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A.
Africa and Africans....

25
Annual Report (forty-fifth) of the
Am. Col. Society

33
Foreign relations.

34
Recaptured Africans...... 35
Commercial and agricul-

tural industry.... 36
Liberia college...

38
Emigration....

39
Interior settlements sug-
gested

40
Missions, recognition of
Liberia

41
Conclusion....

44
Meeting of the society... 46
Address of Mr. Latrobe,

the President .......... 46, 53
Of Rev. Dr. Cyrus Ma-

23

B.
British settlements in western

Africa, African explo-

rations.................. 168, 170
Batoka country, description of... 257
Barth's description of society in

Northern and Central Af-
rica

1-15

C.
Catalogue of Liberian articles at

London exhibition,353, 355
Crummell, Rev. Alexander........ 127
Church, Dutch in South Africa..
Colonization, benevolence and

son

.53, 56

Of Dr. Pinney and Mr.
Johnson...

57
Vice Presidents.... 58
African Colonization.........

25
The cause of....... 179
African slave trade, Lord Pal-

merston's speech.... 123, 124

Slaver, capture of....... 125
Ashmun's Institute........

220
Annual Meeting and Report of

Pennsylvania Society.... 365
American Mission among the
Copts..p......

372

views of great men
on message of the
President........ 103, 110

D.
Directors, meeting of the board
of....

65
Extracts from proceed-

ings of delegates..... 65, 66
Committees.... ..... 66, 67
Rev. John Orcutt's re-

port. ........................ 68, 69
Rev. Franklin Butler's

report ......
Reports of standing com-

mittee on agencies... 71, 72
On foreign relations...... 72
On auxiliary societies.... 73
On emigration....

74
Dr. Hall's report........ 76, 77

69, 71

man.....

...... 381

. 24, 27

193,

........

D.

I.
Directors. Officers appointed ...... 81 Intelligence
Vote of thanks to the

by a colored

WO-
President and Sec'ry.. 82

. 188, 191
Destruction of a church and mis-

Death of General
sion premises in West

Mitchell ...... 378
Africa ......

22

Gospel in Abys-
Discovery of Dr. Baikie....

22
sinia.

379
Death of Bishop. Meade .......... 125

Contrabands.....
Hon. Thos. S. Williams, 126

African Missionary 379
Dr. Bethune..

188

Departure of Mis.
Dr. Livingston on the Death of

sionaries...

380
his Wife ...... 369

L.
E.

Liberia, visit to Harrisburg and
Executive committee, proceed-

Mount Coffee
ings of...
. 221, 222
Recognition of.....

26
Emigrants, list of, in the Bark

Latest from ........

59
Justina ..........

219

Independence of.............. 111
Expedition for May....

127
From....

....117,

119
F.

On the Republic of, by
From Liberia ......

374
Ralston......

205
G.

Its products and resour-
Good news from Madagascar..... 117

ces..

.247-253
Goree ..

116

Recognized independence
I.

of ....

219
Inaugural address of President

Power and influence of..... 119
Benson .......

..97, 102

Letter from Rev. John Seys...... 60
Intelligence, a want of the hour

Hon D. B. War-
--Conviction of a

ner ......... 16, 118, 245
slaver-Liberian

Rev. E. W. Blyden... 119
success —recogoit'n

President Benson,
no representation,

Ex-President Rob-
the Niger — Bark

erts,

Rev. John
Greyhound for Li-

Seys......... ...... 285, 287
beria-Liberia and

President Benson.... 316
Hayti–Mr. Pierce on

Benson, Stephen A,
Port Royal..........61, 64

President........... 16, 318
Missionaryintelligence

Livingstone expedition....... 22
from the Church at

M.
Sinop-Scholars at
Settro Kroo-Death Missions, Presbyterian Board of,
of Rev. Mr Loomis

at Gaboon........

17
of Corisco-Deaths--

Zulee.......

17
A plot against the

Presbyterian, to Africa... 262
people of Cape Pal-

African, journey in-
mas—Emancipation

land.

.18, 21
in the West Indies

Episcopal, at Cape Pal-
Five thousand con-

217
trabands at Fortress

Methodist, Liberia........ 218
Monroe............... 91, 96 Message of President Benson of
The affair between Li-

Liberia...............
beria and Spain set-

Memorial of the American Colo-
tled-Death of Rev.

nization Society to
Dr. Bethune-Arri-

Congress........
yal of President Ben- Mr. Ralston in regard to Presi-
son in London-Li-

dent Benson.......... 382
on fight-Free ne-

N.
groes--West African Notice of works of Rev. Alexan-
discovery – Legacy

der Crummell and Rev.
of 1200 dollars left

Edward W. Blyden......... 362

mas....

.. 84, 91

.. 29, 31

287403

.15, 16

coln,

N.

S.
New Court for the Abolition of Sudden loss of life in Liberia..... 17

the Slave Trade......... 380 Slave trade treaty ........... 173, 179
0.

Papers A and B President's
Outrage, the Spanish attack, Li-

proclamation ......... 208, 216
berian letters concern- Society, New York State Coloni-
ing....

zation, 13th anniversa-
Our free people of Color........... 359

ry.

.181, 183
P.

New Hampshire, meeting
Palaverat Cape Palmas........ 121, 123

of.........

.222, 223
Plumer......

284

Memorial of................. 29, 31
Proclamation of President Lin-

Annual report of.... ..... 33
March 6,
Meeting of...

