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April, 1865, of General Grant towards General Lee. I do not so much allude to the facility with which honorable terms were accorded to the Confederates, as to the bearing of General Grant, and of the officers about him, towards General Lee. The interview was brief. Three commissioners, upon either side, were immediately appointed. The agreement to which these six commissioners acceded was as follows:

“APPOMATTOX COUKT-HOUSE, VA., April 10, 1865. 'Agreement entered into this day, in regard to the surrender of the army of Northern Virginia to the United States authorities.

"First. The troops shall march by brigades and detachments to a designated point; stack their arms, deposit their flags, sabres, pistols, etc., and from thence march to their homes, under charge of their officers, superintended by their respective division and corps commanders, officers retaining their side-arms and the authorized number of private horses.

"Second. All public horses, and public property of all kinds, to be turned over to staff-officers, to be designated by the United States authorities.

“Third. Such transportation as may be agreed upon as necessary for the transportation of the private baggage of officers will be allowed to accompany the officers, to be turned over, at the end of the trip, to the nearest United States quartermaster, receipts being taken for the same.

"Fourth. Couriers and mounted men of the artillery and cavalry, whose horses are their own private property, will be allowed to retain them.

Fifth. The surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia shall be construed to include all the forces operating with that army on the 8th instant, the date of the commencement of the negotiations for surrender, except such bodies of cavalry as actually made their escape previous to the surrender, and except, also, such pieces of artillery as were more than twenty miles from Appomattox Court-house at the time of surrender on the 9th instant.

"(Signed) JOHN GIBBON, Major-General Volunteers.

CHARLES GRIFFIN, Brevet Major-General U. S. Vols.
W. MERRITT, Brevet Major-General.

J. LONGSTREET, Lieutenant-General.

J. B. GIBBON, Major-General.

W. N. PENDLETON, Brig.-Gen. and Chief of Artillery."

In the mean time, immediately that General Lee was seen riding to the rear, dressed more gayly than usual, and begirt with his sword, the rumor of imminent surrender flew like wildfire through the Confederates. It might be imagined, that an army which had drawn its last regular rations on the 1st of April, and harassed incessantly by night and day, been marching and fighting until the morning of the 9th, would have welcomed any thing like a termination of its suffer


ings, let it come in what form it might. Let those who idly imagine that the finer feelings are the prerogative of what are called the "upper classes," learn from this, and similar scenes, to appreciate "common men." As the great Confederate captain rode back from his interview with General Grant, the news of the surrender acquired shape and consistency, and could no longer be denied. The effect on the worn and battered troops-some of whom had fought since April, 1861, and (sparse survivors of hecatombs of fallen comrades) had passed unscathed through such hurricanes of shot as, within four years, no other men had ever experienced-passes mortal description. Whole lines of battle rushed up to their beloved old chief, and, choking with emotion, broke ranks and struggled with each other to wring him once more by the hand. Men who had fought throughout the war, and knew what the agony and humiliation of that moment must be to him, strove, with a refinement of unselfishness and tenderness which he alone could fully appreciate, to lighten his burden and mitigate his pain. With tears pouring down both cheeks, General Lee at length commanded voice enough to say: "Men, we have fought through the war together. I have done the best that I could for you." Not an eye that looked on that scene was dry. Nor was this the emotion of sickly sentimentalists, but of rough and rugged men, familiar with hardship, danger, and death in a thousand shapes, mastered by sympathy and feeling for another, which they had never experienced on their own account. I know of no other passage of military history so touching, unless, in spite of the melodramatic coloring which French historians have loved to shed over the scene, it can be found in the Adieux de Fontainebleau.

It remains for me briefly to notice the last parade of an army whereof the exploits will be read with pride, so long as the English tongue is spoken. In pursuance of an arrangement of the six commissioners, the Confederate army marched by divisions, on the morning of April the 12th, to a spot in the neighborhood of Appomattox Court-house, where they stacked arms and deposited accoutrements. Upon this solemn occasion, Major-General Gibbon represented the United States authorities. With the same conspicuous and exalted delicacy which he had exhibited throughout these closing scenes, Gen

eral Grant was not again visible after his final interview with General Lee. About seven thousand eight hundred Confederates marched up, with muskets in their hands, and they were followed by about eighteen thousand unarmed stragglers, who claimed to be included in the capitulation. Each Confederate soldier was furnished with a printed form of parol, which was filled up for him by his own officers, and a duplicate handed to a designated Federal officer. By the evening of the 12th, the paroles were generally distributed, and the disbanded men began to scatter through the country. Hardly one of them had a farthing of money. Some of them had from one thousand five hundred to two thousand miles to travel, over a country of which the scanty railroads were utterly annihilated. Many an interesting diary of the adventures of these individuals, as they journeyed from Eastern Virginia to Western Texas, or possibly to Mexico, may well have been written. It is to be hoped that one or two such narratives will yet be given to the world.

