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INTERVIEW BETWEEN GRANT AND PEMBERTON.

627

rison. Men who have shown so much endurance and courage as those now in Vicksburg, will always challenge the respect of an adversary, and I can assure you will be treated with all the respect due them as prisoners of war. I do not favor the proposition of appointing commissioners to arrange terms of capitulation, because I have no other terms than those indicated above."

General Bowen expressed to General Smith a strong desire to converse with General Grant. The latter declined this, but consented to meet General Pemberton between the lines in McPherson's front at any hour that afternoon which the Confederate commander might choose. The hour of three was appointed. The moment when the leaders approached the place of meeting was announced by a signal-gun fired by the Nationals, which was answered by the Confederates. Grant was accompanied by Generals McPherson, Ord, Logan, and A. J. Smith; Pemberton, by General Bowen and Colonel Montgomery. They met on the southern slope of Fort Hill, to the left of the old Jackson road; and after introductions and a few minutes conversation, the two

ER chiefs withdrew to the shade of a live-oak tree, where they sat down on the grass and held a private conference. It ended by Grant promising to send Pemberton a proposition in writing before night, and both agreeing that hostilities should cease while the subject was under discussion.

Toward evening Grant sent General Logan and Lieutenant-Colonel Wilson, of his staff, with a letter to Pemberton, in which he proposed that, on the acceptance of his terms, he should march in one division as a guard and take possession the next morning at eight o'clock; that as soon as paroles could be prepared and signed, the vanquished should march out of the National lines, the officers taking with them their regimental clothing—the staff, field, and cavalry officers one

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MONUMENT AT VICKSBURG.

1 The live-oak tree under which Grant and Pemberton held their private conference was very soon afterward hewn down, and converted into the forms of canes and other objects by the officers and soldiers, as mementoes, and on its site a handsome counmemorative monument was erected, which is delineated in the above engraving, as it and its surroundings appeared when tho writer sketched it, in April, 1866. The monument was of white veined marble, about twelve feet in height, composed of an obelisk and base, and surmounted by a sphere. It was very much mutilated by having pieces knocked off of every edge, nnd also of the devices, by relic-seekers, and the lettering obliterated by the rebellious, it is said. It was difficult to determine the charneter of the devices on it, or decipher the inscription. I was informed that they were as follows: On one side of the obelisk was an eagle bearing the Goddess of Liberty on its wings, as it hovered over a group of implements of war, and holding in its talons a shield, and in its beak a ribbon, with the National motto, E Pluribus UNUM. The monument bore the inscription, “To the Memory of the Surrender of Vicksburg, by Lieutenant-General J. G. Pemberton, to Major-Cieneral U. S. Grant, U. S. A., on the 4th of July, 1863."

It was evident that no monument of stone conld long endure the vandalism of relie-seekers, so the mutilted one was removed toward the close of 1866, and a new and appropriate one erected on its base, which will forever defy the destructivo hand. It is an immense iron cannon, of very nearly the proportions of the marble obelisk, and is surmounted by a bage shell, which takes the place of the sphere.

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628

FORMAL SURRENDER OF VICKSBURG.

horse each, and the rank and file to be allowed to take all their clothing, but
no other property. He consented to their taking from their own stores any
amount of rations necessary, and cooking utensils for preparing them; also,
thirty wagons (counting two two-horse or mule teams as one) for transpor-
tation.
At three o'clock on the morning of the 4th, General Legget, quartered

at Fort Hill, received Pemberton's reply to Grant, and immedi. July, 1863,

ately forwarded it to his chief's head-quarters by Captain W. J. White, of his staff. Colonel Bowers received it and read it to the General. Pemberton accepted the terms proposed, in the main, but wished to amend, “in justice," he said, “ to the honor and spirit of his troops,” by having permission granted for them to march out with their colors and arms,

and to stack them in front of the Confederate lines; also, that the officers should “retain their side-arms and personal property, and the rights and property of citizens be respected." Grant instantly wrote a reply, refusing to accede to Pemberton's amendments in full. He declined subjection to any restraint concerning the citizens, at the same time giving assurances that they should not suffer undue annoyances. He consented to the marching out of the brigades, at ten o'clock in the morning, to the front of their respective positions, when, after stacking their arms, they should retire inside, and remain prisoners of war until paroled. Unwilling to suffer any further delay, he gave Pemberton to understand that if these modified terms were not accepted he should open fire upon him at mine o'clock.

Pemberton accepted the terms. McPherson's corps was immediately placed under arms as a guard during the ceremonies of surrender. At ten

o'clock on that ever-memorable holiday of the nation, the briJuly 4.

gades began to march out. In the course of three hours their arms were stacked, and they were again within their intrenchments.

McPherson had been commissioned to formally receive the stipulated surrender from Pemberton. When the work was finished, he was joined by Grant and Logan, and the three leaders, with their respective staff officers, and, accompanied by Pemberton and his staff, rode into the city in triumph at a little past noon. Already the National flag had been raised on the Court-House, while the joyous soldiers were singing the stirring song beginning

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“Yes, we'll rally 'round the flag, boys, we'll rally once again,

Shouting the battle-cry of Freedom !
We'll rally from the hill-side, we'll gather from the plain,

Shouting the battle-cry of Freedom!"

1

By three o'clock the possession of the post was absolute, and Porter's powerful feet and the flotilla of transports were lying quietly at the levée. That evening, in commemoration of the National birthday, the soldiers regaled the citizens of Vicksburg with fire-works more harmless than those which, for more than forty nights, had coursed the beavens above them like malignant meteors, heralding war, pestilence, and famine. McPherson made his head-quarters at the fine mansion of Dr. Balfour, on the corner of Crawford and Cherry Streets, whence he issued a stirring congratulatory address to his soldiers, and Grant returned to his modest tent in the distant cane

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