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which he swallowed, and that he was able
to say he was an English officer. In
taking down the evidence, the fact of Mr.
Bird being the survivor was several times
repeated to Mr. Fletcher.

Mr. Bird was tall and thin, with only a
downy appearance of hairs on his face.
Major Baldwin was several inches shorter,
his countenance and figure distinctly indi-
cating middle age, his face of a dark com-
plexion, and covered with an abundant
dark beard and moustache and whiskers.
The contrast between two men of the same
race could hardly have been more striking.

On viewing the body at the time the inquest commenced, the wound in Mr. Bird's neck struck me as quite incompatible with the continuance of life, or the performance of the functions of speaking and swallowing. The severance of the spinal cord between the second and third cervical vertebræ must at once put an end to respiration. This opinion was fully confirmed by Dr. Woodward in his deposition.

The other wounds received by Mr. Bird were on the extremities, and though of the frightful nature usually inflicted by Japanese assassins, would not necessarily have been immediately fatal; whereas the wounds on Major Baldwin's face and back were much more severe and deadly, and though compatible with a short continuance of life hardly with a survivorship of three hours.

The inference from these premises (if they can be depended on) is very sad, viz. that the ruffians finding the prolongation of Mr. Bird's life rendered it possible that he might live to tell his story to some passing foreigner (for besides Mr. Wirgman's party at Fusisawa, there were three or four Dutch naval officers who arrived at Kamakura or Fusisawa before dark, and remained at a tea-house about a mile distant from the spot) finished the hours of the unhappy youth by the coup de grace on the neck. A statement was the same evening made to these last gentlemen that two foreigners had been killed, by one of their Japanese boys, who said it came from the landlord of the tea-house; that person on being interrogated denied having said so.

My own impression is that these gentlemen were attacked as they returned from visiting the great statue, before they reached the point where the great road in front of the Hajiman divides, that the horse of one gentleman carried him on to the point on the road towards the sea where the bushes were found sprinkled with blood, and that the body was thence removed to the spot were it was found by Lieutenant Wood and his party; where the other fell, I can form no conjecture.

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I have had the honour to place your hands the notes of the statements made yesterday and to-day by the Japanese witnesses brought to Yokohama from Kamakura, relative to the murder of Major Baldwin and Mr. Bird, of Her Majesty's 20th Regiment.



The evidence was taken yesterday presence of the Governor, Vice-Governor, an examining magistrate, and numerous staff of Japanese officers; the three cap tains of the 20th, who sat on the coroner's jury, and Messrs. Fletcher, Siebold and Satow, by whom the interpretation was conducted entirely to my satisfaction. After each statement had been made, it was read over in Japanese from notes, and its correctness acknowledged by the witness; but when on conclusion of the vivá voce translation of the first statement, I requested that the witness might sign it, the Governor objected to his being called on to do so before his own in. terpreters had an opportunity of translating it. To-day the procedure was in every respect similar, but the Governor was not present.

The general result of the evidence may be thus briefly stated as follows:

The unhappy gentlemen, after visiting the colossal statue of Budha, mounted to ride homewards, and were attacked on the same road at or near the little bridge where the hat and two pairs of Japanese clogs were found; that the horse of one Icarried him on to the point of the road leading towards the sea, about forty yards from the division of the three-fold road leading to the Hajiman; that the officer who survived until ten o'clock P.M. was beyond all question Lieutenant Bird, and that he and the body of Major Baldwin were removed to the court-yard of Yasiyemon's house, possibly for the accommo


dation of the village authorities, who found it more convenient to watch them in the neighbourhood of a house; that Mr. Bird spoke, swallowed, and moved his head, in a manner not compatible with the then existence of the wound in his neck, according to the description given by Dr. Woodward that the hat was recognized by the female seller of sweetmeats, who sat at the gate of the temple, as being that of one of two samurais who passed into the great temple, and immediately left it.

I pointed out to the examining officer that, supposing the attack upon these gentlemen not to have been seen by any actual witnesses, the wounded men must have been discovered by some one person or party in the first instance, and that no one had been produced as first giving the alarm. He admitted this, and said that they had been actively trying to discover who the person or persons were.

Also that the priests or officers of the great temple ought to be in a condition to give some account of the two samurais stated by the sweetmeat seller to have gone up to the shrine to pray.

The answer to this was an admission that such inquiries had not been made, and that they would at once be set on foot. I have, &c.,

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I have the honour to continue my report on the evidence taken yesterday and to-day with reference to the recent tragedy. Yesterday the Japanese authorities brought forward a young boy, aged eleven years, who has given the clearest and most circumstantial account as yet received of the details of the attack.

