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Art. Sec. Art. Sec.

Art. Sec. Art. Sec 1 8 1 8 Jury trial, further regulated...... ..... 6 A m'd. 1

9 1 9

secured in suits at common law 1 10

10 where the value in controversy 1 9

shall exceed twenty dollars......... 7 A m'a. 1 9 1 9

L. Law, what is declared the supreme...... 6 1 6 110 1 10

common, recognized and established 7 Am’d. 1 9

President to see faithfully executed... 3 2 3 1 8 of the Provisional Government to be valid

6 1 every, shall relate to but one subject, which its title shall express.....

1 9 Legislative powers vested in Congress.

(See Congress.)
1 4 1 4 Loans, authority to make....

1 8 1 8

1 5 1 5
Marque and reprisal, letters of.

1 8

8 2 1 2 1 Militia, to be called out................. 8

to be officered by the States....... 1 8 1

to be commanded by the President.. 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 their right to keep and bear arms secured.....

2 Alm'd. 1 9 1 2 1 Money shall be drawn from the treas2 1 2 ury only by appropriation laws...... 1 9 1 1 2 Congress to coin and regulate value of..............

1 8 1 8 1 1 States cannot coin......

110 1 10 9

9 1 9
1 | 10
1 10 Naturalization, uniform rules of....... 1 8 1 8

Navy, Congress to provide and govern... 1 8 1 8
Nobility, titles of, not to be granted by
the United (or Confederate) States 1 9

8 Am'a.
1 9 nor by the States..........

1 10 1 10

o. 2

Officers of the House of Representa

tives to be chosen by the House..... 1 2 1 2 of the Senate to be chosen by the

1 3 1 3 civil, may be removed by impeach1 9 9 ment...


2 Order of one house requiring the concurrence of the other.....

1 7 Oath of the President..................

2 of the public officers......

6 1

Pardons, President may grant............ 2 2 2

Patents to be granted to inventors...... 1 8
1 2 1 2 Petition, right of......

1 Am'a. 1 1 3

3 Persons held to service or labor, their
3 1 3 importation or migration into the
4 2

United States may be prohibited
after 1808......

1 9
escaping from one State into another
shall be delivered up.........

4 2 4 1 2
1 2 or lawfully carried from one State
to another.....

2 Piracy, Congress to prescribe punish

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Habeas Corpus, writ of, can only be

suspended in cases of rebellion or

infasion........ Bisas of Reprezentatives-(see Repre

sentatives.) Heads of Executive Departments may be

allowed to have seats in either
House for certain purposes.........

Tanpeachment to be brought by House

of Representatives.........***....
tried by the Senate..............
Judgment on.................
all civil officers liable to....
any judicial or other federal officers
resident and acting solely in any
State, liable to, by two-thirds vote

of legislature thereof.... Importation of Slaces, pot probibited

till 1808 prohibited

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Art. Sec. Art. Seo

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Art. Sec. Art. Sec. President, not re-eligible.......

2 1 who shall act in case of vacancy...... 2 1 2 1 compensation of.....

2 shall take an oath of office......


2 1 may be removed by impeachment.... 2 2 4 President, commander of army, navy, and militia.

2 2 2 2 may require the written opinions of heads of departments.............

2 2 2 may reprievc and pardon...


2 2 may make treaties with consent of the Senate........

2 2 2 2 may appoint to office with consent of the Senate ....

2 2 2 2 shall fill vacancies happening during the recess of the Senate...


2 2 shall give information to Congress and recommend measures.....

2 3 2 3 may con veue both Houses or either House....

2 3 2 3 may adjourn them in case of disagreement

2 3 2 3 shall receive embassadors and pub. lic ministers......

2 3 2 8 shall take care that the laws are faithfully executed....

2 3 2 3 shall commission all officers...... 2 3

3 Privileges and immunities of members of Congress ...........

1 6

6 of citizens, (see Citizens; also, Rights.) Property, Congress to provide for care of public


3 shall not be taken for public use

without just compensation.......... 5 Am'a. 1 9 Congress shall pass no law impairing or denying the right of, in slaves...

4 2 Punishment, cruel and unusual, prohibited.........

8 Am'd. 1 9


Representatives and direct taxes, appor

tioned according to numbers...... 1 2 il 2 Represesentation of a State; vacancies

in, supplied until a new election by

executive authority ................. 1 2 1 Resolution, order, or vote, requiring

the concurrence of both Houses, to

undergo the formalities of bills...... 1 7 17 Removal of certain civil officers to be

reported by the President to the
Senate, with his reasons therefor...

