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Worcester there was a celebration by the dedication services of the raising of a monument to Col. Timothy Bigelow, at which the city government, the fire companies, the temperance societies, and the German Turners assisted, with a large concourse of citizens.
But the great feature of the day was the reception of the news of the attack upon the 6th Regiment in Baltimore, and its successful passage through the city. The news came of the attack, and men gathered thick in the streets, devouring the bulletinboards with their eyes. The crowds grew excited, uneasy, turbulent. They felt that they all stood at the door of battle in this attack upon their brothers who had left them but a few hours before. Men bit their lips in their anger, and set their teeth together, and showed front which would have been terror to Baltimore. The news came that the glorious 6th had fought their way through, when the shout of exultation ran along the street which told that Massachusetts honored Massachusetts steel. It was the first blood shed, the first victory, and she had the honor, as in the first Revolution. The stars and stripes never looked more glorious than on that night, in the eyes of the sons of the Old Bay State.
The Coast Guard. At the recommendation of Hon. R. B, Forbes, the merchants met in the Merchants' Exchange, on April 19th, to see to the organization of a coast defence. Mr. Forbes stated that they feared no danger of an invasion of the harbor, but that the object was to drill a class of men, not acquainted with the military, in the use of large guns. He did not krow how soon their services might be wanted in the navy, or some scientific defence of our merchant vessels from the lawless invaders of the seas. The Governor, too, had been consulted, and he sympathized deeply with the project; and so, also, did the Board of Trade. Gentlemen testified their willingness to ento into the project, and their judgment as to its efficiency, by the amount that they subscribed. Mr. Foibes would give his time in getting up the enterprise, and accept a subordinate position among the officers. Messrs. Lombard, Snow and Upton then subscribed $1,000 each. In their resolutions passed upon the occasion, they viewed the present crisis with overwhelming anxiety, and believed that the merchants and seamen of Massachusetts should respond heartily to the proposed plan of Mr. Forbes. This was but one circumstance to show how the “solid men of Boston” looked upon the war of the South upon the Union.
April 22d in Boston and Vicinity. On the 22d of April, a large meeting of the ladies was held in Charlestown, to be called “ The Soldiers' Relief Society," and to hold communication with the families of the soldiers, and tender them sympathy, counsel and aid. The wife of Mayor Hutchins was president, and others were chosen to complete the organization, comprising names honorable in the records of the city. The Mayor then stated that the city government had appropriated $10,000 for the relief of the families of volunteers, and ex-Mayor Sawyer stated that he had received a check from a citizen for the same purpose, on the Bunker Hill Bank, and also a note was read stating that ten physicians of the city had offered to attend to the families of volunteers, free of charge, during their absence.
The City of Boston, on the 22d, also took other action than offering of money. The Board of Aldermen passed a series of resolutions pledging the moral and material support of the City of Boston, with all its power and ability, to the Government of the United States. They also put partisanship under their feet, by calling upon the people of Boston for an oblivion of party differences, and an alliance of all good citizens in vindication of the violated laws. They said that the revolted States stood before the civilized world defenceless and convicted of an assault upon the common polity of nations. To the loyal brethen of the revolted States, they renewed their assurances of fidelity to all the compacts and compromises of the Constitution; and, at the same time, respectfully urged upon the President to pursue such a constitutional policy as shall besi conduce to the union and harmony of the several States. The resolutions were passed by a unanimous vote, and transmitted to the President.
In the evening, the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company met in their armory, in Faneuil Hall. One hundred and eighty members attended, and offered their services to the government; and also voted that the families of those of the company who might fall in the service of their country should be taken care of by the company, as a company.
On the same evening, the Massachusetts Homeopathic Medical Society met, and tendered their gratuitous services to families of those gone to the war. They also passed a series of resolutions sympathizing with the government, and pledging their support in this her hour of trial,
Among the offers of assistance reported this day, $2000 were raised in Plymouth; $5,000 in Marblehead; $10,000 in Quincy; $5,000 in Abington; $1,000 in Malden; $5,000 in Weymouth ; $4,000 in Jamaica Plain. The Barnstable Bank, of Yarmouth, voted to loan to the State $33,000; $10,000 was appropriated at Cambridge; $1,700 in Waltham ; $3,000 in Pawtucket ; $15,000 in Brookline, and $2,425 in Newton. An. drew Carney gave $500 to the Irish volunteers; and throughout the vicinity of Boston, where anything was done, the patriotism of the people was substantially sustained by offerings of material aid.
