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which are, from their very nature, less important even than the unemphatic parts of the principal sentences.

• Unemotional' examples for moderate' standard time.


1. "The young man, | it is often said, 'has genius || enough, [ if he would only study. || Now the truth is, as I shall take the liberty to state it, that the genius || WILL ||| study; || it is that in the mind | which does || study: | that is the very nature || of it. | I care not to say that it will always use books. All study || is not reading, || any more than all reading is study. || ATTENTION ||| it is, though other || qualities belong to this transcendent power,-ATTENTION|||| it is, that is the very SOUL ||| of genius; || not the fixed eye, || not the poring over a book, || but the fixed THOUGHT." |||







The piece is unemotional,' and should be read, therefore, with 'moderate' standard time' for movement' and 'pauses. “The young man is unemphatic, and should be marked and read with the standard time.' The clause, "it is often said," is really parenthetical: it forms no essential part of the sense or construction of the principal sentence. It is for that reason of less importance than the unemphatic words of the principal sentence. It should therefore be read with less than 'moderate' or 'standard time.' The idea in "genius" is emphatic, and should be read with enough more time (as well as force) than "young man to express its greater relative importance. The accented syllable is long in "genius." The emphatic time may be given, therefore, mostly in quantity, with a short pause after the word. Enough" needs only the moderate pause after it, to separate it from the conditional idea, "if he would only study.' Study" is as emphatic as "genius," but the accented syllable is short; hence, the emphatic time on this word must be given in short quantity, and a longer pcuse after it to fill out the time. "Now the truth is." requires moderate' time, as it is unemphatic. "As I shall take the liberty to state it," requires less than moderate time and force, as it is of less importance, being parenthetical. "That the genius " is emphatic, and demands more than moderate time. "Will" is still more important,



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and demands three lines to mark its relative time in reading. "Study" is emphatic in the first degree, and needs only twe lines to mark its time. - Thus analyze all the following ideas and selections; and mark, in reading them, the relative importance or emphasis of each, by the time' as well as by the force of the voice. Further on in the piece above, we come to the great positive idea, "attention," which must be doubly emphasized; and as it is repeated for emphasis, it then demands four lines to mark its superlative importance.


There are few readers or speakers who make as good use of 'time' as of force.' Yettime' gives as expressive lights and shades as force,' and should be varied as much, according to the same principle. In reading 'grave,'' subdued or pathetic,' and noble' sentiments, time is far more prominent than force, and is thus a nobler element of emphasis. Let the example be read many times, to fix in the reader's mind the principle, and the habit of applying it correctly.

2. "What polish is to the diamond, manner is to the individual. It heightens the value and the charm. The manner is, in some sense, the mirror of the mind. It pictures and represents the thoughts and emotions within. We cannot always be engaged in expressive action. But even when we are silent, even when we are not in action, there is something in our air and manner, which expresses what is elevated, or what is low; what is human and benignant, or what is coarse and harsh.

"The charm of manner consists in its simplicity, its grace, and its sincerity. How important the study of manner!"


This example demands 'slower' standard time than the one above, because the general spirit' is nobler. The emphatic quantity and pauses are proportionately longer.

3. "Such was Grace Darling, || —one of the HEROINES || of humanity, whose name | is destined to live || as long as the sympathies || and affections || of HUMANITY ||| endure. || Such calm | HEROISM ||| as hers, || so generously || exerted for the good of others, —|| is one of the NOBLEST ||| attributes of the soul of man. It had no alloy of blind | animal ||

passion, like the bravery of the soldier on the field of battle, but it was spiritual, || CELESTIAL, reverently add, | GODLIKE." ||||

and we may

Bxamples of the animated or joyous' kind, for 'fast' standard time, and 'short' standard pauses.


