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the siege with vigour, erecting four batteries, the last within a hundred lines of the main fort. The abattis was turned, and a mine and two trenches extended to within six feet of the ditch, when news arrived that Lord Rawdon was hastily approaching at the head of two thousand men. This at once blasted the fair prospects of the Americans, and after an unsuccessful assault, they raised the siege, and retreated over the Saluda. In this siege the Polish general, Kosciusko, particularly distinguished himself. His devotion to the American cause had already won him the confidence and esteem of Washington, Greene, and the other leading generals of the Revolution.

The disappointment of the American general was as bitter as it was unexpected; yet still his elastic spirit refused to despond; and when advised to retire to Virginia, his reply was: "I will recover South Carolina, or die in the attempt." As on a former occasion, he determined to attack the enemy in detail, and intercept their supplies. He therefore declined battle, when offered by Rawdon, until that general had divided his forces, when he showed himself with such effect that his lordship retreated to Orangeburg, closely pursued by his indefatigable opponent.

At Orangeburg, Lord Rawdon was joined by Lieutenant Crugar, who had evacuated Ninety-Six; and General Greene, unable to resist their combined force, retired to the high hills above Santee. In order to carry out his plan, and compel the evacuation of Orangeburg, Marion and Sumpter were despatched against Monk's Corner, and Dorchester. They took different roads, and commenced separate and successful attacks on convoys and detachments in the vicinity of Charleston. In this manner was the war conducted. While the British forces were compact they could neither cover the country, nor force the Americans to action; and when divided, the detachments were attacked separately, and defeated. The consequence was, that the spirit of revolt became general, and the royal interest daily declined.

Lord Rawdon now took post near the junction of the Wateree and Congaree; but upon the approach of Greene retired to the Eutaw Springs, forty miles nearer Charleston. Here he was attacked by the Americans, and a severe engagement ensued. Greene's front line was composed of militia, who commenced the attack on some advance parties of the enemy, and behaved with great courage. The continentals next engaged, rushing to the charge through a heavy cannonade and shower of musketry. They were led by Colonels Williams and Campbell, the latter of whom

was mortally wounded, but survived long enough to learn the complete success of the Americans. The British fled to a large brick house, from which it was found impracticable to dislodge them. Their loss, inclusive of prisoners, was one thousand one hundred men; that of the Americans, five hundred, of whom sixty were officers.

General Greene was honoured by Congress with a British standard and gold medal; and the thanks of that body were voted to the different corps and commanders.

This battle closed the active warfare in the south. The Americans retired to their former position above Santee, and the British stationed themselves near Monk's Corner. Both armies subsequently moved to the lower country. A few excursions were afterwards made by the enemy, and sundry small enterprises executed; but nothing of more general consequence than the loss of property and a few individual lives.

Thus closed the campaign of 1781, in the south. Upon reviewing its operations, we are forcibly impressed by the talents of the man who, during that gloomy period, redeemed and strengthened the American cause. With an unpaid and half naked army, he had to contend with veteran soldiers, who were supplied with every thing that the wealth of Britain and the plunder of Carolina could furnish; yet he compelled superior numbers to retire from the extremity of the state, and confine themselves in the capital and its vicinity. Neither defeat nor difficulties could overcome his indomitable perseverance; and for him to lose a battle was but to gain a store of experience, some day to be exercised to the discomfiture of his enemies.

The year 1781 had opened with very gloomy prospects for the cause of American independence. Vigorous and united efforts on the part of the United States were needful to meet the co-operation of the succours from France; but the states seemed feeble and irresolute. The people were heartily tired of the war; but though no better affected towards Great Britain than before, yet they earnestly desired deliverance from the multiplied miseries of the long protracted struggle. At first they had rushed impetuously into the contest; but their early ardour had begun to cool. In the Eastern States particularly, since the theatre of war had been transferred to the south, the greatest apathy prevailed.

Congress had called for an army of thirty-seven thousand men, to be in camp on the first of January. The resolution, as usual, was too late; but even, although it could have been promulgated rea

sonably, so large a force could not have been brought into the field under the imperfect organization of the government. The deficiencies and delays on the part of the several states exceeded all reasonable anticipation. At no time during this active and interesting campaign did the regular force drawn from Pennsylvania to Georgia, inclusive, exceed three thousand men. So late as the month of April, the states, from New Jersey to New Hampshire inclusive, had furnished only five thousand infantry; but this force was slowly and gradually increased; till, in the month of May, including cavalry and artillery, which never exceeded one thousand men, it presented a total of about seven thousand, of whom four thousand might have been relied on in active service. A considerable part of this force arrived in camp too late to acquire, during the campaign, that discipline which is essential to military success. Inadequate as this army was for asserting the independence of the country, the prospect of being unable to support it was still more alarming. The men were in rags: clothing had been long expected from Europe, but had not arrived, and the disappointment was severely felt.

The diary of Washington, as well as his correspondence, bears ample evidence of the destitute condition of the army, and of the severe trials to which, as commander-in-chief, he was consequently exposed. The magazines were ill supplied; the troops were often almost starving; and the army was ready to be dissolved for want of food. The arsenals were nearly empty. Instead of having the requisites of a well-appointed army, every thing was deficient; and there was little prospect of being better provided; for money was as scarce as food and military stores. Congress had resolved to issue no more bills on the credit of the Union; and the care of supplying the army was devolved upon the several states, according to a rule established by that body. Even when the states had collected the specified provisions, the quartermaster-general had no funds to pay for the transportation of them to the army, to accomplish which, military impressment was resorted to in a most offensive degree. Congress was surrounded with difficulties: the several states were callous and dilatory; and American affairs wore an aspect of debility and decay. To deepen the general gloom, there were portentous rumours of preparations for savage warfare along the whole extent of the western frontier; of an invasion on the side of Canada; and of strong disaffection in Vermont. In the midst of financial difficulties and apprehensions of attack both from foreign and domestic enemies, a new and alarming danger appeared, in a

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