The 24th of April. The record of this day, like that of the rest, is good for Massachusetts. Enlistments, drilling of recruits, formation of home defence companies, the filling of vacancies in regular military organizations, all proceeded with an unabated enthusiasm. A petition was in circulation asking the Governor to employ the School Ship Massachusetts and her tender, to be fitted up and proceed to sea, for the protection of the Bay and its ports. Flag raisings were extemporized, and the stars and stripes went out to the breeze, with speech, cheer, and music discoursing national airs. In Union Park one was flung from a staff 134 feet in height, and Union Park enjoyed a day of festivity in the indulgence of its patriotism, - happy, though sad the occasion. Major Cobb, the late commander of the Boston Light Artillery, having received the authority to enroll a new company to man a battery, opened his recruiting room for two hours, and in that time 107 names were put down. This was not slow to battle.
The presidents of the various insurance companies met in State street, to consider the subject of sending out a steamer to the Gulf of Mexico, to cruise for and capture such vessels as might be found carrying the Confederate flag, and seeking to prey upon our commerce. The plan was to send out a large steamer, carrying 300 men and 10 guns. A committee visited the executive authorities, at the State House, and they were cordially recommended to the authorities at Washington. The steamer was to sail under the authority and commission of the United States, but the expenses were to be paid by State street, - that street which has no bottom to its vaults.
Another significant fact, or indication of public sentiment, was that ex-Governor Banks was to have lectured before the Mercantile Library Association in the evening ; but, in a letter to the committee, he declined lecturing, stating that the change of public affairs seemed to him to forbid the discussion of ordinary topics at this time; and stating that there should be but one subject in the mind of any citizen of the United States at this time, and that the preservation of the government of his country.
The Webster Regiment, which Fletcher Webster commenced raising on Sunday, was reported as quite full, and even overflowing; and aid of money came in from many and honorable men to see that it was immediately put into fighting condition.
The United States Steam-Frigate Niagara heaved its great hulk into our harbor on this day, and absurd rumors were in circulation that the officers and men sympathized with secession, and that she was to be turned over to the rebels. The oath of allegiance was administered anew to both officers and men. Several of the officers were sworn, hailing from Virgin Maryland and the District of Columbia, and four only were found to serve Mammon.
Roxbury followed upon her patriotic resolutions, by a meeting to organize a homeguard (not one of the guards "not to leave town, save in case of invasion ").
An adjourned meeting of the British residents of Boston and vicinity was held at Chapman Hall, in the evening, when they decided to form a rifle company for home protection. So also the Scotchmen of Boston, animated by the same spirit, met and commenced the organization of a volunteer company.
The New England Guards, seeing the exposed condition of our harbor, and the fort with few guns and no men, offered their services to do duty at Fort Independence, and it was accepted, when the order was issued to the members to report themselves.
Not men alone, but boys felt their duties to their country. The boys of the Quinoy School brought in $200 to their teacher to present suitable testimonials to such past members of the school as might enlist for the defence of the Union.
Framingham reported a new drill-club, $3,000 given for outfits for a volunteer company, and a loan of $25,000 tendered by her bank to the State. This was 12 per cent. of her capital.
April 25th. April 25th came in big with preparation for war. The people were up and working. The number of officers in the Niagara appeared to-day to be twelve, instead of four, who declined to take the oath of allegiance. They were all from Southern States. Lieut. Brown, of the Niagara, was, by order of the Governor, arrested for uttering treasonable sentiments, and for supposed treasonable proclivities; but subsequently he was discharged, and permitted to depart. The Navy Yard, yesterday, was aroused by orders to put everything in the yard, that could be made available, in readiness for sea. This required labor on the Mississippi, Minnesota, Colorado, thé Massachusetts and South Carolina, the Vincennes, Preble and Bainbridge. This required a great addition to the labor force of the yard.
Among the military items of the day, & messenger left for Washington to get consent for Major Gordon to raise a regiment to serve through the war. Twenty companies had already been accepted by the Governor; and a fine company of 64 men, selected from our merchants and tradesmen, had been enlisted for the defence of the city. The sub-committee of the city government appropriated $10,000 for rations of the volunteer troops of the city. The merchants of Franklin street raised a flag from a new flag staff 125 feet high, with prayer, speech and music. The New England Guards went to Fort Independence, and were cheered along their march. The l'igers met in the evening at the armory in Boylston Hall, to consider what action was necessary from them in the present condition of the country. A Tiger of 1812, Mr. Timothy Dodd, called the meeting to order. Speeches were niade by the talking merabers ; letters were read from absent members, and a committee appointed to draft a plan of organization. The Coast Guard met and completed its organization. The
amount subscribed thus far was $9,800; and amount of goods ordered for equipment, $10,776. The projector, Hon. Ř. B. Forbes, was elected commander; and from 150 who had subscribed themselves, 100 were selected to form the company.
