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462

GENERALS POPE AND MOCLELLAN.

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set, and the command of his division devolved on the able Birney, who
instantly ordered a bayonet charge by his own brigade, composed of the
First, Thirty-eighth, and Fortieth New York. These, led by Colonel Egan,
executed the orders with great bravery, and pushed back the Confederate
advance some distance. Birney held the field that night, and the hours of
darkness were spent in the sad task of burying the dead.' Precious were the.
lives on the Union side that were lost in this, The BATTLE OF CHANTILLY,
a battle that ended the campaign of General Pope, and also his military
career in the East. He had labored hard under many difficulties, and he
bitterly complained of a lack of co-operation with him in his later struggles
by McClellan and some of his subordinates."
By order of General IIalleck, the broken and demoralized army was with-

drawn within the fortifications around Washington the next day," a Sept. 2,

when it was allowed a brief rest. Pope now repeated with

greater earnestness his request, made before he took the field, to be relieved of the command of the Army of Virginia, and allowed to return to the West, and it was granted. The Army of Virginia disappeared as a

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1862.

1 By reference to the large Map of Operations in Lipper Virginia, on page 898 of this volume, and to the smaller maps on pages 386, 555, 594, and 602 of volume I., the reader will havo a fair idea of the region of Pope's campaign, and of the field of conflict in the vicinity of Manassas.

? Ainong them were Gonerals Kearney and Stevens, and Major Tilden, of the Thirty-eighth New York. Kearney w;s well known to General Lee, and that leader sent his body to Pope's heail-quarters the next morning, with a flag of truce. Stevens led the attack at the head of the Suventy-ninth (Highlanders) New York, with the colors of that regiment, which had fallen from the hands of a wounded sergeant. In the Second Battle of Bull's Run, on tho 30th, Colonel Fletcher Webster, son of Daniel Webster, fell; and, on the same day, Colonel George W. Pratt, of the Twentieth New York, son of the Ilonorable Zadlock Pratt, was mortally wounded near Gainesville. On the same day Colonel Broadhead, of the regular arıny, received his death-wound on the Bull Run battle-ground; also Culonels O'Connor, Cintwell, and Brown. Among the rounded were Major-General Robert C. Schenck, and Colonel Hardin, of the Pennsylrania Reserves.

The National loss in Pope's campaign, from the Battle of Cedar Mountain to that of Chantilly, was never oflicially reported in fuil. The most careful estimates make it, including the immenso number of stragglers who never returned to their regiments, alınost 30,000. Lee's losses during that time amounted probably to 15,000. He claimed to have taken 7,000 prisoners, with 2,000 sick and wounded, thirty pieces of artillery, and 20,000 small arms.

• Reports of Generals Pope and Lec and their suborilinntes.

• According to Pope's Report, 20,500 men were all of the Army of the Potomac that joined him in actir: operations" all," he said, “ of the 91,000 veteran troops from Ilarrison's Landing which ever drew trigger undir my command, or in any way took part in the campaign." . * Porter's corps," he said, “ from unnecessary and unusual delays, and frequent and flagrant disregard for my orders, took no part whatever, except in the battle of the 30th of August.” Pope afterward formally preferred charges against Porter of " misconduct before the enemy." Porter was tried by a court-martial, which, in January, 1963, pronounced a verdict of guilty, and he was sentenced to be "cashivred, and be forever disqualified from holding ang office of trust or profit under the Government of the United States." At the request of the President the whole case was roviewed by Josepła Hult, then Judze Advocate-General, when the sentence was approved and executul.

Strenuous but ineffectual efforts were made by the President and the General-in-Chief to bring the army of the Potomac to the aid of the Ariny of Virginia in confronting Lee, and through it to furnish Pope with sup: plies. The oflicial clectrographs that passed between the President and General Ilalleck and General McClellan exhibit the same indisposition on the part of the latter to promptly co:nply with tho orders of his superiors ibat was shown while he was on the Peninsula. lo seemed more disposed to give his advice than to obey commands; and while failing to afforil the required aid to Pope, he atfected to misunderstand explicit or lers, and indi. cnted his unwillingness to act under superior authority hy saying in a dispatch to Jalleck on the 27th of August: " I am not responsible for the past, and cannot be for the filture, unless I receive authority to dispose of the available troops according to my judgment." After thwarting the efforts of the Government to get Franklin's corps to a position to give Pope greatly needed assistance on the 29th, and Iallcck had telegraphed to him, saying, “ I want Franklin's corp3 to go far enough to find out something about the enemy. ... Our people must inove more actively and find out where the enemy is; I am tired of guesses," McClellan telegraphed to the President, saying: “ I am clear that one of two courses should be adopted. First, to concentrato all our available forces to open coinmunication with Pope. Second, to leave Pope to get out of his scrupe, arıd at once uso all our means to make the Capital safe."-See McClellan's Report, page 173.