Revenue bills to originate in the House
of Representatives

1 7 Rights of the citizen declared to be priv.

ileges of citizens of the several

liberty of conscience in matters of
religion ......

1 Am'd. freedom of speech and of the press.... 1 A m'a. to assemble and petition.....

1 Am’d. to keep and bear arms.

2 Am'd. to be exempt from the quartering of soldiers..

3 Am'd. to be secure from unreasonable searches and seizures....

4 Am'd. 1 to be free from answering for a

crime, unless on presentment or
indictment by a jury..

5 Am'd. 1
not to be twice jeoparded for the
sarne offence.....

5 Am'd. 1 not to be compelled to be a witness against himself..

5 Ama. 1 not to be deprived of life, liberty, or

property without due process of

5 Am’d. 1
private property not to be taken for
public use.....

5 Am'd. 1 in criminal prosecutions shall have

speedy trial by jury, with all the

mcans necessary for his defence..... 6 A m'a. 1 in civil cases trial to be by jury, and

shall only be re-examined accord-
ing to common law.........

7 A'md. 1 excessive bail shall not be required,

excessive fines imposed, nor cruel

and unusual punishments inflicted... 8 A m'd. 1 enumeration of certain rights not to

operate against reserved rights...... 9 Am’d. 6 Rules, each house shall determine its OWD.......

1 5 1

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tion ........

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Q. Quorum for business, what shall bo a of States, in choosing a President by

the House of Representatives..... Quartered—No soldiers to be quartered upon a citizen....................

R. Receipts and expenditures, accounts of,

to be published... Records, how to be authenticated... Religion-no law to be made; free ex

ercise of.............. religious test not required.. Reprieves granted by the President..... Representatives, House of, members of

chosen every second year..... qualifications of members of.. apportiopment of vacancies, how supplied... shall choose their officers. sball have the power of impeach

ment.... shall be the judge of the election and

qualification of its members. what shall be a quorum any number may adjourn, and com

pel tho attendance of absentees... may determine the rules of proceed

ing ......... may punish or expel a member.. shall keep a journal and publish, ex.

cept parts requiring secrecy... shall not adjourn for more than three

days, nor to any other place, with

out the consent of the Senate..... one fifth may require the yeas and

Days...... shall originate bills for raising reve

nue compensation to be ascertained by

law..... privileged from arrest, except in cer

tain cases Representatives shall not be questioned

for speech or debate in the House... shall not be appointed to office.......... shall not be electors of President...

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8. Seat of Government, exclusive legisla

1 8 Searches and seizures, security against.. 4 Am'd. 1 Senate, composed of two Senators from each State.....

1 3 bow chosen, classed, and terms of service....

1 3 qualifications of Senators....

1 3 Vice-President to be President of the 1 3 shall choose their officers....

1 3 shall be the judge of the elections

and qualifications of its members... 1 what number shall be a quorum........ 1 5 any number may adjourn, and com.

pel attendance of absentees............ 1 may determine its rules..........

1 5 may punish or expel a merober.... 1 shall keep a journal and publish the

samne, except parts requiring se-
crecy ........

1 5 sball not adjourn for more than three

days, nor to any other place, with.

out the consent of the other house... 1 5 one-fifth may require the yeas and nays........

1 5 may propose amendments to bills for raising revenue......................

7 shall try impeachments...

1 3 effect of their judgment on impeachment.....

1 3 compensation to be ascertained by law........

1 6 members of, privileged from arrest... 6 members not to be questioned for

words spoken in debate.................. shall not be appointed to office.......... 1



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War, Congress to declare..

1 8 Warrants for searches and seizures, when and how they shall issue....

4 A m'a. Witness in criminal cases, no one com

pelled to be against himself............ 5 Am'd. Weights and Measures, standard of......... 1 8


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Snato hall not be elector.......

2 1 2 1 Senators and Representatives, election of, how prescribed..

1 4 1 Slaver, their importation may be prohibited after 1808........

1 9 their importation prohibited, no law

to be passed impairing right of property in .........

1 9 right of transit and sojourn with, in any State, guarantied.

2 Introduction of, from any State not a

member of the Confederacy, may be prohibited by Congress...