One of the most patriotic donations of the day was the gift of the teachers of the public schools of Boston, who volunteered a material deduction in their salaries, discounting, 10, 124, 15, 25 per cent., to be appropriated for the relief of volunteers and their families. This gave the generous sum of $13,000 for this purpose. This was to continue during the existence of the war.
April 26th. The towns were no less alive and stirring than the great cities. Patriotism is not local; it warms hearts in the mountains and the vales, as well as those dungeoned within brick walls. A large and enthusiastic meeting of the citizens of Holliston was reported, where $2,500 was subscribed, and 86 names obtained for a company of vol. unteers. It was also voted, at this meeting, to instruct the town, at a town meeting, to raise sufficient money to support the families of the volunteers while they were absent. In Haverhill a new company bad been formed, and attached to the Seventh Regiment. On the evening of the 26th, the citizens of Chelsea aasembled around the City Hall to testify their fealty to the government by unfurling a beautiful flag from the top of the building, which was the gift of the ladies of the city. After the invocation of a blessing upon that flag and the dear country, the children welcomed it by the Star Spangled Banner in hearty music. It appeared that Watertown had held a town meeting, the largest ever known there, and resolutions had been adopted, unanimously, declaring that the town pledge itself to adopt the families of those who had enlisted for the war, and of those who might join the company. $5,000 were appropriated for this purpose, and a bounty of $30 to each soldier whose company was accepted by the government within 30 days. A private subscription was started for the purpose of equipping town volunteers, and $1,600 was raised. In the town of Westboro' a loyal meeting was held ; 50 names were added to the volunteer list, among, which were a physician and the Methodist clergyman. $5,000 were appropriated, to be expended in the purchase of uniforms, furnishing extra pay to the company, and for the support of the families of the needy. Voluntary contributions were also pledged to the amount of $3,000. Not only large, but small towns, came up to the order.
On the evening of April 23, a large meeting was held at Lynnfield Centre, when addresses were made, and resolutions unanimously passed, to make all needful provision for the soldiers and their families. Among those who joined for the war were the chorister, sexton, and bell-ringer of the Congregational Church. The most noticeable call of this day was that made by the citizens of Cambridge and vicinity for a meeting to be held under the venerable elm on Cambridge Common, where Washington unsheathed his sword in taking command of the American Army. The call was signed by Jared Sparks, the professors of the university, and the most distinguished citizens Cambridge, the scene of some of the first acts of the American Revolution, must again show power under her time-honored elm.
Chester Park, Cambridge, and Suffolk Bar Meetings. On the 27th, Chester Park threw out a flag to the breeze, when the Hon. Edward Everett, Hon. B. F. Hallett, and Rev. Mr. Hepworth, and others, took part on the occasion. The speech of Mr. Everett was characterized by his usual grace of delivery, and an unusual force and elegance ; and Mr. Hallett spoke with true patriotism and fidelity to the country.
On the same day, the citizens of Cambridge and vicinity held the meeting called under the venerable elm on the Common in that city, where Washington unsheathed his sword on taking command of the American Army. Ex-presidents and members of the university were in attendance. Sparks, Longfellow, Palfrey, Dana, and Parker were present, --so also was ex-Governor Banks, and others equally prominent. Hon. John G. Palfrey offered resolutions, in which they said that they consecrated themselves to the service of freedom and the country, under the Washington Elm; that they, citizens of Middlesex, the first battle-field of the American Revolution, cherished the memory of their revolutionary champions and martyrs; that, living under their prosperity, under the benign shadow of charity and love, they would be dastards and recreants if they did not stand firmly by the government. The meeting was charaeterized by that dignity and ability which might be expected from the character of those present.
The members of the Bar in Boston could not be silent, according to their usual custom. A large attendance was present, and all seemed actuated by the same spirit that animated Otis, Quincy, Adams and Payne in other revolutionary times. Judge Thomas, of the Supreme Judicial Court, was chosen chairman, and made a close, nervous, logical and able speech upon the occasion. In speaking for the Bench, he said that we were a judiciary, and must conduct this contest according to the elements of constitutional law. There must be a force in Christianity, in civilization, in law, which the South cannot stand against. Patriotic speeches were made by other members of the Bar, and resolutions were read by Judge Abbott, stating that the rebellion existing in the South was a blind and selfish attempt to subvert the clearest rights of majorities, and the most sacred. principles of constitutional law; that they would forget party distinctions, and unite to uphold the government; that they would do the business of the lawyers who went to jeopardize their lives for the country, and that of the families of those who had gone to the war. This gave the sanction of the most conservative members of society to the war. There was not a dissenting voice among them ; 80 that the movement of the North could not be considered as violent, passionate, and revolutionary. This meeting was held on the 29th of April.
