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437

PAGE 209. BREACH IN FORT PULASKI

PAGE 319 274. SITE OF NEW BRIDGE 210. Fort CLINCH

403 820 275, ELLISON'S MILL 211. Fort MARION

404 : 822 276. PORTRAIT OF Fitz-Join PORTER 212. PORTRAIT OF EDWIN M. STAXTON

406 824 277. PORTRAIT OF Silas CASEY

403 213. FORT MASSACHUSETTS, ox SHIP ISLAND 326 273. PortraIT OF HEXRY M. NAGLEE. 214. TaiL-PIECE-RUINS OF THE STEAMER Nash

409 279. BATTLE-FIELD OF THE SEVEN PIXES

410 VILLE

327 230, BATTLE OF THE SEVEN PINES AND FAIR 215. Initial LETTER-SEAL OF LOVistana:

323

Oaks-MAP 216. PORTRAIT OF DAVID D. PORTER

411 329 281. Hooker's HEAD-QUARTERS 217. The Lor ISIAXA

413 830 252. HOSPITAL AT FAIR OAKS 218. Mortar VESSELS DISGUISED

414 831 283. PORTRAIT OF J. E. B. STUART 219. ATTACK ON THE FORTS-MAP

416 832 254. PORTRAIT OF SAMCEL P. HEINTZELMAX

417 220. PORTRAIT OF THEODORUS BAILEY

833 255. MECHANICSVILLE BRIDGE OVER THE CHICKA231. RAX MAXASSAS ATTACKING THE BROOK

HOMINY
LYN.
334 286. Battle of MECHANICSVİLLE-MAP

419 222. SARAPXEL SIELL

420 834 287. PORTRAIT OF A, P. HULL

421 2.3. THE HARTFORD

335 258. Portrait of DANIEL BUTTERFIELD 224. PORTRAIT OF CHARLES Boggs

423 336 259, BATTLE OF GAINES'S FARM-MAP.

423 215. View OF THE QUARANTINE GROUNDS 837 290. Ruins OF GAINES's Muls 226. THE MAXASSAS

424 839 291. PortraIT OF ERASMUS D, KEYS

425 227. PLAN OF FOKT JACKSON 839 292. VIEW AT SAVAGE'S STATION IN 1846

426 225. PORTCAIT OF MANSFIELD LOVELL

810 293. MCCLELLAN'S HEAD-QUARTERS ON MALVERN 229. Twiggs's House

810

Hills 230. New ORLEANS and its Vicinity=MAP

429 341

294. Willis's CAURCH 231. THE LEVÉE AT NEW ORLEANS

429 812 295, PositioX OF TROOPS on MALVERN HILLS282. GENERAL Butlee's RESIDENCE, NEw OR

MAP

431 LEANS

813 296. THE GALEXA 233. PORTRAIT OF GEORGE F. SHEPLEY

432 351 297. BATTLE-Field of Malvern Ilills 234. LOUISIANA NATIVE GUARD

483 852 293. WESTOVER. 235, TAIL-PIECE-CAMP CHEST

435 352 299. The Harrison MANSION 236. INITIAL LETTER-SEAL OF VIRGINIA

435 853 300. MECHANICSVILLE 237. PortrAIT OF MONTGOMERY C. Meigs

436 851 801. WALNUT GROVE CHURCH 233. PORTRAIT OF GEORGE STONEMAX .

436 859 302. HEAD-QUARTERS NEAR COOL ARBOB 239. Portrait or FRANKLIN BUCHANAN 860 803. WITE'S TAVERN

437 210. INTERIOR OF THE MOxiTOR'S TURRET 860 804. VIEW From MALVERN Hills.

438 241. PORTRAIT OF JOHX ERICSSON

363 305. BatteRY AND Church Tower ON JAMES
212. MASNIED BOLT

864
ISLAND

489
243. BATTLE BETWEEN THE MONITOR AND MER-
RIMACK, IN HAMPTOX Roads

865

TOWN 24. PORTRAIT OF Joux L. WORDEN

440 866 807. INITIAL LETTER

441 215. PORTRAIT OF FREDERICK W. LANDER 367 308. PORTRAIT OF SANCEL D. STURG IS

413 246. PORTRAIT OF NATHANIEL P, BANKS

863 809. PORTRAIT OF SAMUEL W. CRAWFORD 241. Exodus OF SLAVES.