1 Soldiers not to be quartered on citizens 3 A m'd. 1 Speaker, how chosen ........................

1 2 1 Speech, freedom of.......

1 Am'd. 1 Slatza prohibited from entering into treaty, alliance, or confederation ......

1 10 1 10 granting letters of marque.............


10 mining money...

110 1 10 euitting bills of credit...

1 10 making anything a tender but gold and silver..

1 10 1 10 passing bills of attainder, ex post facto

laws, or laws impairing contracts... 1 10 1 10 Tapting titles of nobility

1 10 1 10 laying duties on imports and exports 1 10 1 10 laying duties on tondage....

1 / 10 1 10 may lay tonnage duty on sea-going

Tessels for the improvement of rivens, &e...

1 10 keping troops or ships of war in time of peace .........

1 10 1 10 entering into any agreement or compact with another State or foreign Power.....

1 10 1 10 sy enter into compact for improvemant of certain rivers....

10 engaging in war

1 10

10 Butz, naw, may be admitted into the 1 Union (or Confederacy)

3 4 3 k*, may be admitted upon two thinis vote of both Houses, the Sen. de voting by States.

4 3 may be formed within the jurisdic

tion of others, or by the junction of two or more, with the consent of Congress and the Legislatures of the states concerned.................

3 4 3 Bet, judges bound to consider treaties,

the Constitution, and the laws under it, as supreme......

6 1 6 1 Sat, every, guarantied a republican

form of government, protected by the United (or Confederate) States Sopreme Court (See Court and Judi

ciary.) Sale at Connon Law, proceedings in... 7 A m'a. 1

T direct, according to representatioa.....

2 1 2 shall be laid only in proportion to census......

1 9 ca exporta prohibited.

1 except by vote of two-thirds of both Houses......

1 9 Tonder, what shall be a legal....... 1

10 1 10 Irritory, or public property, Congress

may make rules concerning.... Tutt, religious, shall not be roquired...... 6 1 6 1 Ilze, (see Nobility.) Füle from foreign state prohibited...... 1

9 1 9 frem, defined..


3 to witnesses, or confession, necessary for conviction.....


3 3 panishment of, may be prescribed by Congress...

3 3

3 3 Treasury, money drawn from only by appropriation..................***


1 Iratis, how made ........

2 2 2 2 the enpreine law...............

6 1 States cannot make.

1 10 110 V. cenciu happening during the re



“CONFEDERATE” VICE PRESIDENT. 1861, March 21, Alex. H. STEPHENS delivered a speech at Savannah, in explanation and vindication of the Constitution, from which this is a well known extract:

“The new Constitution has put at rest forever all the agitating questions relating to our peculiar institutions African slavery as it exists among us-the proper status of the negro in our form of civilization. This was the im mediate cause of the late rupture and present revolution. Jefferson, in his forecast, had anticipated this as the rock upon which the old Union would split.' He was right What was conjecture with him, is now a realized fact. But whether he fully comprehended the great truth upon which that rock stood and stands, may be doubted. The prevailing ideas entertained by him and most of the lead ing statesmen at the time of the formation of the old Constitution, were that the enslavement of the African was in violation of the laws of nature: that it was wrong in principle, socially, morally, and politically. It was an evil they knew not well how to deal with, but the general opinion of the men of that day was, that somehow or other, in the order of Providence, the institution would be evanescent and pass away. This idea, though not incorporated in the Constitution, was the prevailing idea at the time. The Constitution, it is true, secured every essential guarantee to the institution while it should last, and hence no argument can be justly used against the constitutional guarantees thus secured, because of the common sentiment of the day. Those ideas, however, were fundamentally wrong. They rested upon the assumption of the equality of races. This was an error. It was a sandy foundation, and the idea of a government built upon it; when the storm came and the wind blew, it fell.'

“Our new Government is founded upon exactly the op posite idea; its foundations are laid, its corner stone rests upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man. That slavery—subordination to the superior race, is his natural and normal condition. This, our new Government, is the first, in the history of the world, based upon this great physical and moral truth. This truth has been slow in the process of its development, like all other truths in the various departments of science. It has been so even amongst us. Many who hear me, perhaps, cap recollect well, that this truth was not generally admitted, even within their day. The errors of the past generation still clung to many as late as twenty years ago. Those at the North who still cling to these errors, with a zeal above knowledge, we justly denominate fanatics.