It was not until Pope was defeated and driven across Bull's Run to Centreville that the corps of Franklin and Sumner were permitted to take a position within supporting distance. It is clear to the cornprehension of the writer, after a careful analysis of reports and dispatches, that had these corps and Porter's been allowed to gire timely assistance to Pope, as they could have done, Lee's army might have been captured or dispersed, and

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THE CONFEDERATE “CONGRESS."

463

a Sept, 2,

1362.

separate organization, and became a part of the Army of the Potomac; and General McClellan, in compliance with the wishes of a large majority of his surviving officers and men, was invested with the command of all the troops for the defense of the capital.

The sad results of Pope's campaign, and of that on the Peninsula, cast a pall of gloom over the spirits of the loyal people for a moment. But it was soon lifted; while the conspirators and their followers and friends were made jubilant and hopeful."

perhaps a death-blow given to the rebellion. In view of all the testimony, and cspecially of that giren in McClellan's Report, it does not seem to be a harsh judgment to believe that the commander of the Ariny of the Potomac and his friends were willing to seo Pope defeated. * Popo's appoigtment to the cominanıl, and his address to his army on opening the campaign” (sce page 446), says a careful writer, “hail been linderstood by them as reflecting on the stritegy of the Peninsula campaign; and this was thrir mode of resenting the indig. nity."-See Greeley's American Conflict, ii. 192.

10:1 the 211 of September Davis sent into the “ Congress“ at Riclımond a message announcing news of complete triumph, from Lee, and said: “ From these dispatches it will be seen that God has agnin extender his shield over our patriotic army, and has blessed the cause of the Confedericy with a second signal victory on the field [Bull's Run) already memorable by the gallant achievement of our troops."

The following are the names of the inembers of the so-called “ Confederato Congress" at this time:

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"SENATE." Alabama_*Clement C. Clay, *William L. Yancey Arkansas Robert W. Johnson, Charles D. Mitchell. FloridaJames M. Baker, * Augustus E. Maxwell. Georgia-Benjamin II. Hill, *Robert Tootpbs. k'entucky_*Henry C. Burnett, *William E. Simins. Louisiana—Thomas J. Seinmes, Edward Sparrow. Missisrippi-*Albert G. Brown, James Phelan. Missouri–#John B. Clark, R. S.T. Pryton. North CarolinaGeoryo Davis, William T. Dortch. South Carolina_*Robert W. Barnwell, *James L. Orr. Tennesse-Longdon C. Haynes, Gustavus A. IIenry. Texus-William S. Oldham, *Louis T. Wigfall. Virginia_*P. M. T. llunter, * Wm. Ballard Preston.

"JIOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES." AlabamaThomas J. Foster, *William P. Smith, John P. Ralls, *J. L. M. Curry, *Francis 8. Lyon, Wm. P. Chilton, *David Clopton, *James S. Pugh, *Edward L. Dargan. Arkansus-Felix L. Batson, Grandison D. Royston, Augustus 11. Garland, Thomas B. Hanly. Florida--James B. Dawkins, Robert B. Wilton. Georgia-Julian llartridge, C. J. Munnerlyn, Hines Iolt, Augustus II. Kenan, David W. Lewis, William W. Clark, *Rubert P. Frippe, * Lucius J. Gartrell, Hardy Strickland, *.Jugustus P. Wright. Kentucky-Alfred Boyd, John W. Crockett, II. E. Read, Geo. W. Ewing, *James S Chrisman, T. L. Burnett, II. W. Cruce, 8. S. Scott, E. V. Bruce, J. W. Moore, Robert J. Breckenridge, John M. Elliott. Louisiana-Charles J. Villere, *Charles M. Conrad, Duncan F. Kenner, Lucien J. Duprè, John F. Lewis, John Perkins, Jr. Jississippi–J. W. Clapr. *l.euben Davis, Israel Welch, II. (. Chambers, *0. R. Singl«ton, E. Larksdale, *John J. McRac. Missouri-W. M. Cook, Thomas A. Harris, Casper W. Bell, A. II. Conroy, George G. Vest, Thomas W. Freeman, John Hyer. North Carolina-*W. N. H. Smith, Robert R. Bridgers, Owen R. Keenan, T. D. McDowell, Thomas S. Ashe, Arch. 11. Arrington, Robert McClean, William Lander, B. 8 Gaithur, A. T. Davidson. South Carolina_*John McQueen, *W. Porcber Miles, L. M. Ayer, *Milledge L. Bonhamn. Jancs Farrow, *William H. Boyce. Tennessee-Joseph T. IIeiskell, William G. Swan, W. II. Tebbs, E. L. Gardenshire, *llenry S. Foote, *Meredith l’. Gentry, *George W. Jones, Thomas Mencese, *J. N. C. Atkins. *John W. Wright, David M. Currin. Terus—*John a Wilcox, *C. C. IIerbert, Peter W. Gray, D. F. Sexton, M. D. Graham, Wm. B. Wright. Pirginia--*M. P., II. Garnett, John R. Chambliss, James Lyons, *Roger A. Pryor. *Thomas S. Bococke, John Goode, Jr., J. P. Holcombe, *D. C. De Jarnett, *William Smith, * 1. R. Boteler, John R. Baldwin, Walter B. Staples, Walter Prestun, Albert G. Jenkins, Robert Johnson, Charles W. Russell.