Shortly after noon, on the 12th, General Lee, escorted by a guard of honor of Federal cavalry, mounted his horse, as a soldier for the last time, and started for the city of Richmond. On his road, he arrived about evening at the headquarters of his "old war-horse," General Longstreet; and the last and saddest of their many interviews took place. There are scenes which are too sacred and affecting for description, even though the pen were guided by a Macaulay or a Hoffmanu. If ever there were two genuine, simple-minded men upon earth, to whom any thing melodramatic or theatrical is utterly abhorrent, they are the men of whom I am now writing. I close this brief chronicle with the remark that, in proportion to the reader's estimate of the sustained heroism with which Lee and Longstreet, for four years, bore up and stood erect under such a burden as never yet was laid upon man, will be his appreciation of the circumstances and emotions under which their parting interview took place.





Adjutant and Inspector-General:

GENERAL-I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of my command in the late campaign:

In obedience to the orders of the commanding general, the command marched from Gordonsville on the 16th August, crossing the Rapidan on the 20th, at Raccoon Ford.

The next day, at Kelly's Ford, I received orders to move up the Rappahannock to Rappahannock Station. As we were withdrawing from Kelly's Ford, the enemy crossed the river and made an attack upon the rear brigade (Featherston's) under the command of Colonel Posey. After a sharp skirmish, Colonel Posey drove him back with considerable loss.

Arriving at Rappahannock Station, General Hood, with his own and Whiting's brigade, was detached to relieve a portion of General Jackson's command at Freeman's Ford. About the moment that General Hood reached this ford, the enemy crossed in considerable force, and made an attack upon the commands of Brigadier-Generals Trimble and Hood. They, however, drove him back across the river in much confusion and with heavy loss. Meanwhile, I had ordered Colonel Walton to place his batteries in position at Rappahannock Station, and to drive the enemy from his positions on both sides of the river.

The batteries were opened at sunrise on the 23d, and a severe cannonade continued for several hours. In about two hours, however, the enemy was driven across the river, aban

doning his tête-de-pont. The brigades of Brigadier-Generals Evans and D. R. Jones, the latter under Colonel G. T. Anderson, moved forward to occupy this position. It was found untenable, however, being exposed to a cross-fire of artillery from the other bank. The troops were, therefore, partially withdrawn, and Colonel S. D. Lee was ordered to select positions for his batteries, and joined in the combat. The enemy's position was soon rendered too warm for him, and he took advantage of a severe rain-storm to retreat in haste, after firing the bridge and the private dwellings in its vicinity. Colonel Walton deserves much credit for skill in the management of his batteries, and Colonel Lee got into position in time for some good practice.

The next day, August 24th, the command, continuing the march up the Rappahannock, crossed Hazel River, and bivouacked at Jeffersonton.

On the 25th we relieved a portion of General Jackson's command at Waterloo Bridge. There was more or less skirmishing at this point until the afternoon of the 26th, when the march was resumed, crossing the Rappahannock at Hinson's Mill Ford, six miles above Waterloo. A dash of several squadrons of Federal cavalry into Salem, in front of us, on the 27th, delayed our march about an hour. Not having cavalry, I was unable to ascertain the meaning of this movement, hence the delay. This cavalry retired, and the march was resumed, resting for the night at White Plains. The head of my column reached Thoroughfare Gap about three o'clock P. M. On the 28th a small party of infantry was sent into the mountains to reconnoitre. Passing through the Gap, Colonel Beck, of the Ninth Georgia regiment, met the enemy; but was obliged to retire before a greatly superior force. The enemy held a strong position on the opposite gorge, and succeeded in getting his sharp-shooters in position on the mountain. Brigadier-General D. R. Jones advanced two of his brigades rapidly, and soon drove the enemy from his position on the mountain. Brigadier-General Hood, with his own and General Whiting's brigade, was ordered, by a footpath over the mountain, to turn the enemy's right; and BrigadierGeneral Wilcox, with his own and Brigadier-Generals Featherston's and Pryor's brigades, was ordered through Hopewell

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