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and aid by General Butler. On the disastrous 10th of June, bravely facing the foe, and encouraging his men, at Big Bethel, he fell.
His articles, published since his death in the Atlantic Monthly, and his two volumes, Cecil Dreeme and John Brent, place him high among the literary geniuses of this country,
June 11, occurred the brilliant victory of Col. Wallace at Romney, Virginia, where 500 rebels were surprised and routed. June 17, the rebels attacked a train fill with Union soldiers, by opening fire upon it from masked batteries. It was a barbarous work ; eight of our soldiers were killed. And on the same day was fought the most brilliant bittle of the war so far, the battle of Booneville, by General Lyon, where a largely superior force, under Price and Jackson, were completely routed. On the 20th of June General McClellan took command in western Virginia, and soon commenced the display of that consummate generalship that has already added so much glory to American arms. And so June passed by, with the assaults of the armed rebels in all quarters where they could gather in sufficient numbers, and in solid preparation by the Union forces for the great contest before them.
July 1st occurred the fight at Buckhannan, Va., where the rebels were routed with 23 killed and 200 prisoners; and on the 2d the battle at Martinsburgh, where the rebels were again routed. July 5, Col Siegel fought the battle of Carthage in Missouri, where the rebels lost 350 in' killed and wounded; a battle that gave the stamp of superior strategy to the military genius of Siegel. July 11 occurred the battle of Rich Mountain in Western Virginia, where Col. Rosencranız defeated Col. Pegram, took all his camp equipage, many prisoners, and killed 60 of the enemy. July 13, at Carricksford, the rebel General Garnett was killed, and the rebels defeated, with heavy loss. This battle cleared them out of Western Virginia. July 18 was the first battle of Bull Run at Blackburn Ford, where our men were compelled to fall back. On the 21st was fought the great battle of Bull Run, with 18,000 men on our side, and 27,000 in action on their side. In a desperate conflict of ten hours we almost won the battle, when an unaccountable panic occurred, and sent our army, in complete rout, back to their fortifications on the Potomac. We lost 479 killed, 1611 wounded, and 1500 prisoners. The rebels lost 393 killed, and 1200 wounded. Among the killed in this action were Cameron and Slocum,
Slocum. Colonel John S. Slocum was born in Richmond, Rhode Islaná, November 1, 1824. He learned books well at classical schools and at a commercial academy in Hartford. His mind was active, and he learned more than books. He turned much of his attention to manual exercises, and distinguished himself in them. During the Dorr rebel. lion, he rallied to the defence of the government. This decided his inclination and career to arms. When the Mexican war broke out, he hastened, unattended, to Washington, and, by his own personal exertions, made his way to the ear of the President, and obtained a commission as first lieutenant in the Eighteenth, under Colonel Ransom. At the battle of Contreras his meritorious conduct won him the brevet rank of captain.
At Chepultepec, his captain having been promoted, he commanded the company, and shared in all the glory of that day; this earned him the rank of captain. At the disbandment of his regiment, he retired to private life. In the meantime he was urged, by several companies, to take command, and teach the art of war. His military studies led him to attempt to introduce James' new projectile into Europe. In 1860 he was one of the Examining Board at West Point, and, as secretary, made the report of the visitors. At the breaking out of the Great Rebellion, the governor offered him a major's commission in the First Rhode Island, which was accepted without a moment's hesitation. When a second regiment was required, he was made colonel, and was authorized to raise it. He soon raised and had the regiment ready for war. His reg. iment opened the battle of Bull Run, and he fell at the head of his regiment at the moment the enemy were giving way before him. He was ever distinguished for his attention and kindness to the wants of his men, and for his heroism. In the language of another, “His monument will proudly bear the record, “Contreras, Cherubusco, Chepultepec, Ludley Ford.”
