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Our polite and intelligent guide next conducted us to the Rope-Walk, which is half a mile in length, consisting of E three arcades, supported by massive stone pillars. The machinery for the manufacture of cordage is upon a large scale. That for twisting cables is turned by horses. A maIt tra

chine was observed, which was at least new to me.

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I verses from one end of the rope-walk to the other nearly as

G fast as the men can travel, weaving the cord as it passes, 喔 and apparently saving much manual labour.

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Adjacent to this establishment is the Grand Magasin, or warehouse, for the deposit of naval stores of every description. It is a new and magnificent edifice, three stories high, built of a beautiful species of granite. Its front presents E. one of the finest façades I have seen in the South of France, both for the grandeur of its proportions and the elegance of its workmanship. A superb stair-case, fitter for a palace e than for a storehouse, winds to the upper loft. The building is not yet completed, but already contains numerous articles for the equipment of a fleet, which appeared to be of an excellent quality and in a good state of preservation. So far as our observations extended, the most rigid rules of economy are enforced, in taking care of the public property, through every department of this great national establishment.

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Marine, as the government of them is vexatious, and their labours by no means effective.

Our examination of the Navy-yard commenced with a visit to a large and splendid hall, used as an extensive repository of models in naval architecture. It has been long established, and contains a valuable collection of inventions and improvements, on all subjects connected with navigation. The number of articles is between one and two hundred, consisting of the most approved models of vessels and boats of all descriptions; docks, machines used in masting ships, and drawing them up for repairs. The American officer above alluded to examined this temple of the arts with minute attention; and if it contains any thing worthy of imitation, he will doubtless recommend it to the attention of our government. An hour was passed in glancing at a multiplicity of objects, which it would require days to examine in a satisfactory manner. The hall itself is not among the least curiosities. It is richly ornamented with bas-reliefs by Pujet, and with statues of Mars, Pallas, Bellona, and other martial divinities.

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val armaments, which would suffer by exposure to the weather, are neatly housed, and nothing is abandoned to neglect and decay.

The Armory is on a scale proportioned to the other parts of this extensive depot. Two large buildings are filled with guns, bayonets, swords, pikes, pistols, and other implements of war, fancifully arranged so as to form different figures, in the same style as was observed in the lower of London. Along the aisles formed by fluted columns of spears and muskets, are statues clad in ancient mail, bearing shields which are embossed with various historical devices.

In the

centre of the group stands the bust of his present majesty, Charles X.; a tutelary genius much less fitted than some of his predecessors, to preside over the works of war.

Our tour of observation was continued through the forges of the smiths, which are inferior in extent and management to those of our country at Washington; and thence to the ship-yard, where several large vessels are upon the stocks. The timber appeared to be of a good quality, well wrought, and substantially put together; but the progress of the work is slow in comparison with the despatch of our own naval architects, who would build and equip a fleet, while the French were busy in planning one. Their ships, however, are both substantial and handsome, surpassed by none except those of the United States. The most ingenious plans have been devised for constructing dry-docks in a harbour where there are no tides. A great effort is at present making to strengthen the navy of France. Two millions of francs are annually expended in building new ships at Toulon; and corresponding appropriations are authorised by the government for Brest and other ports of the kingdom.

The number of ships of war now lying in the harbour of Toulon cannot be less than one hundred. We went on board the the largest of them, the Royal Louis, having three decks, and carrying 130 guns. She is a monstrous, misshapen pile; in her best estate a clumsy, heavy, unwieldly mass, now dismantled, laid up in ordinary, and rapidly going to decay. Her cabins exhibit all the splendid decorations of a French palace.

On our return from this visit to the Royal Louis, we traversed the mole which divides the old from the new harbour. The latter was constructed in the reign of Louis XIV. and is a gigantic work. It is connected with the former by two

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canals or channels, of sufficient width and depth for the passage of ships of the largest class, which here ride in an artificial basin scooped out of the shore, and surrounded on all sides by substantial quays. Another port of similar construction, and equal in extent, is now in contemplation.

The fatiguing but highly gratifying and instructive rounds of this day terminated with a visit to the ship Active, to which the Surgeon, who accompanied us, is attached.* He added to his civilities by conducting us over every part of the vessel, showing without reserve its equipments, its regulations, and internal police. After resting awhile in its splendid cabins, and examining the choice library in his own state-room, we took leave, probably forever, of a gentleman whose kindness and hospitality to a party of entire strangers, with no other recommendation than the American name, made too deep an impression upon our feelings ever to be forgotten.

