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upon the Confederacy as the calm after the hurricane. "Surrender" was the word, as the news of Lee's disaster travelled from point to point, from camp to camp, in the Confederacy. The quick succession of these surrenders-the suddenness and completeness of the catastrophe-show plainly enough that there was a widely spread rottenness in the affairs of the Confederacy, and that its cause went down in a general demoralization of the arm and people.

APPENDIX.

APPENDIX No. I.

AMERICAN IDEAS: THE KEYS TO THE IIISTORY OF THE WAR.

I.

Political Iconoclasm in America.-The two idols of "the Constitution" and "the Union."-Extravagant praises of the Constitution.-Its true value.—It contained a noble principle and glaring defects.- Character of the founders of the Constitution. -Hamilton.-Franklin.-His cookery-book philosophy.-His absurdities in the Convention. The call for the Convention that formed the Constitution.-Three parties in the Convention.-The idea of a "national" government.-Conflict between the small and large States.-The result of this, the distinguishing feature of the Constitution.-That feature an accident, and not an a priori discovery.-Enumeration of defects in the Constitution.-The weakness and ignorance of its framers. -Its one conspicuous virtue and original principle.-Combination of State-rights with a common authority.-How involved in the construction of the Senate.-How made more precise in the Amendments.-Particulars in which the element of the States was recognized.—A new rule of construction applied to the American Union. -The necessity which originated it.-The Constitution of the United States not a political revolution.-The creature of the States.-True interpretation of its moral grandeur.-The bond of the Union a voluntary one.-No mission apart from the States. Why coercion of the States was not necessary.-How the Union stood for an American nationality.-Its power to reach individuals.-The Union, in practice, rather a rough companionship than a national identity.-Right of secession. Not necessary to discuss it.-The development of the Union a North and South, and not disintegrated States.-Profound invention of Calhoun of South Carolina.-How it was a Union measure, and not "Nullification."

AN effect of great civil commotions in the history of a people is to liberate reason, and to give to intelligence the opportunity to assert itself against the traditions and political idolatries of the past. Such a period is essentially one of political iconoclasm-the breaking of idols which we find we have heretofore unduly cherished, and with it the recovery from the delusions of an unworthy and traditional worship. When there is little in the present to interest men, and their

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