46
1862 .............. 108, 109 State Societies of Maine and New
President Lincoln,

Hampshire

222
19th May........179, 181 Report of Massachusetts....... 232
Phillips, death of Micajah, the Annual meeting of Maine...... 244
slave of....

127 Meeting of, New Hampshire... 273
R.

Meeting of Connecticut Colo-
Royal Geographical Society, ad-

nization Society ................ 286
dress to it by Mr. Roder- Seward on fugitive slaves in
ick Impry Murchison..161, 168

Washington............ 25, 26
Region, delightful................. 26, 27 Sierra Leone...

121
Report on natural productions of Simon, Uncle, the Missionary.... 28

the Shire and Lower Slave trade-
Zambesi valleys, by John Slaver, reported capture of........ 222
Kirk.....

..225—232 Sailing of the M.C. Stevens, with
Annual of the Mass. Col-

list of emigrants............. 371
onization Society..232—244 Slave Trade from New York..... 373
Of Maine Colonization So-

V.
ciety

244

Vermont Colonization Society
Review of the Hand of God with

Annual Meeting.......... 368
the Black Race—the 6th
article of the October No.

W.
of the Princeton Reper- Williams, Hon. Thos. S., tribute
tory....
..352, 359

to the memory of, by
Receipts—31,32, 54, 96, 128, 192, 223,

Mrs. Segourney 126
24, 256, 287, 88, 320, 351,

Z.
352, 382
Zulus, South Africa.......

218

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State of Human Society in Northern Central Africa.

By H. BARTH, Phil. D.

Read May 10, 1858. I.-I shall first make a few introductory remarks on the physical features of Northern Central Africa in general.

I here take that part of the continent which rather deserves the name of North Africa, together with the more central portions, and consider the general features of that immense tract of country, which from a line drawn across the continent along the parallel of the Slave and Gold coast, and cutting off the widely-projecting headland of the Somal's coast, extends in an east-westerly direction through from 50 to 60, and from south to north through a breadth of about 25 degrees. In my further remarks, however, I shall confine myself more to the interior regions inclosed in this northern broadest half of the African continent, although occasionally I shall be obliged to include the seaboard in the

range

of
my

observations. There is a great number of gentlemen in this Society who would be able to give to the meeting a by far more accurate account of the country near the seaboard than I am able to give. I shall also exclude from my general view the highly interesting group of Abyssinia and the neighboring countries, which in every respect forms quite a region of its own, and has scarcely any intercourse with the rest of the African interior.

If we now look at that broad extent of country about which I am speaking, the most characteristic feature is its uniform nature, as well with regard to its outline as with respect to its interior. In the outline of this continental territory, as hemmed in by the ocean, the only considerable indentations which we observe are on the east side, the deeply indented Arabian gulf, nearly insulating the whole African continent, on the southwest side the bight of Benin, and on the northern coast the two Syrtis.

If we now regard the interior of this immense tract, we first have to observe that broad belt of sterile land intervening between the

northern fertile zone along the Mediterranean, which in the west reclines on the slope of the Atlas chain and its minor branches, and the fertile lands of the tropical region to the south ; while towards the east this vast desert tract is bordered by the large basin of the Nile, running from south to north through a breadth of nearly 30 degrees, and towards the south-west by the Niger, or however we may call that great river which in an immense curve sweeps into the interior as far as the 18th degree of N. latitude, and which has been an object of the highest attraction and interest in this country from the very beginning of the glorious proceedings of the African Association.

In the midst, between these two immense rivers, connected with the lower course of the Nile by another line of oases, a long line of more favourable localities and of inhabitable oases stretches out through Fezzan and the country of Tebu, forming a natural link between the Mediterranean and the central regions with their central basin, the Tsad or Chad. Towards the west, opposite the great bend of the Niger, where it enters the very heart of the African desert, Nature has provided an outlying inhabitable spot, the oasis of Tawat, the southernmost places of which, namely Insalah and A'kabli, are situated nearly on a parallel with Murzuk, the capital of Fezzan, and thus affords an easier access to the Niger, while at the same time it forms a point of junction with the middle routes to Negroland.

Mountains.—However, the desert is not a deep sink as generally supposed before the period of our exploration, but rather an elevated tract of a mean elevation of from 1,000 to 1,400 feet, mostly consisting of rock, namely sandstone or granite, the latter being overlaid in the heart of the desert by vast tracts of gravel, while the sandstone region forms many elevated plains of larger or smaller extent, strewn with small pebbles. Several mountainous groups are found in different quarters of this region, the most prominent being 'Tibesti, the country of the north-western Tebu; A'sben or A'ir, the territory of the Kel-owi; the two mountainous regions called by the name A'derer, or A'derar, the one near the great north-easterly bend of the Niger, the other in the western part of the desert, near the town of Tishit; and the A'takor, or the mountain group of the Hogar, near Tawat. These mountainous tracts, while they slightly increase the difficulty of the passage for caravans, nevertheless are of the highest importance, not only for the temporary intercourse of travellers and mer. chants, but even as affording a dwelling-place to a tolerably numerous nomadic population, which, but for these more favored localities, could scarcely exist in the desert. But of course the cultivable or even inhabitable localities which these mountain clusters afford are very limited, and while the open desert is the most healthy residence, the ravines formed by these mountains are rather the contrary, and become a hotbed of fever in the same degree as they are better provided with moisture, and thus are

was

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