He was proceeding from his mother's house on the Muira road, to buy oil at a shop situated about seventy or eighty yards up the road leading to Daibuts. Before reaching the shop he was accosted by two samurais, who inquired about the path to Enoshima. He then purchased his oil, and was walking homewards; when near the tea-house of the Six Stone Images the same men ran rapidly past him. As he came in front of Kichingoro's house, at the division of the roads, he found these men sitting there, and was roughly warned to leave. It would appear that the boy made off and hid behind some trees in the neighbourhood, and there witnessed the first part of what took place.

The two British officers came riding slowly, one before the other, Mr. Bird being in front. He was attacked simultaneously by both Japanese, the one cutting and the other thrusting, and fell near a well on the further side of the main road. The horror of such a spectacle naturally induced the boy to take flight, and at this point his positive testimony ends.

I infer from this statement that the ruffians, satisfied that the first officer was sufficiently disabled to give no efficient assistance to his companion, at once attacked Major Baldwin as he came up, who probably fell from his horse about thirty yards down the road leading to the sea, the spot where the plentiful blood-traces spoken to at the inquest were discovered. Having finished Major Baldwin they returned to complete their work on Mr. Bird, who may then have recovered enough to fire the shot which was found vacant in the chamber of his revolver, and after doing so had his fingers cut off.

The evidence of the other two Japanese witnesses, taken on the 27th instant, simply served to trace the progress of the samurais to two stations on a bye-road leading to Yeddo, to which city, in the hope that its extent and population would afford their best means of concealment, such ruffians would naturally betake themselves.

The evidence taken to-day was confined to the two medical officers of the 20th Regiment, Drs. Woodward and Hyde, which was taken with the view of placing beyond doubt the character and extent of the wounds inflicted on the neck of Lieutenant Bird; and, in respect to their statements, I have to remark that they leave unqualified the description and painful inferences to which in my first despatch I felt it necessary to allude as resulting from the evidence of Dr. Woodward.

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of the betrayal of what they had previously said in confidential gossip, they obstinately denied all knowledge of the circumstances.

I did not fail to point out to the ViceGovernor the unsatisfactory character of the day's inquiry, and again pressed on him the production of such witnesses as would serve to complete the history of the murder.

The Vice-Governor replied that they would endeavour to do so; and went on to observe that the Japanese police, while admitting that the discovery of the details was a matter of real interest, considered them of much less importance now than the information which would lead to a discovery of the two samurais, of whose guilt there was no doubt. Statements of whence they came, where they were born, or whose service they had belonged to, were what they most required to give them a clue to their present movements.

One of the first acts of the Governor on receiving the report from Kamakura, before communicating with myself, had been to despatch a courier to Yeddo, to put the different guard-houses on the approaches to the metropolis on the alert. I have, &c.,



Sir R. Alcock to the Japanese Ministers for Foreign Affairs.

Yokohama, Nov. 22, 1864. Another murder has been added to the long series of assassinatious in open day, of which foreigners have been the victims since the signature of the treaties. This morning, about one o'clock, the Consul was roused from his bed to receive from the lips of the Governor of Kanagawa the report of an attack having been made upon two British officers of the 20th Regiment, in which one had been killed and the other grievously wounded, near the Temple of Kamakura.

Some hours later a party of mounted men, sent there by Colonel Browne, found the dead bodies of both officers under a mat shed by the side of the road, horribly gashed and mangled in the way familiar to the ruffians who fall unawares upon inoffensive foreigners in this country, and cut them down from behind with their two-handed swords.

I have seen the Governor of Kanagawa, and urged upon him the necessity of instant and energetic measures to secure the arrest of the murderers. And the ViceGovernor, who had been despatched to the scene of the outrage, has returned, inform

ing me that the head man of the temple, the head man of the neighbouring village, and the keepers of the adjoining tea-honse, have been brought here for examination.

So far, therefore, it would appear there has been no want of good-will or promptitude in the action of the local authorities. But I need hardly remind your Excellencies there is but one thing that can be really satisfactory, and that is the prompt arrest and punishment of the cowardly assassins, whoever they may be, or howsoever protected.

Hitherto, in all similar cases filling up the long and dismal list recorded against Japan, this has been the one thing wanting. It is to this fact we are mainly to attribute the perpetual recurrence of the same deeds of blood-the fact of assured immunity to whoever murders a foreigner. So long as this continues, so long will the lives of strangers be insecure, and the Government of the Tycoon incur fresh and increasing responsibilities towards foreign Powers. If the assassins who killed the French officer, Lieutenant Camus, had been discovered, convicted, and publicly executed, we should not now, I believe, have to deplore the untimely death of two British officers. No measures of precau tion or protection can avail to give security to life, so long as every ronin or twosworded ruffian in the country feels that of all the crimes open to him to commit there is none so sure of impunity as the murder of a foreigner.

