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EMBRACING POLITICAL, CIVIL, MILITARY, AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS; PUBLIC DOCU-
D. APPLETON & COMPANY, 443 & 445 BROADWAY.
Harvard College Library.
ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1863, by
D. APPLETON & COMPANY,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District
of New York.
THE favorable reception given to the volume of this work for the preceding year has induced the publishers to make special efforts in the preparation of this one. It is their aim to make an Annual Supplement not only to the New American Cyclopædia, but to all others, which shall embrace contemporaneous events, and the progress attained in the various branches of knowledge. Such a work is addressed to all classes of readers, since it includes in its contents whatever transpires in political, military, civil, and social affairs, commerce, finance, literature, science, agriculture, art, and mechanical industry.
The year 1862 will probably be looked upon as the most important in a period of great events. It witnessed the struggles of great armies; the numerous battles and ceaseless skirmishes in the United States; the expedition against Mexico; the disgraceful flight of King Otho of Greece; the unfortunate conflict at Aspromonte, in Italy; the enkindling of the Polish revolution; the French war in Cochin China; the recognition in Russia of the rights of man, by the approaching emancipation of the serfs; the Tac-ping rebellion in China; and, not least, the distress in Lancashire, and the stoppage of the looms of Lyons. Of scarcely less note were the naval conflict below New Orleans; the contest between the Monitor and Merrimac, and the destructive exploits of the Alabama. Among the peaceful events were the debates and proceedings in the Federal Congress on confiscation and emancipation; the triumph of antislavery views in the Government of the United States, and its measures for emancipation; the silent revolution shown by the ballot-box; and the measures of the seceded States to secure their independent organization.
The relation of these events, especially those of a military character, it is hoped, will be found truthful and just. It is a detailed statement, day by day and step by step, of the movements of the armies, the objects of those movements, and their consequences. It has been prepared chiefly from official papers, and is accompanied with corresponding maps and plans of battles. Important documents and reports are also given.
The details of the internal affairs of the country embrace the organizations of the armies North and South, their officers, and the number and condition of the troops; the important measures of the Federal and Confederate Congresses; the acts and resolutions of State Legislatures and State political organizations; the votes of the citizens at the elections; the messages of the Presidents of the United and seceded States; the orders and instructions of cabinet officers and of commanding generals; the commercial regulations relating to trade with ports of the Southern States; the loans, taxes, and currency measures and debts of the Federal and Confederate Gover ments; their intercourse with foreign nations, and the difficult questions that occurred; the enforcement of martial law, and the exchange of prisoners; thus comprising all important occurrences in the history of the nation.
The interesting events relating to foreign nations, as above stated, are presented with such fulness as to enable the reader to comprehend their causes, their influence upon the welfare of the people, and their probable results.
The progress of mechanical industry is shown in the active construction of iron-clad vessels; in the display at the British Industrial Exhibition; in the many interesting inventions presented at the Patent Office; in the repairs of the steamer Great Eastern, and some other achievements.
The developments in natural science have not been overlooked. In some branches these have been fully brought up, and notice has been taken of various questions raised among scientific men, and the views presented in their discussions.
The continued prosperity of the commerce of the country, and its kindred pursuits, since the previous year, and the surprising resources of the people, as shown in the vast financial operations of the Government, forming a portion of current history of more than usual interest, are explained with ample details.
The geographical explorations were active in all quarters, and those of archæology produced some surprising results. The record of literature was hardly less important than in former years, although the number of works issued was somewhat reduced.
The present condition of the principal religious denominations of the United States is so presented as to show their branches, membership, numbers, views on civil affairs, and the spread of their distinctive opinions among the nations of the earth.
The mortality of the year was unusually large, and the number of distin guished men who closed their carcer was far greater than usual. Their services have been fully recognized.
AFRICA, one of the six grand divisions of the earth's surface, comprises the southwestern portion of the eastern continent. Its political divisions are, on the north, the Empire of Morocco; the French province of Algeria; the pashaliks of Tunis, Tripoli, and Barca, and the oasis of Fezzan, dependencies of the Turkish empire; Egypt, a viceroyalty of the Turkish empire, though in a state of quasi-independency. On the east, Nubia and Kordofan, dependencies of Egypt; Abyssinia, a collection of petty states under savage chieftains, a considerable number of which have recently become subject to the sway of the bold and capable Theodore, the chief of Amhara, who has taken the title of "King of the Kings of Ethiopia;" the countries bordering on the gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, and stretching south westward for more than a thousand miles; these are inhabited by tribes of savages known by the names of Somauli, Wakuafi, Wanika, Galla, &c. &c. The names of the principal countries are: Adel, Ajan, Berbera, Zanguebar (which is a collection of several states), and Mozambique, the coast of which is held by the Portuguese. At different points of this long stretch of coast the Arabs have established themselves, and have reduced the native tribes to subjection, though others, as the Gallas, defy their authority and maintain an ascendency over the tribes of the interior. Of these interior tribes or eir country little is known, the many attempts made by missionaries and explorers to penetrate to any considerable distance from the coast, having been, in most instances, repulsed by the savages, often with the loss of the lives of the explorers. On the Mozambique coast the Portuguese have maintained for many years an extended commerce, mainly in ivory and slaves. Dr. Livingstone has penetrated into the interior through this country, ascending the
Zambezi to the Victoria Falls, and exploring a portion of the course of the Shire and the Rovuma as well as the lakes Nyassa and Nyanja. East of Mozambique, and separated from it by the Mozambique channel, is the great and populous island of Madagascar.
South Africa is composed of several states, part of them British colonies, and part in some sense dependencies of these. The Cape Colony is the oldest of these, and occupies the southern portion of the continent; above it, on the S. E., are Caffraria, Natal, and the Zulu country; and lying west of these and separated from them by the Kalamba mountains, the Orange river, and Transvaal Republics, composed mostly of Dutch settlers and their Hottentot or Bechuana dependents. On the west coast, north of the Orange river, and extending about 300 miles into the interior, is the Hottentot country, and lying between this and the Transvaal Republics, the land of the Bechuanas.
North of the Hottentot country, stretching northward for more than 1,500 miles, is the region long known as Lower Guinea, but really composed of numerous chieftaincies and some Portuguese colonies. These chieftaincies, beginning with the most southern, are Cimbebas and the country of the Damaras, Benguela, Angola Portuguese colony, Congo, Loango, the region of the Gabün, country of the Calbongas, and Biafra. Between this and the eastern coast described above, lies a vast tract, varying in width from ten to twenty-eight degrees of longitude, and extending from nearly ten degrees above to sixteen degrees below the equator, almost wholly unexplored by Europeans. Along the eastern portion of it Dr. Livingstone has made some discoveries, but much of this has only been penetrated by him and his adventurous coadjutors.
From the gulf of Biafra the continent turns