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now be difficult for any European to allege that the natives are in the main right in their answers to the allegations made against them regarding the Waitara purchase, without raising a feeling of violent hostility in the minds of many people. Leaving apart, however, those far higher considerations which influence your Grace, I know that we are both to stand at the bar of history, when our conduct to the native race of this country will be judged by impartial historians, and that it is our duty to set a good example for all time in such a most important affair. I ought, therefore, to advise your Grace, without thinking of the personal consequences which may result to myself, that my settled conviction is, that the natives are in the main right in their allegations regarding the Waitara purchase, and that it ought not to be gone on with. I have given the same opinion to my responsible advisers, as your Grace will find from one of the enclosures to this despatch. I hope they may adopt my opinion and act speedily upon it."

The Duke of Newcastle expressed his opinion upon the question of the original purchase of the land at Waitara, in a despatch addressed to Sir George Grey, on the 25th of August, 1863, in which he said:

"If it be true that a number of families were residing upon and cultivating portions of the land offered for sale (variously estimated at from 10 to 120 acres out of the 980 acres which formed the 'Block'), I have no doubt but that Governor Gore Browne and his Ministers, upon discovering the fact, would have carefully reserved and respected such portions, in accordance with the invariable practice of the New Zealand Government, or even have refused to have any further dealing with parties who, like Teira, and the other sellers, had been guilty of concealing from the Governor so important a circumstance. If again they had been aware that W. King had established his residence on the south bank of the Waitara in virtue of a general tribal arrangement for purposes of defence, this fact might have formed an important element in their decision as to whether the purchase could properly and safely be proceeded with. On the whole, I agree with you that your predecessor, if he had been in possession of these facts, would not have committed himself to the purchase, and I am clearly of opinion that he would not have been justified in doing The information, indeed, which you now supply converts into a certainty the doubts which I expressed in my despatch of November 27, 1860, and upon other occasions, as to the prudence of the policy pursued by Governor Browne and his Ministers, with an evident want of sufficient knowledge of the case, as well as of foresight of the consequences, though with fair and upright intentions; while it lessens the serious difficulty of abandoning a publicly declared determination in the face of armed opposition.


"I have said so much as to the propriety and prudence of the Waitara purchase. But I must add, on the other hand, that my view of the justice of exerting military force against W. King and

his allies remains unchanged. That chief's conduct, from first to last, still seems to me to have been inconsistent with any degree of submission to the Queen's sovereignty over New Zealand."

Sir George Grey issued, in the month of May, 1863, a proclamation stating that circumstances connected with the purchase of a tract of land at the Waitara river in 1859, unknown to the Government at the time of the sale, had lately transpired, which made it advisable that it should not be proceeded with, and declaring that the purchase was abandoned, and all claim to it on the part of the Government was thenceforth renounced.

But the natives were in arms and would not submit. The war therefore went on, and General Cameron attacked with success their fortified posts on the Katikaia river, in June 1863. To give some idea of the kind of conflict in which we were engaged, we select the following passage from the report of Colonel Warre, who captured one of the pahs.

"For a few minutes the fire was returned, but finding it of no avail against an almost invisible enemy concealed in rifle pits, the whole rushed forwards, and vied with each other in entering the position, jumping over the rifle pits, from which they met with a most determined opposition. The Maories fighting desperately to the last, a hand to hand combat ensued, which was only terminated by the wharres catching fire, and burning many of the Maori defenders in the ruins. Twenty-one Maories were taken out of the rifle pits killed, three are known to have been burned in the smaller wharre, and four in the larger, and it is believed that several others perished in the flames, which, with the stench arising from the consuming flesh, prevented accurate information being obtained. One Maori was picked up dead on the road, and many more, wounded, escaped, and were seen to take refuge and hide themselves in the fern and bush. Thus in the short space of one hour twenty-two Maories killed were brought away in carts, as many more were wounded, and destroyed in the burning wharres, and a complete victory gained over a savage enemy by the bayonet alone, not over five rounds of ammunition per man having been expended in the encounter."

But our troops were not always so fortunate. In the beginning of April this year, during an attack made by them on an intrenched position of the Maories at Orakau, the siege lasted two days, and although the place was then taken we had 16 men killed and 52 wounded. And in another engagement at the end of the same month, when a combined attack was made by the British naval and military forces upon a native intrenchment at Tauranga, our troops were actually repulsed, with a loss of 10 officers killed and 4 wounded, and 25 privates killed and 72 wounded-making a total of 111 killed and wounded.