Where, then, is this to end? Sooner or later, the Treaty Powers will undoubtedly feel under the necessity of demanding from the Government of Japan, whoever may be the depositaries of the governing power, better security for the lives of their subjects; such security, at least, as the punishment of those who take them by violence would afford. It is for the Tycoon's Government to anticipate this in vindication of their good faith, by doing now what has never yet been done, and bring the criminals to justice.

I have no doubt the Tycoon's Government deplores the frequent recurrence of these atrocious acts of violence against foreigners. I have as little doubt that they are the acts of men who are the enemies of the Tycoon, and who would willingly convulse the country with war both civil and foreign. But the ever-recurring escape of criminals butchering the subjects of foreign Powers in cold blood and without provocation, will prove more dangerous in the end to the Tycoon and the stability of his Government than the worst efforts of his enemies directed against himself. For these reasons, in addition to all others, I urge upon your

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or transgressing, but were barbarously murdered in cold blood at a place of ordinary resort, and on the public highway.

I thank your Excellency for the prompt communications had with the Government of this country, and hope against hope that justice may overtake the offenders.

I desire, and it is my duty, to record the death of these officers, and to request that their terrible fate may be brought with the least delay, to the consideration of Her Majesty's Government.

Your Excellency needs not to be reminded that this murder adds one more to the long list of victims who have suffered in this country, and that it is but the forerunner of future calamities, unless example and speedy retribution follows. I have, &c.,

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The year commenced with a very high state of the barometer, which reached the maximum at 10 P.M. on the 3rd-viz., 30-720in. reduced to sea level; it was also high on the 4th, 5th, 29th, and 30th, the mean for the whole month being 30-2in. reduced to sea level. No rain fell till the 10th, and only 0-7in. throughout the month. A severe frost occurred during the first nine days, the temperature being as low as 7-7 deg. on the 7th, and never rising above 25 deg. on the 6th. The cold on grass was within 1 deg. of zero on the 7th, within 4 deg. on the 6th, and within 5.8 deg. on the 8th. The greatest cold on the 22nd was never below 47-3 deg. and at 10 P.M. was 50-8 deg. The weather was very cloudy from the 8th to the 20th, and foggy on the 6th, 7th, 8th, 13th, 14th, and 18th. On the 2nd many meteors, on the 3rd both snow crystals and crystals of hail, which were most remarkable. On the 7th and 8th the rime on trees was 14 in. thick. A gale from S. on the 20th, and others on the 21st, 22nd, and 23rd; a W.S.W. gale on the 28th, and a rise of gin. in the barometer from 10 A.M. of the 28th to 10 A.M. of the 29th. Great wind changes on the 7th, 8th, 13th, 14th, 17th, 24th and 29th. Nineteen frosty nights.


A fall of in. in the barometer from 10 A.M. of the 11th to the same hour on the 12th, and a rise of in. from the morning of the 13th to that of the 14th. On the 2nd and 3rd 0.36in. of rain fell, on the 27th and 28th 0.2in., on the 29th 0-8in., and on the remaining 24 days only a tenth of an inch. The 9th and 10th severe, the greatest cold being 17.2 deg., and on the grass 117 deg. Twenty-one nights were frosty. The first three days were warm, and also from the 12th to the 16th, and the only considerable amounts of ozone were in those two periods. The 3rd, 4th, 5th, 8th, 9th, 17th, and 24th were almost cloudless; the 11th, 12th, 15th, 21st, and 22nd, and from the 25th to the end overcast. Great wind changes occurred on the 10th. Two gales occurred on the 1st, and two more on the 2nd: on the 4th snow, snow storms also on the 5th, 6th, and 7th; on the 10th snow crystals; 12th, a gale which lasted till the evening of the 13th, reaching a pressure of 244lbs. at 150 P.M. of the 13th; on 16th hail and snow storms, and on the 30th there was a flood on the Trent. Foggy on the 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, and 29th.


The barometer very low on the 6th, 7th, and 8th. Two inches of rain fell on the first 15 days, and only 0-3in. from the 16th to the end. There were 18 frosty nights. Much ozone till the 15th, and then very little; the sky exhibited an unbroken cloud till the evening of the 6th. Great wind changes on the 9th, 16th, 23rd, and 25th. Foggy on the 5th, and in the evening a gale; on the 6th aurora borealis, and zodiacal light very brilliant; Scilla Siberica in flower; on the 7th aurora borealis; snow on the 8th, 9th, and 10th; on the 8th the valleys flooded; gales on the 14th and 15th; on the 28th lightning in S.; on the 29th loud thunder; on the 30th three inches of snow; and on the 31st a gale with thunder. Narcissus minor and Viola odorata in full flower.