May 1st. — The First Dead, the old South, &c. May 1st, the Adjutant-General issued an order to Major-General Andrews, of the First Division of M. V.M., to take command For Warren and Independence in Boston Harbor, and take immediate measures to have them placed in condition to receive such new organizations as it might be deemed proper to place therein for drill and discipline. The companies organized to form what was called the “Webster Regiment” were ordered to quarters imniediately in Fort Warren.
As another indication of the alacrity with which men flocked to the standard of their country, we mention the fact that the board of military examiners at the State House were busily employed every day in examining persons elected to office in the various military companies of volunteers, to ascertain their fitness to hold commissions. And an idea of the number may be formed when we state that more applied each day for examination than could be attended to. The medical staff also was compelled to designate physicians to examine the volunteers, purchase medical stores, and attend otherwise to the general health of the volunteers.
Ex-Governor Washburn, of the Cambridge Law School, sent one hundred flannel shirts and drawers, one hundred pocket-handkerchiefs, with the promise of a hundred hospital shirts, which were fitted and made by the ladies of Cambridge; and the Governor handsomely acknowledged the note by saying that “in glancing over their names I realized most completely how great a hold the cause, in relief of which these troops are mustered, has upon every social class in our community, - that there are no hands in Massachusetts too delicate to contribute something to the work;” and stated that the next letter opened was from a poor needle-woman, who had but little, but was desirous to give something of that little for her country. May 1st, the remains of the three brave men who perished in the
streets of Baltimore, as the first sacrifice of the war, arrived in the city at the Worcester Depot. They were received by the Governor, his aids, and the Independent Corps of Cadets, and escorted to King's Chapel, where they were temporarily placed in the vault, to remain until recognition. As soon as the news of their arrival came, many of the stores and flags along the streets where they were expected to pass, were draped in mourning. The bodies were placed in hearses, and then covered with black velvet, and the stars and stripes. The horses wore black plumes. The Cadets marched with unfixed bayonets and reversed arms, and the band played the slow music of the Dead March in Saul, as the procession moved through the streets. There was no levity in the thousands who thronged to witness the scene. Each man took it home to himself. As the bodies passed, all hats were removed; men did not speak to each other on the walk; they were silent, but felt war, - terrible war. That silence was ominous. It told where slept a power for retribution, if need be, upon the authors of our misfortune. The bodies of those slain were identified as those of Addison 0. Whitney, and Luther C. Ladd of Lowell, and Sumner H. Needham of Lawrence. These were the first-fruits of fame plucked from the rebellion.
The Old South, May 1st, 1861, again threw forth the flag of the Union, as in 1776 and 1812. Then it was to beat back the foreign enemies of our country; this time to warn those domestic enemies in our midst, that the people of Massachusetts were true to the spirit of Christianity and the principles of liberty. The historic interest attached to the old urch, and its location in the centre of the city, gave an unusual solemnity to the scene. The neighboring house-tops, and windows, and the streets, were filled with spectators. All were anxious to see consecrated anew those old walls, where gathered the fathers of the Revolution to take sage counsel in war, where Warren and Hancock and the indomitable Adams used to meet to devise means of defence and attack, to encourage each other's hearts, and the hearts of the people. There Warren went, and climbed through the window to address the people, and move them to defence, in the face and defiance of the British soldiers thronging the aisles. Within a few feet of the spot was the immortal Franklin born, whose adroit cunning and sound common-sense philosophy fashioned itself so admirably into the work of independence and the formation of the republic. Hands consecrated to the labor of Christianity assisted in the work. The senior and junior pastors of the society, with prayer and speech, gave moral impressiveness and dignity to the occasion. Amid such scenes as the above, were the first lessons of the war given out.
May 2.- The New England Association of the Soldiers of 1812. May 2d was signalized by the meeting of the New England Association of the Soldiers of 1812, at the residence of their President, Col. Thomas Aspinwall. The fire that once animated those patriotic hearts against England, in her aggressions half a century ago, was equally alive now to lay strong hands upon those domestic enemies that might plot to destroy that they might rise up to political power upon the ruins. They adopted an address to the veterans of the last war throughout the country. They said that the country was defended in 1812- nearly fifty years since against a foreign foe, that it is now threatened by rebels within ; that the Union founded by the heroic sacrifice of our fathers, and cemented by the blood of their children in the second war for independence, is now in extreme peril from conspirators within, who have been warmed into life by its beneficent protection; that they also, in 1812, gave their youthful energies to their country; though now too old to encounter the hardships of a campaign, yet they might do something in the way of instruction and discipline; and that they should, without reference to party, give a firm support to the government, the Constitution, the Union, and the enforcement of the laws.