Those marked with the * had been inembers of the Unite<l States Congress.

464

THE REPUBLIC IN PERIL

CHAPTER XVIII.

LEE'S INVASION OF MARYLAND, AND HIS RETREAT TOWARD RICHMOND.

NLY thirty days had passed by since Lee was in the attitude of a defender of the Confederate capital, with two large armies threatening it from different points, when he was seen in the position of an exultant victor, ready to take the offensive in a bold menace of the National capital. He sent troops to check Pope, and the effect was the withdrawal of the Army of the Potomac from the Peninsula.

Relieved of all danger in the latter direction, he moved in heavy force and pushed the Army of Virginia across the Rappahannock before the other great army lent it any aid ; and now, at the beginning of September, he saw both armies which had threatened him, shattered and disordered behind the strong fortifications of the National capital, where McClellan concentrated them to defend that capital from an expected assault. From Fortress Monroe to the head waters of the James and the Rappahannock, and far up the Potomac and the intervening country, as well as the whole valley of the Shenandoah to its northern entrance at Harper's Ferry, there were no National troops, and the harvests in all that region were poured into the Confederate granary.

The Republic now seemed to be in great peril, and the loyal people were very anxious. Long before the disastrous termination of the campaign on the Peninsula, thoughtful men were losing faith in the ability, and some in the patriotism of the commander of the Army of the Potomac; and it was clearly seen that if one hundred and fifty thousand to two hundred thousand men could not make more headway in the work of crushing the rebellion than they had done under his leadership during full ten months, more men must be called to the field at once, or all would be lost. Accordingly the loyal Governors of eighteen States signed a request that the President should immediately take measures for largely increasing the effective force in the field. IIe had already, by a call on the 1st of June, drawn forty thousand men, for three months, from Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio. In compliance with a request of the governors, he called for three hundred thousand volunteers “ for the war,” on the 1st of July; and on the 9th of August, when Pope was struggling with Jackson near the Rapid Anna, he called for three hundred thousand men for nine months, with the understanding that an equal number of men would be drafted from the great body of the citizens who were over eighteen and less than forty-five years of age, if they did not appear as volunteers.

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LEE'S INVASION OF MARYLAND.

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These calls met with a hearty response, and very soon men were seen flocking to the standard of the Republic by thousands. The Conspirators at Richmond well knew that such a response would be made, and while they were wickedly deceiving the people of the Confederacy with the idea that "the Lincoln government,” as they said in derision, was bankrupt in men and money, they were trembling with fear because of its wealth in both, which they well comprehended. Therefore they instructed Lee to take immediate advantage of the fortunate situation in which McClellan's failure to sustain Pope had placed him, to act boldly, vigorously, and even desperately, if necessary.

Lee saw clearly that an assault on the fortified National capital would be foolish and disastrous, and he conceived the idea of throwing his army across the Potomac to the rear of Washington, when, perhaps, after sweeping victoriously on to the Susquehanna, he might return and seize Baltimore and the National city. He believed the people of “sovereign " Maryland were chafing under the domination of the Government, and were ready to give all the support in their power to the Confederate cause; and that the presence of his army would produce a general uprising in that State. The conspirators at Richmond were in accord with Lee in this view, and he made instant preparations for throwing his army across the Potomac.

