally prevailed. What- from the Southern cause; but in ever demand had temporarily this case, as well as in that of existed for constitutional changes Italy, both the British Adminisappeared to have now completely tration and the people at large subsided, and the subject of Par- were firmly resolved in adhering liamentary Reform to be sus- to the policy of non-interference. pended by consent of all parties. On the 5th of February, ParIn the absence of stirring events liament was

liament was opened by Her Majesty in person with the fol- vention will have been fully atlowing Speech :


" I announced to you also, at "My Lords and Gentlemen,- the close of the last Session of

Parliament, that the pacific over“ It is with great satisfaction tures which my Envoy in China that I meet you again in Parlia- had made to the Imperial Gonient, and have recourse to your vernment at Pekin having led assistance and advice.

to no satisfactory result, my “My relations with foreign naval and military forces, and Powers continue to be friendly those of my ally the Emperor and satisfactory; and I trust that of the French, were to advance the moderation of the Powers of towards the northern provinces Europe will prevent any inter- of China, for the purpose of supruption of the general peace. porting the just demands of the

· Events of great importance Allied Powers, and that the Earl are taking place in Italy. Be- of Elgin had been sent to China lieving that the Italians ought to as special Ambassador to treat be left to settle their own affairs,' with the Chinese Government. I have not thought it right to “ I am glad to inform you that exercise any active interference the operations of the allied forces in those matters. Papers on this have been attended with comsubject will be laid before you. plete success. After the capture

"I announced to you, at the of the forts at the mouth of the close of the last Session of Par- Peiho, and several engagements liament, that the atrocities which with the Chinese army, the allied had en recently been committed force became masters of the in Syria had induced me to con- imperial city of Pekin; and the cur with the Emperor of Austria, Earl of Elgin and Baron Gros, the Emperor of the French, the the Ambassador of the Emperor Prince Regent of Prussia, and of the French, were enabled to the Emperor of Russia, in enter- obtain an honourable and satising into an engagement with the factory settlement of all matters Sultan, by which temporary mili- in dispute. tary assistance was to be afforded "Throughout these operations, to the Sultan for the purpose of and the negotiations which folestablishing order in that part of lowed them, the Commanders and bis dominions.

Ambassadors of the Allied Powers “ That assistance has been acted with the most friendly conafforded by a body of French cert. Papers on this subject will troops, who have been sent to be laid before you. Syria as representing the Allied “ The state of my Indian terri. Powers. T'he Sultan has also tories is progressively improving; placed a considerable military and I trust that their financial force in Syria, under the direc- condition will gradually partake tion of an able officer; and I of the general amendment. trust that tranquillity will soon “ An insurrection of a portion be re-established in that province, of the natives of New Zealand and that the objects of the con- has interrupted the peace of a part of that colony; but I hope Gentlemen of the House of that the measures which have Commons, been taken will speedily suppress “I have directed the estimates these disturbances, and enable for the ensuing year to be laid my Government to concert such

before you. arrangements as may prevent framed with a due regard to

They have been their recurrence. “Serious differences have arisen economy and to the efficiency of

the several branches of the public among the States of the North

service. American Union. It is impossible for me not to look with

My Lords and Gentlemen, great concern upon any events which can affect the happiness

“ Measures will be laid before and welfare of a people nearly you for the consolidation of imallied to my subjects by descent, portant parts of the criminal and closely connected with them law; for the improvement of the by the most intimate and friendly law of bankruptcy and insolrelations. My heartfelt wish is vency; for rendering more easy

the transfer of land; for estathat these differences


be susceptible of a satisfactory ad- blishing a uniform system of justment.

rating in England and Wales ;

and for several other purposes of “ The interest which I take in the well-being of the people of public usefulness. the United States cannot but be

"I confidently commit the increased by the kind and cordial great interests of my empire to reception given by them to the your wisdom and care; and I Prince of Wales during his recent fervently pray that the blessing

of the Almighty may attend your visit to the continent of America. “I am glad to take this oppor. liberations to the attainment of

councils and may guide your detunity of expressing my warm appreciation of the loyalty and

the object of my constant soliciattachment to my person and tude, the welfare and happiness throne manifested by my Cana- of my people.” dian and other North American In the House of Lords the subjects on the occasion of the Address in answer to the Royal residence of the Prince of Wales Speech was moved by the Earl of

Sefton, who began by congratu“I have concluded with the lating the House on the restoraEmperor of the French conven- tion to health of Lord Derby, tions supplementary to the treaty and proceeded to comment in of commerce of the 23rd of the language of approval on January, 1860, and in furtherance the several paragraphs in Her of the objects of that treaty. Majesty's Address. The motion

“I have also concluded with having been seconded in an able the King of Sardinia a conven- maiden speech by Lord Lismore, tion for the reciprocal protection the Earl of Derby entered at of copyright.

some length upon the various “ These conventions will be topics which had been presented laid before you.