Cameron. James Cameron was born at Maytown, Lancaster County, Pa., March 1, 1801. On his forty-seventh birth-day, he thus reviewed his own life : This day, forty six years ago, a child was born in a beautiful obscure town, in the interior of Pennsylvania, whose Christian name was James. This child has passed through much of the thorny thickets of life. He was a cow-boy, a plough-boy, a cutler, a blacksmith, a turner, a tailor, a printer, a brewer, a contractor, an alderman, a superintendent of railroads, a lawyer, a prosecuting attorney, an aid to the governor, -in short, almost everything but a Christian." He worked steadily as a blacksmith until nineteen, then entered the printing office of his brother Simon at Harrisburgh. From this he wandered into conducting the Lycoming Gazette at Williamsport.
In 1827, he removed to Lancaster, and assumed the direction of the Political Sentinel. While conducting this paper, he studied law in the office of the President, James Buchanan. But the anti-masonic times caused him to sell out his paper, and become a contractor on the public works in Pennsylvania. During the Mexican war, he accompanied the volunteers of the State as sutler, and thus saw something of army service. This turned his attention to military matters. The Seventy-Nioth Highland Regiment of New York, anxious to be led by the historic name of Cameron, tendered the command to him. The regiment soon removed to Camp Lochiel. He was at the battle of Bull Run. During the engagement he showed the bearing and the courage of the true soldier. He rode conspicuous at the head of his men, and with no disguise. In the demonstration at the Stone Bridge, Cameron, though sick and feeble, almost, indeed, dying, headed his regiment, and again and again led up his men with his “Scots, follow me!” ringing above the din of battle, Wade Hampden, who had fired rifle after rifle at him, finally reached his mark, and Cameron fell. His remains now repose on the battle-field, after fruitless attempts to recover them by the consent of the unchivalric and rebel Beauregard. The Union army will yet advance and take them.
August 1, McClellan, having taken command of the army of the Potomac, commenced the reorganization of the Union army. On the 20 the battle of Dug Spring was fought in Missouri. Here Lyon gallantly defeated McCulloch, and with a con. siderable loss. On the 10th of August was fought the battle of Wilson's Creek, when Lyon, having appealed in vain for reinforcements, was compelled to fight 23,000 rebels, under McCulloch, Rains, Price, and Jackson, with only 5,500 men. He defeated them with a loss to them of 421 killed, and 1,300 wounded, losing himself 269 killed, and 721 wounded. Lyon himself was killed while leading a charge.
Lyon. Nathaniel Lyon was born in a secluded out-of-the-way spot, in the town of Ashford, Windham County, Connecticut, on the 14th of July, 1819. His ancestors saw war in the Revolution. He was a hero by inheritance. He chose the army. In 1837 he entered the military academy, and graduated in July, 1841, the eleventh in his class, and at once received his commission as second lieutenant in the Second Infantry. His first service and honors gained were in Florida. He was appointed first lieutenant in 1847, and he was joined to Colonel Riley's Brigade in Twiggs' Division. He led his company, and captured a battery of three pieces from the enemy at Cerro Gordo. Hon. orable mention was made of him, and he was already singled out as one destined to fill a conspicuous place in the military annals of the country. He possessed a wiry and active person, endowed with great energy and perseverance, and was enthusiastically attached to his profession. At Contreras, Lyon and his regiment bore the palm amid the brave. Captain Wessells and Lieutenant Lyon, after in vain attempting to turn the enemy's cannon upon them, pressed upon them, and took two hundred prisoners and two pieces of artillery. Lyon, after this battle, was recommended to the special notice of Colonel Riley. At the entrance of the city of Mexico, he also took part in the engagement, and was slight!y wounded by a spent ball. At the close of the war he received the head rank of captain, and was ordered with his company to Missouri, io proceed overland to California, but embarked and reached his destination by sea. He remained here several years in active service, and received his captain's commission in June, 1851.
