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tribes,,' as in its early history, nor into two kingdoms,
b, as after Solomon ; but into tetrarchies, (zɛzgagxías,) both the name and the thing being derived from the Greeks, who also gave the name rɛrpάons to the ruler. The towns, also, and the cities recently built, were called only by Grecian names. The castle, for instance, built in the tribe of Ephraim by John Hyrcanus, was called 'Toxavior. The castle, too, adjoining the temple, was named by the same Hyrcanus Bagis, that is, the Tower. The castle erected near the Jordan by Alexander Jannæus was in like manner called 'AlɛğárSpalov. The town built by Herod had the name of 'Hoodior.* That beautiful city which stood in the plain of Capharsaba, received the name of Antipatris from Herod, in honor of his father Antipater (nominavit 'Avrinaroídav). Herod erected another pleasant and strongly fortified town above Jericho, which he called Kingov, after his mother. Near the valley of Jericho, on the north, he constructed another, to which the name Pasándor, from his brother, was given. The same name was also borne by a tower which he erected at Jerusalem. About the same period a city was built between Antipatris and Sebaste, to which the Greek designation Agovoor was attached. A city built by Archelaus, the seat of which Peutinger fixes between Jericho and Scythopolis, had in like manner the Greek name 'Agxeλáïðov; not to mention others not a few, such as Gadara, Gaza, and Hippos, which Josephus expressly calls Greek cities ('Elλyvídes nóleis).
Nor did the new cities alone receive Greek names; the old had their Hebrew or Chaldee appellations changed into Greek. Thus the old, Sichem, became Neάzolis;
'The word tribe has been set up in a plural form in our edition, for which there is no authority in the Naples edition. Through an oversight this escaped the editor's eye. The original simply reads --ED. AND TRANS. 2 Josue, cap. 13, lib. 3; Regum, cap. 12. Joseph. lib. 16 Antiq. cap. 2, § 1, p. 786.
4 Id. ibid. lib. 17, cap. 11, §4, p. 862.
, Bethshan, became Exvózolis; nan, Emmaus, became Nixózolis; 1, Betharan, became Aißías; 7, Dan, became Пaveas; and what was of old 1120, became in Greek Baorn. Even the metropolis was not allowed to retain its ancient designation; for the name which was in Hebrew, Jerushalaim, before the captivity, and after that event in Chaldee, Jerushalem, the Asmoneans, from whose time the Jews Græcised, (Græcissarunt,) made into the Greek Hierosolyma, legooókruar. This accounts for the word Hierosolymorum not occurring in the Old Testament, neither in the Hebrew, Greek, nor Latin. It is found, however, in the books of the Maccabees and in the New Testament quite commonly, because these books were written when Greek was vernacular in Judæa.
§ 9. Greek names were given to feasts, edifices, dignities, ranks, moneys, and other things of recent institution. We now approach an argument that has ever proved most satisfactory to my own mind; namely, that furnished by the names given to every thing new since the time of the Maccabees. From that era, the titles of new feasts, buildings, dignities, orders, coins, measures, &c., all were given in the Greek language exclusively. To begin with festivals. The celebration which Judas Maccabeus instituted, to commemorate the consecration of the temple, was called xaívia, that is, renewal.' When Antiochus Epiphanes, about the same period, extinguished the fire of the temple, which the law enjoined to be perpetual, a solemn day was appointed for the Jews to carry supplies of wood into the temple, to which observance the name of vlogógior, or the wood-bearing, was given. Moreover, the apostles instituted a festival in which commemoration was made of the adoration of the magi in the stable, the miracle of Christ at Cana, and his baptism, and this
1 Lib. 1 Mach. cap. 4, v. 56 et seq.; Joan. cap. 10, v. 22.
they called ἐπιφάνειας, manifestations, from ἐπιφαίνεσθαι, το manifest; because the majesty of Christ appeared in the adoration of the magi, in the voice heard from heaven at his baptism in Jordan, and in his miracle at the marriage in Galilee.
So also of edifices. Even before the time of the Maccabees, the place built by Jason, the pseudo high priest, for wrestling and other exercises, had the Greek name prμráciov given it. The citadel built on the higher part of Jerusalem was called axon, from its elevation. In like manner the open space surrounding the palace of Herod, where the guards were encamped, bore the Greek name orgaτóлidov. In this space, too, was the prison where Peter was confined by order of Agrippa. The oblong circus on the southern side of the temple built by Herod, had the name izzódpouos, from its horse-races. There were two other buildings also erected by Herod, at an immense outlay, the one for gladiators and the circensian games, the other for mimes and music, and they bore respectively their appropriate Greek designations, uqiθέατρον and θέατρον.
The public officers exhibit the same Grecian nomenclature. Judas Maccabeus called the tribunes appointed for the public defence, nɛrτyzovτagzás, from their commanding fifty soldiers, the office and name being alike Greek. Those persons in the synagogues who were distinguished by years and wisdom, were styled agnovrάyoyo1.5 He who presided at a banquet, and made provision for the accommodation of the guests, bore the name dizgizhivos. At the same period were instituted toparchies and tetrarchies, forms of government and names also plainly Greek, as we have shown above. In
'Lib. 1 Mach. cap. 1 v. 15.