447

310. Pope's HEAD-QUARTERS NEAR CEDAR MOUN-
245. PORTRAIT OF JAVES SHIELDS

870
TAIN

450
249. MAGRUDER's HEAD-QUARTERS AT YORKTOWN 371 311. CATLETT'S STATION
230, MCCLELLAN'S HEAD-QUARTERS

451 372 812. PortraIT OF Wm. B. FRANKLIN

453 231. SCENE AT WARWICK COURT-HOUSE . 873 313. THOROUGHFARE GAP

455 232. TAIL-PIECE--GABIONS

876 314. PORTRAIT OF ABNER DOUBLEDAY. 233. INITIAL LETTER

456 877 315. PORTRAIT OF PHILIP KEARNEY

457 234. PARISH CHURCII IX 1966

877 316. MoxuMENT AND BATTLE-GROUND NEAR 255. PorteAIT OF EDWIN V. SUMNER

878

GROVETON
256. TORPEDO

453
878 817. MRS. DOGAN'S HOUSE AT GROVETON
257. EXCELSIOR BRIGADE

453
850 318. TailPIECE-CoxGREVE ROCKET
258. ROAD

463
BETWEEN YORKTOWN AND Wi- 319. INITIAL LETTER-SEAL OF MARYLAND.
LIAMSBERG

464
881 320. PORTRAIT OF BARBARA FRIETCHIE
259. SITE OF THE DAM

466
392 321. BARBARA FRIETCHE's House
260. BATTLE OF WILLIAMSBURG-MAP

466
883 3:22. Portrait OF ALFRED PLEASANTON
261. VEST's HOUSE

469
885 323. Wise's House, South MOUNTAIN BATTLE-
262. THE MODERN - WHITE Horse"

886

Ground 263. McClellax's HEAD-QUARTERS

469
AT Cool 324. BATTLE-Field of South MOUNTAIN
ARBOR

470
897 825. Harper's FERRY-MAP.
264. Wool's LANDING-PLACE AT OCEAN VIEW

472 399 826. McClellan's HEAD-QUARTERS 265. JACKSOx's NOTE TO EWELL

475 891 3:27. SIGNAL STATION OX RED HILLS 266. PORTRAIT OF RICHARD S. EWELL

415 893 323. PORTRAIT OF JOSEPH K. F. MANSFIELD 267 HAND GREXADE

476 894 329. DUNKER CIRCH 263. PORTRAIT OF A. ELZY

477 396 830. VIEW OF THE ANTIETAN BATTLE-GROUND 269. Uxion Church Ar Cross KEYS

473 896 331. PortRAIT OF WINFIELD S. HANCOCK 270. OPERATIONS IN UPPER VIRGINIA-MAP

430 899 332. THE BURNSIDE BRIDGE 271. TaiL-Piece-PuxiSILMENTS IN CAMP 401 333. BATTLE OF ANTUTAN :

490 272. INITIAL LETTER-GCIDE-Posts

452 402 334. SUMNER'S HEAD-QUARTEKS 278. AN ARMORED LOOKOUT

456 402 835. FARMERS' Bank, FREDERICKSBURG

486

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PAGE

PAGB

836. BRIDGE BUILT BY SOLDIERS OVER POTOMAC 389. LIVE-OAK GROVE, AT SMITH'S PLANTATION,

Run

487

PORT ROYAL .

565

887. THE PHILLIPS HOUSE ON FIRE

489 890. LIVE OAK AT Smith's PLANTATION

566

338. PLACE OF FRANKLIN'S PASSAGE OF THE 391. MONUMENT IN CHURCH-Yard AT BEAUFORT 566

RAPPAHANNOCK

489 892. PORTRAIT OF JAMES A. SEDDON

567

839. SCENE IN FREDERICKSBURG ON THE MORN-

899. PIRATE-SUP SUMTER

588

ING OF THE 12TI

490 394. PORTRAIT OF Join NEWLAND MAFFIT. 569

810, WALL AT THE FOOT OP MARYE'S HEIGHTS. 491 395. PORTRAIT OP RAPHAEL SEMMES

569

841. ARMY SIGNAL-TELEGRAPII

492 396. THE CONFEDERATE NAVAL COMMISSION 570

842. Portrait OF THOMAS FRANCIS MEAGUER 493 397. THE ALABAMA.

571

843. BATTLE OF FREDERICKSBURG-MAP

495 898. THE GEORGE GRISWOLD.

571

84. APPEARANCE OF ARMY HUTS.

496 399, JEFFERSON DAVIS'S RESIDENCE

572

815. TAIL-PIECE--VIRGINIA FARM-HOUSE
497400. SLAVE LASTI

578

846. INITIAL LETTER

495 401. LOOK-OUT .

575

847. PortrAIT OF JOHN H. MORGAN

499 402. THE BLACK HAWK .