“In the conflict thus far, success has been, on our side, complete throughout the length and breadth of the Confed erate States. It is upon this, as I have stated, our actual fabric is firmly planted; and I cannot permit myself to doubt the ultimate success of a full recognition of this prin ciple throughout the civilized and enlightened world.


9 9


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"As I have stated, the truth of this principle may be slow the granite; then comes the brick or the marble. The sub în development, as all truths are, and ever have been, in stratum of our society is made of the material fitted by na the various branches of science. It was so with the prin- ture for it, and by experience we know that it is best, not ciplos announced by Galileo-it was so with Adam Smith only for the superior, but for the inferior race that it should and his principles of political economy-it was so with be so. It is, indeed, in conformity with the ordinance of Harvey and his thoory of tho circulation of the blood. It the Creator. It is not for us to inquire into the wisdom of is stated that not a single one of tho medical profession, His ordinances, or to question them. For His own pur living at the timo of the announcement of the truths made posos He has made one race to differ from another, as He by him, admitted them. Now they are universally ac has mado‘one star to differ from another star in glory.? knowledged. May wo not, therefore, look with confidence “Tho great objects of humanity are best attained when to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths conformed to His laws and decrees, in the formation of gorupon which our system rests. It is tho first government ernments, as well as in all things elsс. Our Confederacy is ever instituted upon principlos of strict conformity to na- founded upon principles in strict conformity with these ture, and tho ordination of Providence, in furnishing the laws. This stone which was first rejected by the first builders matorials of human society. Many governments have boen is becomo the chief stone of the corner' in our new edifice, founded upon the principle of certain classes; but the “The progress of disintegration in the old Union may be classes thus enslavad, were of tho samo race, and in viola- expected to go on with almost absolute certainty. We are tion of the laws of nature. Our system commits no such now the nucleus of a growing power, which, if we are true violation of nature's laws. Tho negro, by nature, or by the to ourselves, our destiny, and high mission, will become curso against Canaan, is fitted for that condition which he the controlling power on this continent. To what extent Occupies in our system. The architect, in the construction accessions will go on in tho process of time, or where it will of buildings, lays the foundation with the proper materials, I end, the future will determine."



Abraham Lincoln's Inaugural Ad-consistently with the Constitution and the laws, dress, March 4, 1861,

can be given, will be cheerfully given to all the

States when lawfully demanded, for whatever Fellow-citizens of the United States: In com- cause - as cheerfully to one section as to pliance with a custom as old as the Govern- another. ment itself

, I appear before you to address you There is much controversy about the deliverbriefly, and to take in your presence the oath ing up of fugitives from service or labor. The prescribed by the Constitution of the United clause I now read is as plainly written in the States to be taken by the President “ before he Constitution as any other of its provisions : enters on the execution of his office."

“No person held to service or labor in one State, under I do not consider it necessary at present for the laws thereof, escaping

into another, shall, in conse me to discuss those matters of administration quence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged

from such service or labor but shall be delivered up on about which there is no special anxiety or ex

claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be citement. Apprehension seems to exist among the peo

It is scarcely questioned that this provision ple of the Southern States that by the


was intended by those who made it for the reof a Republican Administration their property claiming of what we call fugitive slaves; and and their peace and personal security are to be the intention of the law-giver is the law. All endangered. There has never been any reason- members of Congress swear their support to able cause for such apprehension. Indeed, the the whole Constitution—to this provision as most ample evidence to the contrary bas all the

much as any other. To the proposition, then, while existed and been open to their inspec- that slaves, whose cases como within the terms tion. It is found in nearly all the published of this clause, “shall be delivered up,” their speeches of him who now addresses you. I do oaths are unanimous. Now, if they would but quote from one of those speeches when I make the effort in good temper, could they not, declare that "I have no purpose, directly or with nearly equal unanimity, frame and pass & indirectly, to interfere with the institution of law by means of which to keep good that slavery in the States where it exists. I believe

unanimous oath ? I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inelination to do so." Those who nominated this clause should be enforced by national or

There is some difference of opinion whether and elected me did so with full knowledge that by State authority; but surely that difference I had made this and many similar declarations, is not a very material one.

If the slave is to and had never recanted them. And more than be surrendered, it can be of but little consethis, they placed in the platform for my acceptspace, and as a law to themselves and to me, the quence to him, or to others, by which authority clear and emphatic resolution which I now be content that his oath shall goʻunkept, on a

And should any one, in any case,


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