2 Adrichomius, in Hierusalem, part 4, § 139. [Theatrum Terræ Sanctæ, fol. 1590, Coloniæ.-ED.] Act. Apostolor. cap. 12, v. 4 et seq.
3 Adrichomius, ibid. § 52, p. 154.
4 Lib. 1 Mach. cap. 3, v. 55.
5 Marc. Evangelio, cap. 5, v. 22.
Joan. Evangelio, cap. 2, v. 9.
Lib. 1 Mach. cap. 11, v, 28. Matth. Evangelio, cap. 14, v. 1.
the times of the apostles, the seven persons ordained to distribute the benefactions of the church to the widows and orphans, were called diάxovoi, a Greek appellation. In giving names to bishops and presbyters, also, the apostles employed no other than Greek terms, ἐπίσκοπος and πρεσβύτερος, overseer and elder. The new military battalion raised by Alexander Jannæus, had the Greek name Exazorráuayor, that is, fighting against a hundred. Those persons of Gentile extraction who joined the Jewish people, and who embraced their religion, were called gosh.uzo, that is, converts. Those who worshipped idols were in like manner distinguished by a Greek appellation, heathen (eos Orizous vocabant Judæi).' Those who in the early churches were young converts, were styled εóquzor, that is, lately planted. Such words as the following also became common in Judæa from that period:-nagáxlyτος, comforter ; ἄγγελος, messenger ; δαίμων, demon ; διάβολος, calumniator; aviigisòs, opponent of Christ; anosúrys, deserter; zoos, the college of the priests; haïzòs, a laic, from the word λαὸς, people; καθολικὸς, universal; κατηχούμενοι, · those instructed in the mysteries of religion; naqaviμon, the bridesmaid ; βίβλια, εὐαγγέλιον, ἀποκάλυψις, and countless others, which are obviously Greek.
The same thing may be affirmed of moneys and measures: the names of these, too, are all Greek; for instance, dnvágior, δραχμὴ, δίδραχμον, ςατὴρ, διπόνδιον, which occur up and down the New Testament, and are mere Greek. To present a few other specimens without selection: the following are of the Greek mint:-uros, a hymn; inviziov, a song of victory;5 alvμos, azymus, or unleavened; naqaozev, preparation; xaTips, instruction; aïgeois, a sect; raqaßohh, a comparison; περίψημα, filth ; ἀνάθημα, devoted to the gods; συναγώγη, α congregation; orádior, a stadium; and others which were then in daily use among the Jews.
1 Act. Apostolorum, cap. 6. Epist. 1 ad Timoth. cap, 3, ver. 8.
2 Joseph. lib. 13, cap. 12, § 5, p. 668.
3 Matth. 23, v. 15,
5 Lib. 2 Mach. cap. 8, v. 33.
Ibid. cap. 5, v. 47.
But not alone in the bestowal of names on new objects, but also in changing the names of the old, do we find the Jews habitually Græcizing (Græcizasse tunc eos animadvertimus). The feast of tabernacles was once called by its Hebrew name, -, chag-hassuchoth, but afterwards known by the Greek name, oxyvonía. The feast of weeks was called aforetime an, chag-schiavot, but afterwards nevinos that is, the fiftieth day. The pond in Jerusalem was once called, beth-tzada, afterwards 700ßarix. The slips of parchment on which they kept the words of the law were formerly, tephilin, but afterwards in Greek quλaxríqıor, preserver. The place of judgment was formerly in Chaldee Nn, gabbatha, but afterwards 206670wrog in Greek. The measure once called r, bath, was afterwards μɛronrijs. In a word, from the time of the Maccabees the old titles of the Old Testament books were exchanged for new: n, bereshith, became revέow, the generation; rız-bxı, velle-semoth, ¿odov; p, vaikra, hevızızóv; -, elle-haddebarim, devτεgovóμor, which is the second law; and in, thorah, πεντατεῦχον, etc., etc.
§ 10. Summary of the chapter.
To bring this part of our essay to a close, we thus sum up the results at which we have arrived. As it is evident, beyond all reasonable doubt, that from the age of the Maccabees the Jews used the Greek language, 1, in the composition of their books, 2, in the inscriptions upon their coins, 3, in edicts and records intended for public perusal, 4, in their own names, 5, in their schools in the instruction of youth, 6, in the public reading of the law, 7, from the testimony of Josephus, a Jew, by which the Jews are incontestably proven to have spoken Greek, 8, from the naining of the divisions of the country and of the new towns that were built, and 9, froin the Greek names of the new feasts, magistracies, ranks, moneys, measures, buildings, and many things besides, must he not be absurd (oyos) beyond measure, who does not gather from all this, that from the period specified Hellenism was