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say, he brought them up to check the pursuit, while, at the same time, he ordered Lee, with the remainder of his corps, to hold the ground until the rear division could be brought into action. The sight of their beloved general, and the confidence that fired his aspect, inspired the drooping spirits of the troops, and they met the enemy with enthusiasm. For a time the pursuit was checked. But Clinton's splendid legions, flushed with their success, poured on dauntlessly to the charge; and the advanced corps was at length driven back on the reserves, though not until it had stood its ground the required time. The fresh troops of the rear division were now drawn up, under the eye of the general, on an eminence, covered by a morass in front. With desperate courage a division of the British, disregarding their strong position, pressed on to the charge; but Lord Stirling galloped up with the artillery to the edge of the acclivity, unlimbered the guns and opened a galling fire, that soon drove them back. An attempt was now made to turn the left flank of our army; but this failed. Almost simultaneously a movement was seen among the enemy's masses, and directly a strong body appeared as if about to be thrown against our right. General Greene no sooner saw the movement than he hurried forward Knox to a high ground in front, whose heavy guns soon began to shake the plain, and make dreadful havoc not only among the advancing columns, but in the force opposed to the left wing, which they enfiladed. The enemy was just beginning to waver, when Wayne came dashing up with his veterans, and assailed him impetuously in front. Even the grenadiers of Cornwallis quailed before this terrible slaughter; and abandoning their ground, fell back behind the ravine, to the spot they had occupied when they received their first check, immediately after Washington met Lee.

"When the British were thus driven back, they seized an almost impregnable position, their flanks being secured by thick woods. and morasses, and their front accessible only through a narrow pass. The day was now declining, and the excessive heat had destroyed numbers of the men, yet Washington determined on forcing the enemy from his position. Two brigades were accordingly detached to gain the right flank of the British, and Woodford with his gallant brigade was ordered to turn their left. Knox, with his artillery, was called to the front. With the opening of his terrible batteries the battle once more began. The British cannon replied, and soon the earth shook with the repeated reverberations of heavy artillery.

"No further decisive event, however, occurred. Night fell before

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the brigades on either flank could conquer the obstacles in the way of gaining their positions, and, completely worn out, both combatants were glad of the reprieve afforded by darkness, and sank to rest on the ground they occupied. The troops of Washington slept on their arms, their leader slumbering, wrapt in his cloak, in the midst of his soldiers.

"It was the intention of the American general to renew the battle on the following day, but toward midnight the British secretly abandoned their position, and resumed their march. So fatigued were our men by the excessive heat, combined with the exertions of the day, that the flight of the enemy was not discovered until morning, when the ground he had occupied at nightfall was found deserted. Washington made no attempt at pursuit, satisfied that Sir Henry Clinton would reach the heights of Middletown before he could be overtaken. Accordingly, leaving a detachment to watch the British rear, the main body of the army was moved, by easy marches, to the Hudson. In this battle the enemy lost nearly three hundred men; the Americans did not suffer a third as much. Never, unless at Princeton, did Washington evince such heroism. His presence of mind alone probably saved the day. He checked the retreat, drove back the enemy, and remained master of the field; and this, too, with a loss very trifling when compared with that of the foe.

"The battle of Monmouth, won in this manner, when all the senior officers had declared a victory impossible, left a profound impression on the public mind of America and Europe. The discipline of our troops was no longer despised. Soldiers who, under such disastrous circumstances, could be brought to face and drive back a successful foe, were declared to be a match for the veteran troops of Europe; and their general, who had been called the Fabius, was now honoured with the new title of the Marcellus of modern history.

"We cannot dismiss this battle without referring to the subsequent disgrace of Lee. Though Washington had addressed him warmly in the first surprise of their meeting, it is probable that no public notice would have been taken of Lee's hasty retreat, but for the conduct of that general himself. Of a haughty, perhaps of an overbearing disposition, he could not brook the indignity which he considered had been put upon him; and almost his first act was to write an improper letter to Washington, demanding reparation for the words used towards him on the battle-field. The reply of the commander-in-chief was dignified, but severe. He assured his

subordinate he should have a speedy opportunity to justify himself, and on Lee's asking for a court-martial, he was arrested. The verdict of that body was,

"First. That he was guilty of disobedience of orders in not attacking the enemy on the 28th of June, agreeably to repeated instructions. Second. That he was guilty of misbehaviour before the enemy on the same day, in making an unnecessary, and, in some few instances, a disorderly retreat. Third. That he was guilty of disrespect to the commander-in-chief in two letters. His sentence was, to be suspended from his rank for one year.

"We shall not go into a minute examination of the question whether this punishment was deserved. Our own opinion is that it was. We do not think Lee guilty in the retreat of any thing but an error in judgment, arising perhaps from want of confidence in his men. But he should have kept the commander-in-chief advised of his movements. It is probable that Lee considered himself a superior officer to Washington, for he was overbearing, proud, sullen, and dogmatical throughout the whole proceedings, both before and after the battle. This point of his character was well understood by the army, with whom he was unpopular, and who hailed his disgrace with secret satisfaction.

"The sentence proved the ruin of Lee. He passed, from that hour, out of men's minds. From having held the second rank in the army he sank to comparative obscurity. He never again figured in the war. In 1780, Congress intimated to him that they had no further need of his services; and two years later he died, in seclusion, at Philadelphia.

"The killed and wounded in the battle were not the only loss the British sustained. During their march through the Jerseys, about one thousand of their soldiers deserted them."

In the mean time, France had been preparing to assist the Americans. On the 14th of April, Count d'Estaing had sailed from Toulon with a strong squadron, and arrived on the coast of Virginia in the beginning of July, while the British fleet was employed in conveying the forces from Sandy Hook to New York. It consisted of twelve ships of the line, and four frigates, and brought M. Gerard, the first minister from France to the United States.

On being apprised of Count d'Estaing's arrival, General Washington sent him, by Colonel Laurens, a letter of congratulation, and proposals for co-operating in their attempts upon the common enemy. Their design of attacking the British in New York simul

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