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tive of higher enjoyment. It is then, that everything has the charm of novelty; that curiosity and fancy are awake, and that the heart swells with the anticipations of future eminence and utility."
'Bold' examples for loud' standard force.
1. "Sir, we have done everything that could be done, to avert the storm which is now coming on. We have petitioned; we have REMONSTRATED; we have supplicated; we have prostrated ourselves before the throne, and have implored its interposition to ARREST the tyrannical hands of the ministry and parliament. Our petitions have been slighted; our remonstrances have produced ADDITIONAL violence and insult; our supplications have been disregarded; and we have been SPURNED, with contempt, from the foot of the throne !"
2. "My friends, our country must be FREE!
The ransom that redeems her! Now what wait we ?
3. "The gentleman, sir, has misconceived the spirit and tendency of Northern institutions. He is ignorant of Northern character. He has forgotten the history of his country. Preach insurrection to the Northern laborers? Who are the Northern laborers? The history of your country is their history. The renown of your country is their renown. The brightness of their doings is emblazoned on its every page.
Where is Concord, and Lexington, and Princeton, and Trenton, and Saratoga, and ker Hill, but in the North? And what, sir, has shed an imperishable renown on the names of those hallowed spots, but the blood, and the struggles, the high daring, and patriotism, and sublime courage of Northern laborers? The whole North is an everlasting monument of the freedom, virtue, intelligence, and indomitable independence of Northern laborers? Go, sir, go preach insurrection to men like these!"
4. "Our Fatherland is in danger! Citizens! to arms! to arms! Unless the whole Nation rise up, as one man, to defend itself, all the noble blood already shed is in vain; and, on the ground where the ashes of our ancestors repose, the Russian knout will rule over an enslaved People! We have nothing to rest our hopes upon, but a righteous God, and our own strength. And if we do not put forth that strength, God will also forsake us. Hungary's struggle is no longer our struggle alone. It is the struggle of popular freedom against tyranny. In the wake of our victory, will follow liberty to the Italians, Germans, Poles. With our fall, goes down the star of freedom over all."
Examples of the subdued or pathetic' kind for 'soft' standard force.
1. "Little Nell was dead. No sleep so beautiful and calm, so free from trace of pain, so fair to look upon. She seemed a creature FRESH from the hand of GoD, and waiting for the breath of life; not one who HAD lived and suffered DEATH Her couch was dressed with here and there some winter-berries and green leaves, gathered in a spot she had been used to favor. When I die, put near me something that has loved the LIGHT, and had the SKY above it always.' Those were her words."
"But Bozzaris FELL,
Bleeding at every vein.
"His few surviving comrades saw
His smile, when rang their proud HURRAH,
Then saw in death his eyelids close
Like flowers at set of sun."
I have known deeper wrongs. I, that speak to ye
4. "There is calm for those who weep,
"The storm that sweeps the wintry sky,
'Soft force' is also appropriate for the grave' kind of sentiments, and loud force' for the joyous' and 'noble,' and 'very loud force' for the 'impassioned;' but since other elements of the voice, such as 'time,' 'slides,' 'quality,' &c., have more characteristic prominence than force' in the finished expression of these classes, we shall be more likely to secure naturalness in the end, if we call attention first to the MOST characteristic elements.
'Time' has the same general and relative use as 'Force.'
PRINCIPLE FOR STANDARD TIME.
Determine the standard time' by the general spirit'
of the piece.
If the general spirit is unemotional,' the standard time is naturally moderate.'
If the general spirit is animated or joyous,' the standard time is 'fast.'
If the general spirit is grave,'' subdued or pathetic,' or 'noble,' the standard time is slow.'
PRINCIPLE FOR RELATIVE OR EMPHATIC TIME.
Taking the standard time' for the unemphatic words, give additional time to the emphatic ideas, according to their relative importance.
• Emphatic time' has two forms. 1. That of actual sound, or 'quantity. 2. That of rest, or 'pause.'
When an emphatic idea is found in a word whose accented syllable is long, give most of the emphatic time in long quantity, with only a short pause after the word. When the syllable to be emphasized is short, give to it only so much quantity as good taste in pronunciation will allow, and the residue of the required time in a pause after the word; thus holding the attention of the mind on the idea for the full time demanded by the principle.
When extraordinary emphasis of time is required, long pauses must be added to long quantity.
Thus far, 'time' harmonizes with force' in principle and practice. But 'time' is of additional value to us. It furnishes one of the primary requisites to all intelligible reading, viz:
The first and great use of 'pauses' is to separate the ideas from each other, so as to preserve distinctly to the eye on the written page, and to the ear in reading, the individuality of each, together with its relation to those before and after it.
Second, pauses are necessary to give the reader frequent opportunities for inhaling.
The grammatical pauses only imperfectly answer these purposes. But the additional elocutionary pauses which the spirit and sense may demand, are anticipated by our "Principle for relative or emphatic time," which makes pauses a natural part of expressive emphasis in reading.
PRINCIPLE FOR STANDARD PAUSES.
Determine the standard pause' by the 'general spirit' of the piece.
If the general spirit is unemotional,' the standard pause is moderate."
If the general spirit is animated or joyous,' the standard pause is short.'
If the general spirit is thetic,' the standard pause
PRINCIPLE FOR RELATIVE PAUSES.
Give the standard pause' after each distinct, unemphatic idea, and give additional time to the pauses after the emphatic and independent ideas, according to their relative importance and independence.
grave,' or 'subdued or pais long.'
As the standard time' for the movement and pauses is usually the same, let one perpendicular line | be the mark for both. Let any additional number of lines indicate additional time, or emphatic quantity' or 'pauses.' Let the half line indicate a time less than the standard. This time is needed in reading properly all parenthetical clauses,