576

848. FORTIFICATIONS OF THE STATE HOUSE AT 403. UPPER ENTRANCE TO VICKSBURG.

576

NASHVILLE

500 404. ANCIENT MOUND, CMICKASAW BAYOU 577

849. PORTRAIT OF E. KIRBY SMITH

501 405. BATTLE OF CHICKASAW BAYOU-MAPS 578

850. PowToon BRIDGE AT CINCINNATI,

504 406. BATTLEGROUND OF CHICKASAW BAYOU 579

851, A RAILWAY STOCKADE.

506 407. Fort HINDMAN

581

852. FORTIFICATIONS AT MUMFORDSVILLE

506 408. Tall-PIECE-CAVALEY STABLE IN THE

858. PORTRAIT OF LOVELL H. ROUSSEAU

509

FIELD

582

854. PortraIT OF JOSEPH WHEELER

511 409. INITIAL LETTER-AN EMBRASURE.

583

855. IUKA SPRINGS

513410, PENINSULA OPPOSITE VICKSBURG.

584

356, Price's HEAD-QUARTERS

513 411. VIEW SHOWING THE SITE OF THE CANAL 584

857. VIEW OF THE IUKA BATTLE-GROUND

514412. THE SAMSON

585

858. BATTLE OF IUKA-MAP

515 413. A Bow GUN

587

859. ROSECRANS's HEAD-QUARTERS

516 414. THE YAZOO REGION

388

860. OUR COACHMAN

516 415. THE INDIANOLA

599

861. GRAVES OF TIIE ELEVENTI OHIO BATTERY 517 416, A LOUISIANA SWAMP

596

862. PORTRAIT OF WILLIAM S. ROSECRANS . 518 417. RAFT WITH WOUNDED SOLDIERS ON BAYOU

863. Fort ROBINETT

519

TÈCHE

597

864. ROSECRANS's HEAD-QUARTERS

520 418. LANDING-PLACE AT Poet HUDSON

598

865. Bragg's HEAD-QUARTERS

520 419. PORTRAIT or RICHARD TAYLOR

599

866. OPERATIONS IN KENTUCKY, TENNESSEE, AND 420. PORTRAIT OF C. C. AUGUR

601

NORTHERN ALABAMA

521 421. PORTRAIT OF BENJAMIN H. GRIERSON. 602

867. CONFEDERATE FLAG
522 422, GBIERSON'S RAID-MAP.

608

868. BATTLE OF Corintu-MAP

522 423. View, ox LAKE PROVIDENCE.

604

869. INITIAL LETTER-SEAL OF MISSISSIPPI. 524 | 424. BATTLE-GROUND OF JACKSON

607

870. BATON ROUGE

526 425. PORTRAIT OF JOHN C. PEMBERTON

608

871. ELLES'S CLIFFS.

527 | 426. CHAMPION HILLS BATTLE-GROUND

609

372. PORTRAIT OF DAVID G. FARRAGUT

527 427. THE PASSAGE OF THE BIG BLACK RIVER 612

373. Fort BUTLER, DONALDSONVILLE

528 428. PEMBERTON'S HEAD-QUARTERS IN VICKSBURG 613

874. PORTRAIT OF JAMES G. BLUNT

532 429. TAIL-PIECE-GRAVE ON THE BATTLE-FIELD 614

875. PORTRAIT OF FRANCIS J. HERBON

584 430. INITIAL LETTER-AN A TENT

615

876. MONUMENT OF TEXAS MARTYRS

537 431. MILITARY OPERATIONS AROUND VICKSBURG

877. Bragg's HEAD-QUARTERS AT MURFREESBORO' 539 -MAP

615

878. Bragg's PRIVATE RESIDENCE AT MURFREES- 432. Grant's HEAD-QUARTERS AT VICKSBURG 616

BORO'

540433, PORTRAIT OF FRANK K, GARDNER

620

879. LOOK-OUT AT Fort NEGLEY.

541 434. CAVES NEAR VICKSBURG.

