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puted passage, and what is thought to have occurred. But there is a better reason to be assigned than this. The marked and unquestionable similarity between the two passages (Joshua 10: 12-15, and Hab. 3: 11) is proof abundant, that one must have originated the other. Either Hab. 3: 11 is a reference to the one in Joshua, or that is to Habakkuk. Let the ground then be taken, that the author of the book of Jasher, at what time soever he may have written, finds the glowing description in Habakkuk of the conquest of Canaan, and selecting the startling declaration in verse 11, clothes it in his own language, and makes it the theme of a short poem. Afterward, a transcriber of the sacred volume, or of the book of Joshua, when he arrives at the place in the narrative where we find the extract, takes the liberty to introduce the whole passage from the book of Jasher, taking special pains to inform us where he found it. This hypothesis possesses several qualifications which are of great weight. In the first, and least important place, it is a plausible one; in the next, it fully accounts for the fact, that the event is not once referred to by the writers of the Sacred Scriptures. Neither by prophets, nor by apostles, nor by the Lord Jesus Christ, is there the slightest, the remotest allusion to any thing of the kind, while every considerable, well authenticated miracle is again and again referred to in the most explicit and unequivocal terms. Scarce a page of the Bible do we peruse, without having our mind directed to some one, or more, of those magnificent works which God had wrought in the beginning, and which he continued to work for the defence of his people, and the exhibition of his power in the sight of his enemies. Let the reader compare, at his leisure, Psalms 105, 6, and 7; where we have a summary of the mighty works of God, and which are left on record to be made known to the people: yet, a record of the arrest of the sun and moon is not found there; it is not even alluded to in this "summing up," if we may so speak, of the whole of God's dealings with his people.

And the author of the epistle to the Hebrews, where, in chap. 11, he is almost wholly employed in citing examples

of faith and its mighty works, and where he even notices the case of Rahab, and the conduct of Moses's parents in secreting him, and the directions of Jacob respecting his bones, etc., etc., never refers to the standing still of the sun and moon, at the command of Joshua! And yet, there is not an event referred to, in either of the passages named, which, for grandeur and sublimity, and the manifestation of power from on high, and the still more important exhibition of the power of faith, will compare at all with the so-called miracle whose record we are considering. It is, therefore, impossible for us to believe, without some evidence, (and while considerations of undeniable weight are pressing so hard against it,) that any event, like that which is recorded in the passage under examination, ever occurred.

9. We shall add only one consideration more. The passage in question, is evidently no part of the word of God, since it leaves, in spite of every effort, a false or wrong impression upon the mind of the reader; an impression which is directly at war with the connected and true narrative of the campaign. We have already alluded to the fact, that when these verses are wholly omitted, and the record read as if they never had had existence, there is no obscurity, no difficulty, no embarrassment whatever. The mind is not tortured with the assertion in verse 15, "And Joshua returned and all Israel with him unto the camp at Gilgal,” followed immediately with this, (verses 16 and 17,) "But these five kings fled and hid themselves in a cave at Makkedah: and it was told Joshua, etc., etc." Why should these five kings have fled in such terrible affright, after their pursuers had "returned to the camp at Gilgal"? And what additional security could the cave at Makkedah have furnished them, when once their pursuers were all gone? And how shall we contrive to get Joshua back, "and all Israel with him," to Makkedah, to hear the intelligence that "these five kings are found hid in a cave," and to give instructions, that great stones should be rolled upon the mouth of the cave, and men stationed to watch, lest these kingly subterranean prisoners should make their escape?

Mr. Horne proposes here to cut the knot, by rejecting verse 15 altogether, and retaining the rest of the passage. He says, "Verse 15 is apparently contradicted by verse 43." (He might have said, by all the chapter except verse 43. Though this, even, would still be a contradiction.) He adds, "In the former place he (Joshua) is said to have returned and all Israel with him unto the camp at Gilgal; which he certainly did not do until the end of the expedition, (verse 43,) where this declaration is properly introduced. It (verse 15) is therefore either an interpolation, or must signify, that Joshua intended to return, but changed his mind on hearing that the five kings had hid themselves in a cave at Makkedah."