The residue of our stay at Toulon was occupied in perambulating its walls, traversing some of its principal streets, and examining its public institutions. A striking peculiarity was observed in the mode of numbering the houses. The blocks of buildings formed by the intersection of streets are denominated islands, designated numerically, and each house is readily found, by the double index of its own number and that of the isle.

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A walk to the Botanic Garden, situated without the walls and near the base of the hills which rise to the north of the town, was among our last and most pleasant excursions. The location is admirable, the grounds lying upon a declivity which looks to the south, and always enjoys the genial influ70ence of the sun. In the rear, the enclosure becomes so steep as to rise in terraces one above another, all filled with plants, and adding much to the picturesque beauty of the garden. Among the embellishments of this charming retreat, is a fountain bursting from a pyramid of rock overgrown with

*The vessel had just returned from a voyage to Leith, in Scotland, whither it had been for the purpose of bringing home the remains of Madame Guiche, Dutchess of Gramont, who was attached to the exiled court of the Count d'Artoise, (the present king of France,) during his residence at Edinburgh, where she died, and was for a time deposited in the royal sepulchre at Holyrood House. I believe she was the only one of the refugees, who died in exile, although the party was numerous, consisting of the members of the royal family and their attachées, with maids of honour as well as of dishonour, from the pink of nobility, down to Madame Polistron, the Count's mistress,

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grass and moss, presenting a beautiful image of nature. Seats have been erected, where visitants may repose in the shade, and enjoy the coolness and the murmur of this little water-fall.

The plants of the garden all bear labels, designating their generic and specific names. A veteran attendant, who seemed well acquainted with all the members of the numerous family committed to his care, conducted us through the alleys and the green-houses, plucking one flower after another, till each of our party had a fine bouquet. Here the palm-tree spread its branches, though its fruit had been nipped by the unusually severe frost of the last winter. Here also the black pepper was seen clinging to the sunny wall, sheltered from the winds, and finding a tropical climate. Among the other most curious plants, were all the varieties of coffee in full bearing. That from Mocha is a beautiful shrub, six or eight feet in height, finely proportioned and of peculiar foilage. An orange tree was observed which had been engrafted with the lemon, and which was then bearing six different kinds of fruit. One of the productions was a twin monster, half orange and half citron, growing on the same stem. A profusion of Japan roses spread their gorgeous petals to the sun, and many a bud was just starting into life.

The walks of the Garden are open to the public, and connected with the spacious boulevards which encircle the walls of the town, form one of the most delightful promenades imaginable, affording a wide prospect of the mountains on one side, and of the sea on the other. A refuge from the noise and bustle of crowded streets, and from the heat of fervid skies, is here provided at a trifling expense. In these secluded retreats, the naturalist may indulge in his favourite pursuits, and the man of business recreate his mind, after the cares and labours of the day. All classes of the community are interested in institutions of this description, which are to be found in almost every village in France, and which I hope may ere long be as extensively introduced into the

United States,

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LETTER XLVI.

ROUTE TO NICE-LE LUC-DRAGUIGNAN-FREJUS-CANNES -ANTIBES-ARRIVAL AT NICE-SKETCH OF THE TOWN.

March, 1826.-At 4 o'clock on the morning of the 17th, we left Toulon in the coach for Le Luc, distant about forty miles to the north-east. The scenery, the weather, and the conversation of our fellow-passengers all conspired to render the ride agreeable, although it afforded few incidents worthy of record. For the whole distance the road traverses a fertile vale from five to ten miles in breadth, bounded on the left by a ridge of porphyritic hills, and on the right by a succession of highlands, which stretch along the coast of the Mediterranean. The soil is of a reddish complexion, and appears to be extremely productive. Groves of olives, vineyards, and fields of grain, enlivened by the bloom of the peach and almond, extended on all sides as far as the eye could reach, forming a rich and varied landscape. The mode of cultivating wheat is somewhat peculiar. It is sown in rows, and innumerable companies of females were busy in stirring the ground about the roots, and in plucking up the superfluous stalks. The peasantry in this part of France, have dark, hard, and severe faces, but are gentle in their manners, and industrious in their habits.

The towns, villages, and insulated buildings scattered along the road,` are uniformly mean in appearance, though some of them are romantically situated, being perched upon the very summits of the hills, apparently accessible only to the birds. Such is the location of the village, appropriately called Hauteville, seated upon the pinnacle of a mountain, and incorporated with the rocks, hundreds of feet above our heads. It is said to be the oldest place in Provence, and to have been founded at a period, when it was customary to build upon the most elevated ground, partly for salubrity of air, and partly for purposes of defence. A better reason can be assigned for erecting churches and other religious edifices upon high places. In France the practice almost universally prevails, and numerous chapels and convents were this day

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