to the House. The noble lord

among them.

stated at the outset that he had operations which had brought the no intention of disturbing the war in China to a successful terharmony of the proceedings by mination. Passing to the foreign moving any amendment to the relations of the country, he exAddress. At the same time, he pressed his wish to hear from could not refrain from remarking Her Majesty's Government the upon the deficiencies which he state of our relations with France had observed in the Royal Speech, on two points-the Syrian exHe regretted that no notice had pedition and the affairs of Italy. been taken of the recent distress As to the first point, he would be which had prevailed among the glad to hear whether any time working classes, and of the noble been appointed for the withgenerosity on the part of the drawal of the French troops wealthier classes which it had from Syria, and also whether the evoked. He passed on to ex- French Government had deterpress his surprise that nothing mined to insist on a further ochad been said in the Royal cupation of the country. In speakSpeech of the general financial ing of Italian affairs, he wished condition of the country, and to know what was the position contrasted in this respect the in which Her Majesty's Governmeagreness of the Speech from ment stood with regard to the the Throne with that delivered by present state of Italy and its the Emperor of the French at future prospects. the opening of the Legislative He had nothing to say in vinChambers. No one viewed with dication of the Government of more regret than himself the pre- Francis II., but thought he had sent disruption of the United had hárd measure, seeing that he States, both as to the disastrous was exposed to the long pent-up consequences to the States them- indignation of his people before selves, and to the effect which he had an opportunity of showwould be produced upon the ing what his principles and policy manufacturing classes of this really were.

If the dream of an country. He trusted that the united Italy could be realized, present condition of the United Lord Derby would look upon

it States would lead in this country without jealousy, provided it were to a more serious consideration of not only great and united but really the best means for procuring a independent of a foreign Power. supply of cotton from other dis- Passing from the merits of the tricts. In brief, but elegant Neapolitan revolt, Lord Derby terms, he next congratulated Her condemned the manner in which Majesty on the reception which it had been encouraged. General the Prince of Wales had met in Garibaldi was an excellent man, Canada and the United States, and an honest politician, but he and on the perfect manner in would not have done so'much had which his Royal Highness had he not been supported by the conducted himself. Lord Derby King of Sardinia, whose course then briefly touched upon the was a flagrant violation of interrebellion in New Zealand and national law. The Queen's Speech the position of India, briefly eulo- said the Italians were to be left gizing the military and naval to settle their own affairs, but

that sentence involved a fallacy. It Lord Derby demanded explana could not be contended that Sar- tions. He then proceeded to ask dinia was justified in interfering for a distinct statement of the in Naples without a declaration future policy of the Government, of war. If the French people all the more because in the Royal interfered with the affairs of the Speech Her Majesty said she French who live in Canada or the “trusts to the moderation of the Mauritius, Lord John Russell great Powers of Europe to prewould find good reason for object- vent any interruption of the ing to it. He did not, however, general peace.” wish to discuss so much the merits “There is no use," said the of the King of Sardinia and Ge- noble lord, "in blinking this neral Garibaldi, as the tone Her question. It is quite right to Majesty's Government meant to speak openly, and say that the assume with respect to Italy, and preservation of peace or the calatheir views of her future posi mity of war depends wholly and tion. His complaint was that the entirely on the attitude taken by oracle had spoken in ambiguous the Emperor of the French; and terms The Foreign Minister I must confess that I am not very had written contradictory de- favourably impressed with the spatches, one on the 31st of prospects of peace by the lanAugust, and one on the 27th of guage used in the speech deliOctober. They embodied totally vered by the Emperor of the distinct principles, and he wished French. At this time last year to know by which they meant to I undertook to express my earnest abide. In August the Minister hope that the Emperor of the deprecated, on the ground of French would not commit so great principle, any interference by an error and so great a political Sardinia in Naples; in October fault as to persist in the annexahis language underwent a total tion of Savoy and Nice; and I change, the more remarkable as all expressed that hope, not only on the other Governments of Europe account of the effect which the had disapproved of the course actual transfer of those provinces taken by Sardinia. On a former would have on the relations of occasion Lord John Russell had the countries in Europe, but more read a letter in the House of particularly so on account of the Commons telling Lord Palmer- effect it would produce in shaking ston how foreign correspondence the confidence of Europe in the should be conducted, and dwell- good faith of the Emperor of the ing on the necessity of submit- French. In this country people ting all despatches to the Queen. are only too ready to state openly, Lord Derby said he thought at clearly, and distinctly what their the time that was a strong step views and objects are. They go to take, and then insinuated that straightforward to their mark, Lord John had forgotten to act sometimes indiscreetly perhaps, upon his own counsel to Lord but they expect to see in explanaLord Palmerston, and obtain the tions of objects and intentions on Queen's sanction. Having argued the part of other Powers the same that Lord John's doctrines in the straightforwardness. They are, October despatch were untenable, therefore, very easily duped by

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