May 4th in Boston, Lawrence, &c. May 4th witnessed the last obsequies of Sumner H. Needham, killed at Baltimore, at his home in Lawrence. Lawrence was proud of the honor which had fallen to her, and in this last observance of burial rites, she nobly and appropriately honored the dead. The city government took charge of the body, and buried it with military honors. The pastor preached a fine and characteristic sermon from the text, “ He, being dead, yet speaketh." He stated one thing noticeable for its philosophic force — "Humanity is the central idea of Republicanism ;” and so it should ever be, if we would honorably maintain our peculiarly American liberties.
Among the towns reported May 4 as having given assistance, Malden voted $3,000 at one time, and at another $10,000, for the assistance of the families of volunteers. Weymouth voted $5,000 to uniform the Weymouth Guards. Marshfield, where repose the remains of Webster, among other liberal provisions for her volunteers, voted $5,000; Sutton, $6,000, and Georgetown, $5,000.' So we see that patriotism was not confined to Boston alone. The country towns were active to the full measure of their ability.
The love of the country penetrated through foreign birth and prison walls, so that an educated German, in the Charlestown State's Prison, said, after stating that he had been in all the hard-fought battles between Vera Cruz and Mexico, that "his heart's desire was to serve his adopted country once more.” The inmates of the State's Prison were set to work manufacturing Minie rifle balls, tin dippers and canteens, crash towels and uniforms. In completing large portions of the work, the inmates were compelled to labor all night, but it was done by them with the most cheerful alacrity: They felt, though in prison under the laws, that those laws should be sustained for the benefit of the country.
Sunday at Fort Warren. The soldiers had collected in considerable numbers in Fort Warren. On May 5th, the Sabbath, for the first time, divine services were held in the open air. With the implements and paraphernalia of war around, they became peculiarly impressive. An eloquent and appropriate sermon was preached by the Rev. Mr. Hepworth, to a large and distinguished crowd of spectators, and to the soldiers of the Webster Regiment, and the Fourth Battalion drawn up in parade. After the clergyman concluded his remarks, he requested the audience to sing " America ; " and the noble and patriotic old tune never before seemed so sweet and voluble of music. After the benediction, there was a dress parade. The quietness of the scene and the deportment of the company was such as to make the occasion entirely in keeping with the day.
The Nurses. To show that the ladies of Massachusetts were not to be outdone in kindly and useful offices of humanity, a hearty and full response was made to the call from the Medical Commission from the State House for nurses. This Commission communicated to the public a document from Secretary Cameron, accepting the services of Miss D. T. Dix, and authorizing her to act in the military hospitals. Miss Dix requested that persons who intended to give their services free, should not proceed to headquar. ters, but send
their names, age and residence, and take practical instruction in nursing, if not already qualified, and hold themselves in readiness to attend upon an hour's call. The daughters of Massachusetts nobly responded to this call, and a sufficient number were soon entered on the list to answer the ends proposed.
The Dead of Lowell. May 6, 1861, the City of Lowell also paid due honors to the dead, - the first Massachusetts dead of the war. The obsequies were conducted under the direction of the city, authorities. The city was appropriately dressed in mourning, – business was suspended, mills stopped, flags at half-mast, and a general gloom, deepened by a lowering sky, gave impressiveness to the occasion. The clergyman officiating, in a few neatly chosen words, paid a fitting tribute to the virtues and memories of the dead. All those present felt that war was upon them, and that to die in defence of their country was honorable indeed.
May 7.- Individual, Town, and City Action. May 7, it was reported in the papers that the citizens of Fairhaven voted to authorize the selectmen to effect a loan of $5,000, for the defence of the town and harbor from invasion, whenever in their discretion it became necessary, and also voted to pay each volunteer in active service a sum so that he should have the amount of $25 a month.
The citizens of Leicester appropriated the sum of $5,500 “ to maintain the honor of the flag;” and also ten dollars a month in advance to every citizen actually serving in the war. Scituate voted to pay single men ten dollars, and married fifteen per month, as long as the government required their services. They were to be provided with uniforms, and paid one dollar per day while drilling; also a contingent fund was voted to pay their contingent expenses.
Among the donations from citizens of Boston, some are more worthy of commendation. The occupants of the market gave large donations of food to the soldiers. May