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staved against Rocks; and many Times were obliged all Hands to get out and remain in the Water Half an Hour or more, getting over the Shoals.

23d. . . . The Horses grew less able to travel every Day; the Cold increased very fast; and the Roads were becoming much worse by a deep Snow continually freezing. Therefore as I was uneasy to get back, to make Report of my Proceedings to his Honour the Governor, I determined to prosecute my Journey the nearest Way through the Woods, on Foot. . . . I took my necessary Papers; pulled off my Cloaths; and tied myself up in a Match Coat. Then with Gun in Hand and Pack at my Back, in which were my Papers and Provisions, I set out with Mr. Gist, fitted in the same manner.




The Day following we fell in with a Party of French Indians, who had lain in wait for us. One of them fired at Mr. Gist or me, not 15 steps off, but fortunately missed. . . . The next day we got to the River. . . . We expected to have found the River frozen, but it was not, only about 50 yards from each Shore. There was no way for getting over but on a Raft. Which we set about with but one poor Hatchet and finished just after Sun-setting. Before we were half way over we were jammed in the Ice in such a Manner that we expected every moment our Raft to sink and ourselves to perish. I put out my setting pole to try to stop the Raft that the Ice might pass by; when the Rapidity of the Stream threw it with so much Violence against the Pole that it jerked me out into Ten Feet Water: but I fortunately saved myself by catching hold of one of the Raft Logs. . . . The Cold was so extremely severe that Mr. Gist had all his Fingers and some of his Toes frozen.


.. Arrived at Mr. Gist's at Monongahela the 2d (Jan.), where I bought a Horse, Saddle, etc. The 6th we met 17 Horses loaded with Materials and Stores, for a Fort at the Forks of the Ohio, and the Day after some Families going out to settle. This Day we arrived at Will's Creek, after as fatiguing a Journey as it is possible to conceive, rendered so by excessive bad Weather. . . .

29. The fall

of Quebec, Septem

ber 13, 1759


Arrived in Williamsburgh the 16th; when I waited upon his Honour the Governor with the Letter I had brought from the French Commandant1; and to give an Account of the Success of my Proceedings.

James Wolfe's victory on the Plains of Abraham was the decisive blow in the struggle between England and France for mastery in North America. The following account of the battle is taken from the "Historical Journal" of Captain John Knox of Wolfe's army. The Journal was published in London in 1769, but, according to the author's statement in the preface, "was written mostly at the time, and finished almost as soon as the events it contains."

Thursday, September 13, 1759

Before day-break this morning we made a descent upon the north shore, about a quarter of a mile to the eastward of Sillery; and the light troops were fortunately, by the rapidity of the current, carried down lower, between us and Cape Diamond; we had in this debarkation thirty flat-bottomed boats, containing about sixteen hundred men. . . . The chain of centries [sentries] which the enemy had posted along the summit of the heights galled us a little and picked off several men and some Officers before our light infantry got up to dislodge them. This grand enterprise was conducted and executed with great good order and discretion; as fast as we landed the boats put off for reinforcements, and the troops formed with much regularity: the General [Wolfe] with Brigadiers Moncton and Murray were a-shore with the first division. We lost no time here but clambered up one of the steepest precipices that can be conceived,

1 This letter, called in the Pennsylvania Archives (ii, 238) "a haughty answer," determined Dinwiddie to raise forces to send to the Ohio. Washington was given charge of one of the companies, with instructions to hasten to finish "the Fort which I expect is there already begun by the Ohio Company" (see Journal above, ad fin.). It was the clash of this little force of Washington's with Jumonville's men at Great Meadow that opened the Seven Years' War (see Muzzey, An American History, p. 83).

being almost a perpendicular and of an incredible height. As soon as we gained the summit all was quiet, and not a shot was heard. . . . It was by this time clear day-light. Here we formed again, the river and the south country in our rear, our right extending to the town, our left to Sillery, and halted a few minutes. ... We then faced to the right and marched towards the town by files till we came to the plains of Abraham; an even piece of ground which Mr. Wolfe had made choice of while we stood forming upon the hill. Weather showery. About six o'clock the enemy first made their appearance upon the heights, between us and the town; whereon we halted, and wheeled to the right, thereby forming the line of battle. . . .