Barometer tolerably steady. No rain after the 16th; sharp frost on the 12th, 13th, 23rd, and 25th; eight frosty nights. Warm on the 4th, 9th to the 15th, and from the 18th to the end, reaching 72-3 deg. in the shade on the 20th. Much ozone on the 1st, 2nd, 6th, 8th, and 14th; densely overcast from the 3rd to the 10th, and almost cloudless on the 13th, 14th, and 19th to the 23rd. On the 1st a gale; 5th, heavy snow and great fall in temperature, being 224 deg. colder than the previous morning; on the 16th the swallow and lesser whitethroat arrived; 18th and 20th lunar halos; 21st, chestnut in leaf; 26th, pears and plums in blossom. Great wind changes on the 10th, 23rd, 25th, 28th, and 30th; gales on the 18th, 19th, 20th, and 21st.


Barometer steady. No rain after the 7th, except on the 20th and 30th. Sharp frosts occurred on the 1st, 24th, and 27th, and a slight frost on the 30th. The minimum temperature on the 2nd was 18.1 deg. higher than on the 1st; on the 27th the temperature fell to 24-9 deg. on the grass. From the 14th to the 20th the weather was remarkably hot, exceeding 80 deg. in shade on six days, and being as high as 89-3 deg. on the 19th, and 87-7 on the 18th, both days hotter than ever before known here, in May. The greatest heat in sunshine was 110 deg., and the mean temperature of the 24 hours on the 18th was 72.9 deg., and the thermometer was never below 56.2 deg. on the 19th. The sky was almost free from cloud on the 13th, 14th, 16th, 17th, and 18th. A gale of 11lbs. pressure occurred on the 2nd, and others on the 8th, 11th, 27th, and 29th. On the 1st the landrail arrived; on the

3rd and 4th, thunder; on 6th, apples in bloom; 6th and 7th, solar halos; 15th, many cockchafers, lilac and hawthorn in bloom; 17th, flycatcher arrived; 19th, much thunder; 20th, thunderstorm, with hail; 27th, a frost, which cut the potatoes and beans; 29th, the earthquake pendulum moved, at 11 50 P.M., and a shock was felt at Burton-on-Trent; 30th, 3 A.M., a hailstorm; at noon the earthquake pendulum was still oscillating.


Barometer steady, below 30in., except on the 19th and 20th. Although rain fell on 17 days, there were only six with any considerable amount; a quarter of an inch fell on the 23rd and 28th. Severe frosts occurred on the 1st and 2nd, the minimum temperature on the 1st falling to 30-5 deg., and on the grass to 23-3 deg.; the tempe rature never reached 80 deg. during the month. Considerable wind changes occurred on the 3rd and 9th; on the 1st there was ice at 7 A.M., and the damage to tender plants was great; 9th, thunderstorm; 10th, strawberries ripe; 11th, vast number of ghost moths, thunder; 12th, curious solar phenomenon; 18th, gale; 23rd, thunder.



Barometer tolerably steady at 29-8in. Rain fell on 2nd and 3rd, after which none till the 22nd, and then only four days' rain to the end of the month; the whole month only yielded half an inch of rain. No frost occurred in July, The tempera ture was high from the 14th to the 21st, being 84.3 deg. on the 17th, 85-2 deg. on the 19th, and 84 deg. on the 20th; was again hot from the 27th to the 30th reaching 80-6 deg. on the 30th. The mean temperature was above 70 deg. on the 19th and 20th. The sky very from cloud on the 14th, 15th, 18th, 20th, 24th, and 29th. Great wind changes occurred on the 6th, 7th, 14th, 17th, 18th, 25th, and 27th; 28th, many thunderclouds.



Barometer steady, with a rapid rise on the morning of the 11th, reaching above 30.5 in., reduced to sea level, on the morn ing of the 15th, after which falling to 29-7in. by the morning of the 19th. No rain fell except on the 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 21st, 23rd, 28th, and 29th; 0.2in. fell on the 9th, above half an inch on the 21st, and above a quarter of an inch on the 28th, the amount on other days was scarcely measurable. Much ozone on the 1st, 15th, and 17th. Gales on the 2nd, 8th, 10th, 23rd, 24th, 30th, and 31st. Frosts occurred on the 22nd, 26th, and 27th, and in the valley on the 12th, 18th,

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