622

890. POSITION ON DECEMBER 31st-MAP

544 435. CAVE-LIFE IN VICKSBURG

622

881. MONUMENT ERECTED BY HAZEN'S BRIGADE 546 436. PORTRAIT OF H. LIEB

623

882. Position ON NIGHT OF DECEMBER 31st-

437. MCPHERSON'S SAPPERS AT FORT HILL.

МАР

547 438. DEFENSES OF VICKSBURG-MAP

626

883. THE NASHVILLE PIKE BRIDGE OVER STONE'S 439. MONUMENT AT VICKSBURG

627

RIVER
549 440. OPERATIONS IN MIS81881PPI-MAP

629

884. Position JANUARY 20-Map:

550 44i. McPherson's HEAD-QUARTERS

630

885. ROSECRANS's HEAD.QUARTERS

551 442. THE DEFENSES OF Port HUDSON-MAP 691

856. INITIAL LETTER

501 443. DESTRUCTION IN THE WORKS AT Port HUD-

887. FAC-SIMILE OF THE DRAFT OF THE PRESI-

SON

093

DENT'S PROCLAMATION OF EMANCIPATION. 561 444. BANKe's HEAD-QUARTERS, Poer HUDSON 637

888. THE PRESIDENT'S PEN

564 445. THE SHIRLEY HOUSE

639

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THE

CIVIL

W A R.

CHAPTER I.

EFFECT OF THE BATTLE OF BULL'S RUN-REORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY OF THE

POTOMAC.-CONGRESS, AND THE COUNCIL OF THE CONSPIRATORS.-EAST TENNESSEE.

[graphic]

HE Battle of Bull's Run, so disastrous to the National Arms, and yet so little profitable, as a military event, to the Confederates, was in its immediate effects a profound

enigma to the people of the whole country. They could not understand

it. The Confederates held the field, yet they did not seek profit from the panic and flight of their opponents, by a pursuit. The Nationals

were beaten and dispersed; yet, after the first paralysis of defeat, they instantly recovered their

faith and elasticity. There had been marches, and bivouacs, and skirmishes, and a fierce battle, within the

space of a week; and at the end of twenty-four hours after the close of the conflict, the respective parties in the con

test were occupying almost the same geographical position which they did before the stout encounter.

The people at home, in both sections, were excited by the wildest tales

of overwhelming defeat and disgrace on one side, and the most complete and advantageous victory on the other. It was said, and believed, that fifteen thousand Confederates had easily and utterly routed and dispersed thirty-five thousand National troops,' and smitten, beyond hope of recovery, 1:8

1 See Jefferson Davis's dispatch to the " Confederate Congress," volume I., page 603. On the 28th of July, Generals Johnston and Beauregard issued a joint address to their soldiers, which was fall of exultation. “One week ago," they said, “ a countless host of men, organized into an army, with all the appointments which modern art and practiced skill could devise, invaded the soil of Virginia. Their people sounded their approach with triumph and displays of anticipated victory. Their generals came in almost regal state. Their Ministers, Senators, and women came to witness the immolation of this army, and the subjugation of our people, and to celebrate them with wild revelry.” After speaking of the battles, the capture of nearly every thing belonging to the National army, "together with thousands of prisoners," they said, " Thus the Northern hosts were driven by you from Virginia .... We congratulate you on an event which insures the liberty of our country. We congratulate every man of you whose priviloge it was to participate in this triumph of conrage and truth, to fight in the battle of Manassas. Yon have created an epoch in the history of liberty, and unborn nations will rise up and call you blessed. Continue this noble devotion, looking always to the protection of a just God, and, before timne grows inuch older, we will be hailed as the deliverers of a nation of ten millions of people. Comrades, our brothers who tave fallen bave carned undying renown, and their blood, shed in our holy cause, is a precious and acceptable sacrifice to the Father of truth and right. Their graves are beside the tomb of Washington; their spirits have joined his in cternal commune."

WASHINGTON AND RICHMOND CONTRASTED.

1

the Army of the Potomac charged with the duty of seizing the Capital of the insurgents, driving them from Virginia, and relieving the City of Washington from all danger of capture.

Whilst one section of the Republic was resonant with shouts of exultation, the other was silent because of the inaction of despondency. Whilst the Confederates were elated beyond measure by the seeming evidence given by the battle, of their own superior skill and valor and the cowardice of their opponents, and thousands flocked to the standard of revolt from all parts of the Southern States, the Loyalists were stunned by the great disaster, and the seventy-five thousand three-months men, whose terms of service were about expiring, were, for the moment, made eager to leave the field and retire to their homes. Whilst in Richmond, now become the Capital of the Confederation, the bells were ringing out merry peals of joy, and “the city seemed lifted up, and every one seemed to walk on air,” and “the men in place felt that now they held their offices for life;" where Jefferson Davis said to the multitude, when referring to the vanquished Nationals, with bitter scorn, "Never be haughty to the humble;" where all believed that Walker's prediction would that day be fulfilled, and the banner of Rebellion be unfurled from the dome of the Capitol in Washington,' and that the "tide of war would roll from that day northward into the enemy's country"3—the fertile fields and rich cities of the Free-labor States—there was terror and anguish, and the most gloomy visions of a ruined Republic at the seat of the National Government, and men in place there were not certain of filling their offices for an hour. Whilst the streets of Richmond were populous with prisoners from the vanquished army, and eager volunteers pressing on toward the camp of the victors at Manassas, the streets of Washington were crowded with discomfited and disheartened soldiery, without leaders, and without organization—the personification of the crushed hopes of the loyal people. Such was the sad picture of the situation of the Republic and of the