About ten o'clock the enemy began to advance briskly in three columns, with loud shouts and recovered arms, two of them inclining to the left of our army, and the third towards our right, fireing obliquely at the two extremities of our line from the distance of one hundred and thirty ———, until they came within forty yards; which our troops withstood with the greatest intrepidity and firmness, still reserving their fire, and paying the strictest obedience to their Officers, this uncommon steadiness, together with the havoc which the grapeshot from our field pieces made among them, threw them into some disorder, and was most critically maintained by a well-timed, regular, and heavy discharge of our small arms, such as they could no longer oppose; hereupon they gave way, and fled with precipitation, so that by the time the cloud of smoke was vanished, our men were again loaded, and . . . pursued them almost to the gates of the town, and the bridge over the little river, redoubling our fire with great eagerness, making many Officers and men prisoners. (The weather cleared up with a comfortably warm sun-shine.) . . .

Our joy at this success is inexpressibly damped by the loss we thus sustained of one of the greatest heroes which this or any other age can boast of, - GENERAL James Wolfe, who received his mortal wound, as he was exerting himself at the head of the grenadiers of Louisbourg; and Brigadier Monckton was unfortunately wounded . . . at much the same time. . . .

The Officers who are prisoners say that Quebec will surrender in a few days; some deserters who came out to us this

evening agree in that opinion, and inform us that the Sieur de Montcalm is dying in great agony of a wound he received today in their retreat. Thus has our late renowned Commander, by his superior eminence in the art of war, and a most judicious coup d'état, made a conquest of this fertile, healthy, and hitherto formidable country, with a handful of troops only, in spite of the political schemes and most vigorous efforts, of the famous Montcalm . . . at the head of an army considerably more numerous. My pen is too feeble to draw the character of this British Achilles; but the same may with justice be said of him as was said of Henry IV of France. He was possessed of courage, humanity, clemency, generosity, affability, and politeness. . . .

"When the matter match'd his mighty mind
Up rose the Hero: on his piercing eye
Sat observation, on each glance of thought
Decision followed, as the thunderbolt

Pursues the flash."

The following letter from General Monckton acquainting Pitt with the result of the battle, and the Articles of Capitulation of the fortress of Quebec are taken from "Natural and Civil History of the French Dominion in America," by Thos. Jeffreys, "Geographer to the Prince of Wales." It was printed at Charing Cross, London, 1760.


I have the pleasure to acquaint you, that, on the 13th instant, his majesty's troops gained a very signal victory over the French, a little above the town of Quebec. Gen. Wolfe, exerting himself on the right of our line, received a wound pretty early, of which he died soon after, and I had myself the great misfortune of receiving one in my right breast by a ball, that went through part of my lungs (and which has been cut out under the blade bone of my shoulder) just as the French were giving way, which

obliged me to quit the field. I have therefore, Sir, desired Gen. Townshend, who now commands the troops before the town (and of which I am in hopes he will be soon in possession) to acquaint you with the particulars of that day, and of the operations carrying on, I have the honor to be, &c.

Rob. Monckton



Art. I. ... The garrison of the town, composed of land forces, marines, and sailors, shall march out with their arms and baggage, drums beating, lighted matches, with two pieces of cannon, and twelve rounds, and shall be embarked as conveniently as possible, in order to be landed at the first port in France.

Art. II. That the inhabitants shall be maintained in possession of their houses, goods, effects, and privileges.

Art. III. That the said inhabitants shall not be molested on account of their having borne arms for the defence of the town, as they were forced to it, and as it is customary for the inhabitants of the colonies of both crowns to serve as militia. . . .

Art. VI. That the exercise of the Catholic Apostolic and Roman religion shall be preserved, and that safe-guards shall be granted to the houses of the clergy, and to the monasteries, particularly to the Bishop of Quebec . . . until the possession of Canada shall have been decided by a treaty between their most Christian and Britannic Majesties.

Art. VII. That the artillery and warlike stores shall be delivered up bona fide, and an inventory taken thereof. . . .

Art. X. That the commander of the city of Quebec shall be permitted to send advice to the Marquis de Vaudreuil, governor general, of the reduction of the town; as also that this general shall be allowed to write to the French ministry to inform them thereof. . . .

duplicates signed at the Camp before Quebec

Sepr. 18, 1759

C. Saunders, G. Townshend, De Ramesay

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