In his despatch, General Cameron says:

"The assaulting column, protected by the nature of the ground, gained the breach with little loss, and effected an entrance into

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the main body of the work, when a fierce conflict ensued, in which the natives fought with the greatest desperation. LieutenantColonel Booth and Commander Hay, who led into the work, fell mortally wounded. Captain Hamilton was shot dead on the top of the parapet while in the act of encouraging his men to advance, and in a few minutes almost every officer of the column was either killed or wounded. Up to this moment the men, so nobly led by their officers, fought gallantly, and appeared to have carried the position, when they suddenly gave way and fell back from the work to the nearest covert.

"This repulse I am at a loss to explain otherwise than by attributing it to the confusion caused among the men by the intricate nature of the interior defences, and the sudden fall of so many of their officers."

In the following night however the natives abandoned the pah, and it was taken possession of by the British. On the 21st of June, the Maories were attacked by our men as they were intrenching themselves at Tauranga, and they were soon defeated. The report of Colonel Greer, the officer in immediate command, says:

"For a few minutes the Maories fought desperately, and then were utterly routed. Sixty-eight were killed in the rifle pits.

"The position was very favourable for their retreat, otherwise few could have escaped. The defence force pursued them several miles, but could not get well at them, owing to the deep ravines with which the country is every where intersected."

The natives of Tauranga at last yielded, and placed their lands unconditionally at the disposal of the Governor, who on the 6th of August issued an address to them in which he said :

"At present I am not acquainted with the boundaries or extent of your lands, or with the claims of individuals or tribes. What I shall therefore do is this: I shall order that settlements shall at once be assigned to you as far as possible in such localities as you may select, which shall be secured by the Crown grants to yourselves and your children. When this has been done, and the boundaries of your lands have been ascertained, I will inform you in what manner the residue of your lands will be dealt with; but as it is right in some measure to mark our sense of the honourable manner in which you conducted hostilities, neither robbing nor murdering, but respecting the wounded, I promise you that in the ultimate settlement of your lands, the amount taken shall not exceed one-fourth of the whole land. And in order that you may, without delay, again be placed in a position which will enable you to maintain yourselves, as soon as your future location has been decided, seed potatoes and the means of settling on your lands will be given you."

The Governor was extremely anxious, as his conduct showed, to put an end to the struggle by concessions to the natives; but his Ministers disagreed with the policy which he was ready to adopt, and in the result they all resigned office at the end of

September. The Governor had incurred some obloquy in the colony, owing to the extraordinary escape, on the night of the 10th of September, of 200 rebels, prisoners of war, who had been placed for safe custody in an island called Kawan, to the north of Auckland harbour, the private property of His Excellency, but over whom no guard had been posted. Sir George Grey and his Ministers mutually incriminated each other as responsible for the evasion of these natives.

Although the Tauranga Maories had submitted, the Waikato and Taranaki natives still held out, and the war with them continued to smoulder on during the remainder of the year.



Inaction of the Federal and Confederate armies in the early part of the year-Fort Pillow and Plymouth taken by the Confederates-General Meade's Address to his troops-Operations of the army of the Potomac and the Army of Virginia before Richmond-Obstinate battles-General Grant besieges Petersburg-General Sheridan sent to the Shenandoah Valley-Naval combat off Cherbourg and destruction of the Confederate cruiser "Alabama"-Financial position of the North-Mr. Stuart's Report-Report of the Secretary of the Confederate Treasury-Resignation of Mr. Chase-Confederate raid into Maryland-State of Richmond - Operations in Tennessee and Georgia-Abortive attempt by Peace Commissioners to put a stop to the war-Federal attempt to take Petersburg by storm defeated-Naval expedition of the Federals against Mobile-Fall of Atlanta-Military operations in the Shenandoah Valley.

NOTHING Occurred in the first three months of the present year in either the Federal or the Confederate States to require historical notice. Each of the hostile Powers was preparing for the struggle which would be renewed in the spring, and every effort was made on both sides to augment their military forces and place them in a state of efficiency for the approaching campaign.

Early in April the Confederate General Forrest captured Fort Pillow, a strong position situated on a high bluff of the Mississippi, above Memphis. The defence was gallantly conducted and the struggle was of a severe character. General Forrest did not, however, attempt to hold the place, but proceeded to demolish it, throwing the heavy guns into the river.

In North Carolina, Plymouth was taken by the Confederates under General Hoke, on the 17th of April, when not only the town, but the four surrounding forts and 2500 prisoners fell into

their hands.

General Meade, who commanded the Federal army of the Potomac, opened the spring campaign this year by an address to his soldiers dated May 4. He said:

"Soldiers,-Again you are called upon to advance on the enemies of your country. The time and the occasion are deemed opportune by your Commanding-General to address you a few words of confidence and caution. You have been re-organized, strengthened, and fully equipped in every respect. You form part of the several armies of your country-the whole under the direction of an able and distinguished General, who enjoys the confidence of the Government, the people, and the army. Your movement being in co-operation with others, it is of the utmost importance that no effort should be left unspared to make it successful.

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