With respect to this intending, or purposing to return, we have already said enough under our sixth argument, to which the reader is referred. We wish only a word further, in this place, on the false impression which the passage unavoidably leaves on the mind of the reader. It is, that the whole work of completely vanquishing, or subduing the confederate kings, was accomplished in one day, and at an hour early enough to enable the conqueror and his victorious army to return to their place of general encampment at Gilgal, that night; whereas it is abundantly evident from the whole record, and also from the nature of the case, that the undertaking must have occupied weeks. Let us look at this matter. Makkedah, as we have seen, is at least forty if not forty-two miles, in an almost due west direction, from Gilgal. Here we suppose, and the record evidently demands it, that Joshua and all Israel with him, pass the first night of the campaign. The work of leading forth these five kings and slaying them is probably performed in the evening, after the return of those who had pursued the enemy until they had shut themselves up in their "fenced cities." We think no one will contend for a greater day's work, than Joshua and his people must have performed by the time we have supposed; we think no one

1 See Introduction to Crit. Study of Sac. Scrip. vol. i. p. 643-44, Lond. ed.

will demand that they should have done more, in the course of twenty-four hours, than to travel some forty miles, fifteen or twenty of which must have been passed in hard fighting. And there is a large number of cities named in the subsequent part of the record, which were overthrown by Joshua and his army, during this expedition; for the doing of which we must have some time, BEFORE "Joshua returns and all Israel with him unto the camp at Gilgal."

Joshua passes from Makkedah unto Libnah, which, with its king, is delivered into his hands; and he does to it as he had done unto Jericho and its king. From Libnah, he passes and all Israel with him unto Lachish, which surrendered to him on the second day; and to which he did as he had done unto Libnah. From Lachish he passes to Eglon, and overthrew that. From Eglon, to Hebron, and conquers that with all its cities. Next he passes to Debir; and as he had done to Hebron, so he did unto Debir. From this place he makes an excursion into all the hill-country; thence into the south; thence into the country of the vale, and of the springs, and destroyed all their kings; "he left none remaining, but utterly destroyed all that breathed, as the Lord God of Israel commanded." And, after smiting Kadesh-barnea, even unto Gaza, and all the country of Goshen, even unto Gibeon with all its kings, "he returns and all Israel with him unto the camp at Gilgal."

Let any one, now, take a map of Palestine, one on which these different cities are laid down, and after examining their relative positions, and determining their proper distances one from another, let him follow Joshua to the end of his expedition, and say if he would regard it as an enterprise of only one day. Let him say, if he thinks any mode of conveyance, known at that time, or any means of travelling employed, even at the present, in that country, would have enabled a man, without stopping to demolish cities or behead their kings, to pass over that tract of country and return to Gilgal, I will not say in one day, but in one week. We leave, therefore, these difficulties upon the mind of the reader; satisfied that he can

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not regard them in any other light than insurmountable, and directly subversive of the passage, which evidently cannot be retained as a part of God's word.

We shall only say in conclusion, whether we have erred or not in the opinion formed of the passage before us, no one will deny, that we have strong reasons for entertaining it. "Let every man be fully persuaded in his own mind."




"Each of these religions deems itself the most perfect; the CALVINISTIC One believes itself most conformed to what Jesus Christ has said, and the LUTHERAN to what the Apostles have done."-MONTESQUIEU, Esprit des Lois, liv. xxiv., chap. 5.

[THE following discourse on the unity and diversity of Lutheranism and Calvinism, was delivered by Professor Merle before the Evangelical Society of Geneva, Switzerland, at its last anniversary. It is more of the nature of an essay than of a discourse; and the author makes the following apology for its appearance :

"In the first place, it was not written for publication, and is but a series of notes and paragraphs put together. Besides, far from being the exposition of new and peculiar ideas, as some have thought it to be, it is merely the statement of ecclesiastical facts, acknowledged by the highest authorities; this might easily have been proved, had I not thought it better to be sparing of quotations."

However old and familiar the distinguished Professor may think the facts which he here gives, it is certain that the same talented and powerful mind appears in this discourse, as is displayed in the pages of the "History of the Reformation." It may be necessary, also, to add, that much of what is said of Lutheranism applies especially to the Lutheranism of Europe, and not at all to that of this country.—ED.]

THE times are pressing. It is becoming necessary to aim at the useful, not to be involved in useless discussions,

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