relative character of the contending parties, much exaggerated,

which was presented to Europe in the month of August. The first account of the battle, the panic that seized some of the National troops, and the confused flight of soldiers and civilians back to Washington, was given to the Elder World through the London Times, the assumed and accredited exponent of the political and social opinions of the ruling class in England, by the pen of Dr. Russell," who did not see the conflict, and who was one of the most speedy and persevering of the civilians in

• 1861.

Jefferson Davis addressed the people on his arrival at Richmond, on the evening of the 23d, and boldly declared that his troops had captured “ every thing the enemy had in the field," including “ provisions enough to feed an army of 50,000 men for twelve months."-Richmond papers, July 24. Davis's exaggeration is made plain by the statement that it would require more than 12,000 wagons to transport that amount of food.

1 A Rebel War Clerk's Diary at the Confederate States Capital, page 65.
? See volume I., page 839.
: A Rebel War Clerk's Diary, page 65
* See note &, page 91, volume I.

ENGLISH OPINION.-A CHANGE.

19

their eager flight from the suspected dangers of an imaginary pursuit of Confederate cavalry. His was, in a great degree, a tale of the imagination, “ founded on fact," and well served the conspirators for a brief season.' It excited among the ruling classes in Europe a derision of the loyal people and the Government of the United States, and the desires of the enemies of republicanism and the sovereignty of the people were gratified. The ruin of the Great Republic of the West seemed to them almost as certain as a fact accomplished. English statesmen and journalists dogmatically asserted it, and deplored the folly and wickedness of the President and Congress, in "waging war upon Sovereign States," in vindication of an idea and a principle, and attempting to hold in union, by force, a people who had the right and the desire to withdraw from a hated fellowship. It was declared that “the bubble of Democracy had burst." There was joyful wailing over "the

“ late United States;" and one of England's poets was constrained to write

“Alas for America's glory!

Ichabod-vanished outright;
And all the magnificent story

Told as a dream of the night!
Alas for the Heroes and Sages,

Saddened, in Hades, to know
That what they had built for all ages,

Melts like a palace of snow!" This relative condition of the parties was temporary. The loyal people instantly recovered from the stunning blow,' and in that recovery awakened from the delusive dream that their armies were invincible, that the Confederates were only passionate and not strong, and that the rebellion could be crushed in ninety days, as the hopeful Secretary of State had predicted, and continued to predict. It was evident that the battle just fought was only the beginning of a desperate struggle with the enemies of the Republic, who had made thorough preparation for the conflict, and had resolved to win the prize at all hazards. With this conviction of danger added to the sting of mortified national pride, the patriotism of the Loyalists was intensely exercised.

The Government, which had been lulled into feelings of security by the song of its own egotism, and had hesitated when urged to engage more troops, “for three years or the war," was now also aroused to a painful sense of danger and the penalties of misjudgment; and the Secretary of War, who had refused to sanction a call for a larger body of Pennsylvania volunteers

* Although nearly disabled by weariness of mind and body, Dr. Russell wrote his famous dispatch to the Times during the night succeeding his flight from Centreville, that it might go to England by the next Boston steamer. “ The pen went flying about the paper," he says, “as is the spirits were playing tricks with it. When I screwed up my utinost resolution, the y's' would still run into long streaks, and the letters combine inost curiously, and my eyes closed, and my pen slipped." After a brief nap, he was aroused by a messenger from Lord Lyons, to inquire after him, and invite him to supper "I resumed my seat," he says, “* haunted by the memory of the Boston mail, which would be closed in a few hours, and I had much to tell, although I had not Been the battle." On the testimony thus given, the Times said (August 10, 1861): " It is evident that the whole volunteer army of the Northern States is worthless as a military organization

a screaming crowd;" and spoke of it is a collection of " New York rowdies and Boston abolitionists, desolating the villages of Virginia."

Five days after the Battle of Bull's Run, the Secretary of State wrote to Mr. Adams, the American Minister in London, saying: “Our Army of the Potomac, on Sunday last, met a reverse equally severo and unexpected. For a day or two the panic which had produced the result was followed by a panic that seemed to threaten to demoralize the country. But that evil has ceased already. The result is already seen in a vigorous reconstruction upon a scale of greater magnitude and increased enthusiasm."

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