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measure indignant, because some American citizens have had the audacity to send a few books and tracts into Italy; and he sends his bull to tear away every copy of the Bible in the vulgar tongue that may be found in the hands of any Catholic in the United States. Behold the difference, and take your choice. If the people of the United States, after so long an experiment, are tired of intellectual, civil, and ecclesiastical freedom, and desire again to put themselves under the control of an absolute and infallible master; if they grow weary of the civilization of New England, and Scotland, and Northern Europe, and sigh for the beauties of the civilization of Austria and Mexico and Italy, I see not why I am particularly interested to make any strenuous opposition to the change. But if there be any thing valuable in the principles for which our forefathers suffered so much; if the very idea of individual responsibility in religion and political equality in the state be not the figment of a mischievous imagination; if it be a privilege to speak and write, to print and read, and have a free intercourse of thought and views; if all that has been called progress for the last three hundred years be not absolute retrogradation instead of progress; then must Protestantism be awake, and the Eastern States arouse themselves, or the whole Western country will slip away from their control. And whoever controls the civilization of the Western States, sways the destinies of this country; and whoever holds the United States, has eventually the controlling influence over the civilized world.

This is not a conflict of physical power, and its resources are not forts and arsenals. It is a conflict of mind, of opinion, and its resources are permanent religious and educational institutions. Without these all other efforts are transient and evanescent; and in such a contest as this we cannot afford to waste our strength.

As Rome makes permanent establishments with regular plan, in reference to an influence over the whole region, so we must do the same; as Rome throws herself back on the resources of older states, and draws her supplies from Austria

and France, so we must throw ourselves back on the resources of those who sympathize with us, and draw our supplies from New England and the Atlantic States.

The wealth of the Western States is, as yet, mainly prospective, and their literary and religious institutions must, to a great extent, be supplied with men and money from older communities.

Let none be backward to aid where aid is so much needed, where such tremendous consequences are depending. As the East values her own safety, let her take care of the West; for the Roman Catholic Bishop expressed a thrilling truth when he said: "Give us the WEST, and we will soon take care of the EAST."

ARTICLE V.

'AN EXAMINATION OF JOSHUA 10: 12-15.

By Rev. T. M. HOPKINS, Pastor of the Presbyterian Church, Westfield, N. Y,

In the Biblical Repository for October, 1833, an article will be found" on the standing still of the Sun and Moon, at the command of Joshua," supposed by the editor to have come from the pen of Prof. Hengstenberg, of Berlin, which takes the ground, that the above passage is only a quotation. from a book, or a volume of poems, therein cited; and that consequently the so-called miracle of arresting the sun and moon never took place. The author, whoever he may have been, expresses the wish, at the close of his essay, that what he had done might lead others to a deeper investigation of the subject; and, if his views were wrong, correct them; if right, confirm and develope them. Whether the following article shall do either of these, is left for others to determine. No one, we think, can read that article, which, in a certain sense, originated this, without feeling that it is too short, and THIRD SERIES, VOL. I. NO. I.

7

that it leaves in an unfinished state a subject of vast importance, the investigation of which had been happily commenced. This was the feeling in our mind when we read it ten years ago, and it has remained unchanged in this respect ever since.

The ground which we have taken, and that which we shall endeavor to sustain, is, that Joshua 10: 12-15, is an extract, or a quotation, from a work to which it refers; and that, consequently, it forms no part whatever of the Sacred Record. The main point in which we shall differ from the writer referred to above, will be, in supposing that the passage under consideration found its way into the text, at a period much later than that which is fixed upon by the learned Professor, hundreds of years after the occurrence of the events recorded in the context. This, of course, denies that any miracle like that of stopping the sun and moon, as represented in the extract, ever occurred.

The passage reads as follows: "Then spake Joshua to the Lord, in the day when the Lord delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel, Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon; and thou Moon, in the valley of Ajalon. And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies. Is not this written in the book of Jasher? So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day. And there was no day like that before it or after it, that the Lord hearkened to the voice of a man. For the Lord fought for Israel. And Joshua returned, and all Israel with him, unto the camp to Gilgal." Joshua 10: 12-15.

The following, therefore, is the only question with which we are concerned: Is this passage any part of the Sacred Record? Is it written by him who wrote the book of Joshua ? Or is it a paragraph introduced by some one who, perhaps, was engaged in transcribing the sacred writings; who, having a copy of the ook of Jasher before him, and recollecting the manner in which the writer.of that book notices the victories of Joshua, saw fit to insert it in the words of the author, taking

special care to inform the reader where he obtained it, and where it might be found? We think, as we have already intimated, that it is the latter. sage be truly a part of those writings which compose the book of Joshua, and which record the wonderful success that attended the arms of Israel, when God wrought with them to empty the land of their enemies, and to establish them in it, then do we most cheerfully receive it as the word of God, and verily believe that "the sun and moon stood still at the command of Joshua, and hasted not to go down about a whole day."

But if the former-if the pas

Before we present the argument, however, in favor of our position, we shall take the liberty to introduce some

Preliminary Remarks.

The passage under consideration has evidently been regarded with very great interest, both by the friends and the enemies of revelation. The frequency with which this passage has been brought forward to disprove the authenticity of the whole Bible, has led the friends of revelation, perhaps, to be more determined in their defence of it than they otherwise would have been. They have seemed to act under the impression, that to give it up was virtually to surrender the truth of the Scriptures. There can be no doubt, we think, that 1 John 5: 7, and part of 8, has been defended in this way, until, by the great majority of those who receive the Bible as the word of God, it has come to be regarded as genuine. And yet, the proofs against that passage amount almost to a demonstration. The same may be said of Ecclesiastes 12: 8-14, and of some others. The object in endeavoring to retain these passages cannot have been exclusively, or even principally, the doctrines which they are thought to contain; for, so far as these passages seem capable of being understood, they declare no other doctrines than those which are abundantly sustained by other passages of Scripture, whose genuineness has never been attacked by any who would not attack the whole Bible.

The doctrine of the Trinity is undeniably in the word of God, whatever becomes of 1 John 5: 7, 8; and that of a future state of retribution can be found there, without a reference to the dubious verses in Ecclesiastes; especially verses 11 and 12, which seem wholly without meaning. It is evident that the cause of truth needs no false supports. We ought, perhaps, to say with Dr. Chalmers, it can have none; for, if we introduce into the foundation of a superstructure any material which is not substantial, any thing which contains in itself the elements of decay, we virtually endanger the whole fabric; because when that which was true and of permanent value comes to receive the additional weight, which for a time rests securely on the false, but which, by reason of the decay, has been thrown upon the good, it is crushed beneath it, as if it were itself spurious like the other, and the fabric perishes. We render, therefore, very dubious service to revelation, when we persist in defending and retaining that which we ought at once to give up. We do not intend to be understood as saying, or even admitting, that we are to surrender a passage merely because unbelief or temerity has attacked it; but only that we are not to depend on those passages which, to say the least, are somewhat doubtful; since we may thus be understood as risking the defence of our whole cause upon them.

These remarks apply with great force to the passage under consideration. We need it not in support of the doctrine of a particular, overruling, and special Providence. We can show without difficulty, that he sustained the prophets and apostles, by giving them power to perform those works which no other men could; and which were, perhaps, the best credentials that the nature of the case admitted in favor of the truth of their message. There is enough of clear and indisputable Scripture in support of this, without the so-called miracle of arresting the sun and moon.

But it is distinctly admitted, that this consideration should not influence us to reject the passage in Joshua. It may be The thing which it asserts is not more difficult for a

true.

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