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Such is the story in brief of the "original thirteen" vessels. Not one survived in the possession of the Colonies to the close of the war. About ten vessels of a force ranging from 24 guns down to 10, and two even smaller, were purchased and fitted out. as cruisers, while the "thirteen" were building.
The navy of the Revolution was disbanded at the close of the war; the officers gave up their commissions; the few public vessels that remained were sold. Several of the States maintained small cruisers, with the consent of Congress. During the last year or two of the war, it had dwindled almost to nothing. This was in part due to the fact that its place was taken by the French. The assertion of sovereignty on the seas was not yet thought of, while independence on the land was not secured.
The most remarkable naval engagement of the Revolution was fought off the coast of Scotland on the evening of Sept. 23d, 1779, between the Bon Homme Richard, of 40 guns, commanded by Paul Jones, and the Serapis, a British frigate of 44 guns, under Capt. Pearson. The Serapis surrendered with a loss of 150. The Richard lost 300 in killed and wounded, and while sinking the crew was transferred to the Serapis.-Cooper's Naval History of U. S.
SYNOPSIS OF LAWS PERTAINING TO SLAVERY.
Ordinances of 1787; pertained to the government of the territory of the U. S., northwest of the Ohio River and prohibited slavery in said territory, and provided for the return of fugitives, to those claim. ing their service.
Fugitive Slave Bill of 1793; provided for the return of fugitives from justice and persons escaping from the service of their masters, by requisition of the Governor of the State from whence they escaped, on the Governor of the State in which they may be found; and inflicts a penalty of a fine and imprisonment for harboring, concealing or aiding in their escape.
The Missouri Compromise Act of 1820; authorized the people of the Missouri Territory to organize a State Government, on an equal footing with the original States, and prohibited slavery in certain territories.
Fugitive Slave Bill of 1850; was amendatory of the law of 1793, and made it obligatory upon any justice of the peace, magistrate, marshal or deputy marshal, when called upon to enforce the law of 1793, under a penalty of $1000, and commanded all good citizens to aid and assist in the prompt execution of this law, whenever their services were required.
The Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1857; upon the organization of those two territories, left it free for the people of every territory on becoming a State to adopt or reject slavery.
The Dred Scott Decision.-See page 209.
Emancipation Proclamation.-See page 353.
GEORGE WASHINGTON.-The ancestors of George Washington emigrated from England to Virginia, in 1657, and settled in Westmoreland County, on the banks of the Potomac. His father's name was Augustine, and he is said to have been a wealthy planter in the Old Dominion. He diel April, 1743, leaving large possessions to be distributed among his children.
The maiden name of Washington's mother was Mary Ball, a lady of refined taste and noble character.
Washington was born on the 22d of February, 1732. His early education was acquired under the immediate inspection of his devoted mother. and such instructors as she saw fit to employ. At the age of sixteen he had completed
his studies, and was eager to enter upon a career of activity and usefulness.
He would probably have been sent to England to complete his education, had his father lived; for it was customary among wealthy planters of the South to send their son to Europe for this purpose.
Had this been done, it might possibly have changed Washington's whole career, and even seriously affected the destiny of the American nation.
In his boyhood he was distinguished for his ardent love of military life; and when only nineteen years of age, he was placed over a militia district, with the rank of major. His subsequent military career was eventful and thrilling in its character. In 1759 he was united in marriage to Mrs. Martha Custis, an accomplished lady of Welsh descent. At about this time, he was elected a member of the House of Burgesses, and evinced rare judgment and fidelity in the discharge of his duties. The second Continental Congress elected him Commander-in-Chief of the American Army. and he accepted the solemn trust with all the modesty and dignity of his great nature.
Congress had already fixed the pay of the Commander-iuChief at $6000 a year; but, in accepting the position, Washington showed that he was uninfluenced by mercenary motives. He scorned the idea of making the position minister to his personal emolument. He distinctly assured the Congress that he would accept no remuneration, and would only ask that the expenses actually incurred in the service should be paid. "I do not wish." said he, "to make any profit out