Lee was joined on the 2d“ by the fresh division of D. H. Hill, from Richmond, and this was immediately sent as a vanguard toward Leesburg. The whole Confederate army followed, and between the 4th and 7th it had crossed the Potomac by the fords in the vicinity of the Point of Rocks, and encamped not far from the city of Frederick, on the Monocacy River. There General Lee formally raised the standard of revolt, and issued a proclamation in words intended to

6 Sept. 8. be as seductive to the people of that commonwealth as those of Randall's impassioned appeal, entitled “Maryland! my Maryland !" Lee declared it was the wish “ of the people of the South” to aid those of Maryland in throwing off the “foreign yoke” they were compelled to bear, that they might be able to “again enjoy the inalienable rights of freemen, and to restore the independence and sovereignty of their State ;” and he assured them that his mission was to assist them with the power of arms "in regaining their rights," of which they had been so unjustly despoiled.”

Lee discoursed as fluently and falsely of the "outrages " inflicted by the generous Government which he had solemnly sworn to protect, and against which he was waging war for the perpetuation of injustice and inhumanity,

a Sept. 1862.

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See page 555, volume I.

? In a speech at the raising of the National flag over Columbia College, in New York, immediately after the attack on Fort Sumter, in April, 1861, Dr. Francis Lieber admirably defined the character of soldiers like Robert E. Lee, who professed to believe in the State supremacy, but who had served in the armies of the Republic and deserted their flag. “Men," he said, " who believed, or pretended to believe in State sovereignty alone, when secession broke out, went over with men and ships, abandoning the flag to which they had sworn fidelity; thus showing that all along they served the United States like Swiss hirelings and not as citizens, in their military service. They did more : not only did they desert the service of the United States, on the ground that their individual States, to whoin they owed allegiance, had declared themselves out of the Union; but in many cases they took with them, or attempted to take with them, the men who owed no such allegiance, being either foreigners or natives of other American States. In other cases they actually called publicly on their fornier comrades to be equally faithless, and desert their ships or troops. The Swiss mercenaries nsed to act more nobly. Once having sold their services, and baving taken the oath of fidelity, they used to remain faithful onto death."

VOL. I.-30

466

LEE'S PROCLAMATION SCORNED.

as did Jefferson Davis, his coadjutor in the monstrous crime; but he soon found to his shame and confusion that the disloyal Marylanders like Bradley Johnson, who had joined the Confederate army, had deceived him by false representations, and that, with the exception of a large rebellious faction in the more Southern slaveholding counties, the people of that State looked upon the gigantic iniquity of the conspirators and their abettors with abhorrence.

He was met with sullen scorn in the form of apparent indifference, and he was soon made to feel that under that passivity there was burning a spirit like that of the venerable and more demonstrative Barbara Frietchie, of Frederick, one of the true heroines of whom history too often fails to make honorable mention.' Lee lost more men in Maryland by desertion than he gained by his proclamation. Had there been nothing repulsive in the work to which they were invited, the filthy and wretched condition of Lee's troops would have made the citizens of Maryland scornful of such an

“army of liberators.” McClellan was informed of Lee's movement on the morning of the 3d, and immediately put his troops in motion to meet the threatened peril. His army was thrown into Maryland north of Washington, and on the 7th,

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BARBARA FRIETCHIE

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1 Barbara Frietchie (who died in June, 1864) lived close to a bridge which spans the stream that courses through Frederick. When, in this invasion of Maryland, "Stonewall Jackson" marched through Frederick, his troops passed over that bridge. He had been informed that many National flags were flying in the city, and he gave orders for them all to be hauled down. Patriotic Barbara's was displayed from one of the dormer-windows, seen in the sketch of her house bere given, from a drawing made by the writer in September, 1866, in which, just beyond it, the brivige is seen. Her fag was pulled down. The remainder of the story has been told in the following words of John G. Whittier :

BARBARA FRIETCITE'S HOUBE.

Up rose old Barbara Frietchie then,
Bowed with her fourscore years and ten;
Bravest of all in Frederick town,
She took up the flag the men hauled down;
In her attic window the staff she set,
To show that one heart was loyal yet.
Up the street caine the rebel treal,
Stonewall Jackson riding ahead.
Under his slouched bat left and right
He glanced : the old flag met his sight.
" Halt!" the dust-brown ranks stovd fast
"Fire !" out blazed the rifle-blast.
It shivered the window, pane and sash;
It rent the banner with seam and gash.
Quick, as it fell from the broken staff,
Dame Barbara snatched the silken scarf;
Bhe leaned far out on the window-sill,
And shoob it forth with a royal will.

"Shoot,” if you must, this old gray head,
But spare your country's flag," she said.
A shade of sadness, a blush of shame,
Over the face of the leader came;
The nobler nature within bim stirred
To life at that woman's deed and word:
* Who touches a hair of ron gray head
Dies like a dog! March on!" he said.
All day long through Frederick street
Sounded the trend of marching feet
All day long that free flag tost
Over the heads of the rebel host.

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