1. "I come! || I come! ||| ye have called me | long! ||
I come o'er the mountains || with light | and song! ||
Ye may trace my step | o'er the wakening | earth, ||
By the winds || which tell | of the violet's || birth, |
By the primrose stars || in the shadowy grass, ||
By the green leaves || opening || as I pass. ||

"From the streams and founts I have loosed the chain,
They are sweeping on to the silvery main,
They are flashing down from the mountain brows,
They are flinging spray o'er the forest-boughs,
They are bursting fresh from their sparry caves;
And the earth resounds with the joy of waves!"


2. "Then fancy || her magical pinions | spread wide, || And bade the young dreamer | in ecstasy || rise; || Now, far, far behind him || the green waters || glide, | And the cot of his forefathers || blesses || his eyes.


“The jessamine || clambers | in flower | o'er the thatch, | And the swallow || sings sweet || from her nest | in the wall;

All trembling with transport, || he raises the latch, |
And the voices of loved ones || reply to his call." ||

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"Every one is doubtful what course to take, one | but Cæsar! He || causes the banner || to be erected, || the charge to be sounded, the soldiers at a distance to be recalled, - all in a moment. He runs from place to




place; his whole frame || is in action; || his words, his his motions, || his gestures, || exhort his men to remember their former valor. || He draws them up, | and causes the signal to be given,—| all in a moment. He seizes a buckler | from one of the private men,- puts himself || at the head of his broken troops, - || darts into the thick || of the battle, || rescues || his legions, || and overthrows | the enemy!" |

'Grave' examples for 'slow' standard time.


"But where, I thought I, | is the crew? | Their struggle has long been over; they have gone down | amidst the roar of the tempest; their bones lie whitening | in the caverns of the deep. || Silence I oblivion I like the waves, || have closed over them; || and no one can tell || the story of their end.


What sighs || have been wafted after that ship! || What prayers offered up at the deserted fireside of home! || How often has the mistress, the wife, and the mother || pored over the daily news, || to catch some casual intelligence of this rover of the deep! || How has expectation || darkened | into anxiety, anxiety | into dread, and dread || into despair! Alas! || not one | memento | shall ever return for love || to cherish. || All that shall ever be known, | is, that she sailed from her port, || and was never || heard of ||


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'Grave' example for very slow time' and very long pauses.'

2. "It must be so. || Plato, || thou reasonest well! || Else whence this pleasing hope, || this fond desire, This longing after immortality?

Or whence this secret dread ||| and inward horror |||
Of falling into naught? Why | shrinks the soul
Back' or herself, and startles !! at destruction?

'Tis the Divinity ||| that stirs | within us: 11

'Tis Heaven || itself ||| that points out an hereafter, ||
And intimates | Eternity ||| to man. ||

Eternity! thou pleasing,-|| dreadful thought!" |||

'Pathetic' example for 'slow' standard time.

3. "Alas! || my noble boy! ||| that thou | shouldst die! |||
Thou, || who wert made | so beautifully fair! |||
That death || should settle | in thy glorious eye, |||
And leave his || stillness ||| in thy clustering hair! |||
How could he || mark thee |||| for the silent tomb, |||
My proud | boy, || Absalom!" ||||


In perfectly natural speech, the voice rises or falls on each anemphatic syllable through the interval of one tone only, but on the accented syllable of an emphatic word it rises or falls



This last is called the inflection or slide' of the voice. The slides' are thus a part of emphasis, and as they give the right direction and limit to 'force' and 'time,' they are the crowning part of perfect emphasis.

When contrasted ideas, of equal importance, are coupled, nothing but the contrasted slides can give the proper distinctive emphasis. The slides also furnish to elocution its most ample and varied lights and shades of emotional expres sion.


These slides are rising,' marked thus (/); or falling,' marked thus (\); or both of these blended, in the 'rising' circumflex and the falling' circumflex, marked respectively thus () and thus (^).


The rising' and 'falling' slides separate the great mass of ideas into two distinct classes; the first comprising all the subordinate, or incomplete, or as we prefer to name them, the negative ideas; the second comprising all the principal, or complete, or as we shall call them, the positive ideas.

The most important parts of what is spoken or written are those which affirm something positively, such as the facts and truths asserted, the principles, sentiments, and actions enjoined,

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