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That struck the foremost man of all this world,
But for supporting robbers,- shall we now
Contaminate our fingers with base bribes,
And sell the mighty space of our large honors,
For so much trash as may be grasped thus?
I had rather be a dog, and bay the moon,
Than such a Roman."

3. Defiance. (Very abrupt' and 'loud,' with ' slides.')

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“I have returned, not as the right honorable member has said, to raise another stórm, I have returned to protect that constitution, of which I was the parent and the founder, from the assassination of such men as the honorable gentleman and his unworthy associates. They are corrupt — they are SEDITIOUS and they, at this very moment, are in a conSPIRACY against their country! Here I stand for impeachment or trial! I dare accusation! I DEFY the honorable gentleman! I defy the GOVERNMENT! I defy their whole PHALANX! Let them come fòrth! I tell the ministers I will neither give thém quarter, nor take it!”



4. Indignation.

“Who is the man, that, in addition to the disgraces and mischiefs of the war, has dared to authorize and associate to our arms the tomahawk and scalping-knife of the savage?— to call into civilized alliance the wild and inhuman inhabitant of the woods?— to delegate to the merciless Indian the defence of disputed rights, and to wage the horrors of his barbarous war against our brethren? My lords, we are called upon as members of this house, as men, as Christian men, to protest against such horrible barbarity."

All pleasant and good ideas demand smooth stress' or force, free from all abruptness.


In 'joyous' pieces, when the time is fast, the stress must be given with a lively, SPRINGING swell of the voice, which throws the force smoothly on the middle of the sound. Hence it is called the median' stress.

'Animated and joyous' examples for smooth stress. "His cares flew away,

And visions of happiness dànced o'er his mind.


"He dreamed of his home, of his dear native bowers, And pleasures that waited on life's merry mòrn; While memory each scene gayly covered with flowers, And restored every róse, but secréted its thòrn."

In the following example of noble,' manly joy, the happy median stress swells with the same smooth, springing force as above, but with more fulness and longer quantity and pauses.

2. "Fellow Citizens, I congratulate you, I give you joy, on the return of this anniversary. I see, before and around me, a mass of faces, glowing with cheerfulness and patriotic pride. This anniversary animates and gladdens and unites all American hearts. Every man's heart swells within him, — every man's port and bearing becomes somewhat more proud and lofty, as he remembers that seventy-five years have rolled away, and that the great inheritance of liberty is still his; his, undiminished and unimpaired; his, in all its original glory; his to enjoy, his to protect, and his *to transmit to future generations."

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Subdued' example for gentle but happy median or smooth stress.

"At last, Malibran came; and the child sat with his glance riveted upon her glorious face. Could he believe that the grand lady, all blazing with jewels, and whom everybody seemed to worship, would really sing his little song? Breath


less he waited; -the band, the whole band, struck up a little plaintive melody. He knew it, and clapped his hands for joy. "And oh! how she sung it! It was so simple, so mournful, so soul-subduing; - many a bright eye dimmed with tears; and naught could be heard but the touching words of that little song, -oh! so touching!

"Little Pierre walked home as if he were moving on the air. What cared he for money now? The greatest singer in all Europe had sung his little song, and thousands had wept at his grief.


Thus she, who was the idol of England's nobility, went about doing good. And in her early, happy death, when the grave-damps gathered over her brow, and her eyes grew dim, he who stood by her bed. his bright face clothed in the mourning of sighs and tears, and smoothed her pillow, and lightened her last moments by his undying affection, was the little Pierre of former days, now rich, accomplished, and the most talented composer of his day."

• Noble' example for prolonged, full-swelling median or smooth stress.

"We must forget all feelings save the one;

We must behold no object save our country;
And only look on death as beautiful,
So that the sacrifice ascend to Heaven,
And draw down freedom on her evermore.
'But if we fail?' They never fail, who die
In a great cause! The block may soak their gore;
Their heads may sodden in the sun; their limbs
Be strung to city gates and castle walls;
But still their spirit walks abroad.
Elapse, and others share as dark a doom,
They but augment the deep and sweeping thoughts
Which overpower all others, and conduct
The world, at last, to freedom! "

Though years

Examples for the longest quantity' and 'fullest swell' of the median or smooth stress.

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"O liberty! O sound once delightful to every Roman ear! O sacred privilege of Roman citizenship! once sacred, trampled on!"


"Ye crags and peaks, I'm with you once again !
O sacred forms, how proud you look!
How high you lift your heads into the sky!
How huge you are! how mighty and how free!

"Ye guards of liberty,

I'm with you once again.”

"The land that bore you Do honor to her! Let her glory in Your breeding."


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"These are Thy glorious works, Parent of Good. Almighty! Thine this universal frame,

Thus wondrous fair! Thyself how wondrous, then!"


Example for noble' but happy median stress.

"The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want.

“He maketh me to lie down in green pastures: He leadeth me beside the still waters. He restoreth my soul."

The fullest swell of the median stress can be given only on the long syllables. On the short syllables, as in the word "liberty," this stress is but partially felt.

Sometimes the short syllables may be repeated in the form of the tremor,' or trill, so as really to give the effect of a long syllable, as in the fervent reverential joy of the following line:


O God! thou hast blest me; I ask for no more."


So, too, in reading Coleridge's sublime "Hymn to Mont Blanc," the word God," as it is repeated with cumulating praise, may be given by a skilful vocalist with a tremulous

swell on the short vowel, which very much ennobles the expression. Yet as this is too difficult a point for readers in general to execute well, all that should be insisted on, is, that the short syllable be spoken with as much fulness as its quantity will allow, and smooth stress' though it cannot be prolonged.

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"Motionless torrents! silent cataracts!

Who made you glorious as the gates of Heaven
Beneath the keen, full moon? Who bade the sun
Clothe you with rainbows? Who, with living flowers
Of loveliest blue, spread garlands at your feet?
God! let the torrents like a shout of nations
Answer; and let the ice-plains echo, God!
God! sing ye meadow-streams with gladsome voice;
Ye pine-groves, with your soft and soul-like sounds."

When this general distinction between abrupt' and smooth' stress is mastered, we may analyze abrupt' stress, and make finer distinctions.

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Dr. Rush, Prof. William Russell, and many of our best later writers on elocution, call the first part of every sound the "radical," as it is the radix or root from which the other parts grow. The last part of a sound they call the "vanish." Let scholars remember this fact, and the technical terms for Stress explain themselves. The radical stress' is that emphatic force given to the "radical" or first part of a sound. The vanishing stress' is that given to the "vanish" or last part. The compound stress' is that given to both the 'first' and 'last' parts. The thorough stress' is that given thoroughly to the whole of the sound. The median stress' is that given to the middle part. Now, all of these but the last, the median,' belong to abrupt stress.'




The median' alone is smooth and pleasing. When scholars are ready for more definite terms than abrupt,' let them study and heed in practice the following principles:

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The radical stress,' or abrupt force on the very opening of a syllable, is used naturally on commanding ideas,' such as bold statements and arguments, and in a greater degree on 'indignation,' and with impassioned, explosive force on 'anger.'


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