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and called the "Culpepper Minute Men," had a banner with a rattle-snake on it, and the mottoes, "Don't tread on me," and "Liberty or death," to gether with their name. Morgan's celebrated riflemen, called the "Morgan Rifles," not only had a peculiar uniform, but a flag of their own, on which was inscribed, "XI. Virginia Regiment," and the words, "Morgan's Rifle Corps." On it was also the date, 1776, surrounded by a wreath of laurel. Wherever this banner floated, the soldiers knew that deadly work was being done.
When the gallant Pulaski was raising a body of cavalry, in Baltimore, the nuns of Bethlehem sent him a banner of crimson silk, with emblems on it, wrought by their own hands. That of Washington's Life Guard was made of white silk, with various devices upon it, and the motto, "Conquer or die."
It doubtless always will be customary in this country, during a war, for different regiments to have flags presented to them with various devices upon them. It was so during the recent war, but as the stars and stripes supplant them all, so in our revolutionary struggle, the "Great Union Flag," which was raised in Cambridge, took the place of all others and became the flag of the American army.
But in 1777, Congress, on the 19th day of June, passed the following resolution: "Resolved, That
the flag of the thirteen United States be thirteeni stripes, alternate red and white, that the union be thirteen stars, white, in a blue field, representing a new constellation." A constellation, however, could not well be represented on a flag, and so it was changed into a circle of stars, to represent harmony and union. Red is supposed to represent courage, white, integrity of purpose, and blue, steadfastness, love, and faith. This flag, however, was not used till the following autumn, and waved first over the memorable battle field of Saratoga.
Thus our flag was born, which to-day is known, respected, and feared round the entire globe. In 1794 it received a slight modification, evidently growing out of the intention at that time of Congress to add a new stripe with every additional State that came into the Union, for it passed that year the following resolution: "Resolved, That from and after the 1st day of May, Anno Domini 1795, the flag of the United States be fifteen stripes, alternate red and white. That the union be fifteen stars, white, in a blue field." In 1818, it was by another resolution of Congress, changed back into thirteen stripes, with twenty-one stars, in which it was provided that a new star should be added to the union on the admission of each new State. That resolution has never been rescinded, till now thirty-six stars blaze on our
banner. The symbol of our nationality, the record of our glory, it has become dear to the heart of the people. On the sea and on the land its history has been one to swell the heart with pride. The most 'beautiful flag in the world in its appearance, it is stained by no disgrace, for it has triumphed in every struggle. Through three wars it bore us on to victory, and in this last terrible struggle against treason, though baptized in the blood of its own children, not a star has been effaced, and it still waves over a united nation.
Whenever the "Star-Spangled Banner" is sung, the spontaneous outburst of the vast masses, as the chorus is reached, shows what a hold that flag has on the popular heart. It not only represents our nationality, but it is the people's flag. It led them on to freedom-it does something more than appeal to their pride as a symbol of national greatness-it appeals to their affections as a friend of their dearest rights. We cannot better close this short history of our flag than by appending the following stirring poem of Drake:
WHEN freedom from her mountain height
She tore the azure robes of night,
She mingled with its gorgeous dyes
Majestic monarch of the cloud
Who rear'st aloft thy regal form, To hear the tempest trumping loud And see the lightning lances driven,
When strive the warriors of the storm And rolls the thunder drum of heaven, Child of the sun! to thee 'tis given
To guard the banner of the free;
Flag of the brave! thy folds shall fly, The sign of hope and triumph high, When speaks the signal trumpet tone, And the long line comes gleaming on, (Ere yet the life-blood, warm and wet, Hath dimmed the glittering bayonet,) Each soldier's eye shall brightly turn To where thy sky-born giories burn,
And, as his springing steps advance,
Catch war and vengeance from the glance;
And cowering foes shall shrink beneath
That lovely messenger of death.
Flag of the seas! on ocean wave
Each dying wanderer of the sea,
Flag of the free, heart's hope and home!
Thy stars have lit the welkin dome,
And all thy hues were born in heaven! Forever float that standard sheet!
Where breathes the foe but falls before us! With Freedom's soil beneath our feet,
And Freedom's banner streaming o'er us?