In dealing with the Indians he showed great tact. On one occasion he was attacked by three, one of whom seized his sword, but he wrested it from him, ran him through, and put the other two to flight. From California he was removed to Fort Riley, in Kansas, espoused the Republican cause, and aided it by his pen in the Manhattan Express. Early in the year he was placed in command of the United States Arsenal at St. Louis. His arsenal became a stronghold. The police commissioners of St. Louis demanded that Lyon should confine himself to the arsenal. He made no reply. The camp of the rebels lay without the city. Lyon was thinking while they were talking. May ist, he suddenly appeared surrounding their camp, sent a demand for unconditional surrender, and gave half an hour for reply. They surrendered. They soon attacked him on his return; and paid the penalty of the attack. He was made brigadier general of volunteers, then broke up the rebel force at Potosi, seized the lead works that were supplying the rebel army, and captured the steamer J. Ć. Juan. By the recall of Harney, De was left in command of the department. Governor Jackson and General Price tried to cir. cumvent him, but he turned the tide against them. He pursued these men, and met them on the field at Boonville. By consummate generalship he completely overcame and routed them, when their tents, ammunition, and supplies fell into his hands. So complete a victory seemed to crush the hopes of secession, and secure the State for the Union. On the 2d of August he fought the battle of Dug Spring against Ben McCul. loch with five times his force, and bere again he showed superior strategy, and routed the enemy with a heavy loss. He appealed to Fremont for reinforcements, as McCulloch's army was continually increasing, but in vain. He was compelled to evacuate Springfield. His only alternative was to attack Price and McCulloch in their camp at Wilson's Creek, nine miles from Springfield. He had but five thousand five hundred to their twenty-three thousand. He resolved to surprise them if possible. The en. emy learned of his approach, and prepared to meet him. The battle raged heavily. Lyon was thrice wounded in the action ; refused to retire and have his wounds dressed. A fresh body came up. Lyon rode up to them, cool and undisturbed, and encouraged them to follow up with the bayonet. "Give us a leader," they cried, " and we will follow to death!" He replied, " I will lead you. Come on, brave men!". In the charge he fell dead, pierced through the stomach by a ball, and as he fell, he exclaimed to his body.servant, “ Lehman, I am killed; take care of my body.” But he fell in the moment of victory. The day was won. He was finally buried by the side of his parents in Connecticut. All the states and cities through which his remains passed rose up and did him honor.
The great historian of the country says of him, “ His military services were beyond all praise ; his character, as described to me, was beautifully correct, and his sad death reflects infinite honor on his own memory."
August 13 a battle was fought near Grafton, Virginia, where the rebels were defeated with a loss of twenty-one killed. The 21st, a battle was fought at Bird's Point, with forty rebels killed, and seventeen taken.
September 1 there was a fight at Boon Court House, Virginia, with a rebel loss of thirty, and the village burned. On the 10th Floyd was defeated by Rosencranz at Carni. fax Perry. On the 12th was fought the battle of Cheat Mountain, where the rebels lost Colonel John O. Washington, the rebel proprietor of Mount Vernon. On tbe 20th Colonel Mulligan, at Lexington, surrendered to twenty-six thousand rebels under Price, after four days' fighting, with loss of two thousand five hundred men.
October 9 the attack was made upon Wilson's Zouaves at Santa Rosa Island by one thousand five hundred rebels, who were defeated and signally punished. The 21st occurred the great defeat at Edwards' Ferry on the Potomac, where one thousand five hundred of our men were attacked by douðle their number. Colonel Baker was among the slain.
Colonel Baker. Edward Dickinson Baker was born in London, February 24, 1811. He was killed at Ball's Bluff, October 21, 1861. His years were a few months more than half a century. His father was a man of education and refinement, his mother a sister of Captain Thomas Dickinson of the British navy, an officer of distinction, who fought under Collingwood at Trafalgar. At five years of age he came with his parents to America. He lived ten years in Philadelphia. In 1825 his faiher moved west, and opened a successful srhool on the Lancasterian principle in Belleville, St. Clair County, Illinois. Here young Baker developed — a ravenous reader, a boy of fine conversation and manner, of a strong memory, and spent his days reading, drawing, learning, and enjoying society of the best kind in the State. From thence he went to Carrollton, in Green County, and studied law with Judge Caverly, and then practised for some time with indifferent success. Here he married a lady of high character, who still survives him on the shores of the Pacific. In 1836 he removed to Springfield, the capital of the State. In 1837 he was elected to fill a vacancy in the legislature. He paid lite le attention to legislative business; but if an opponent was to be demolished, or an obnoxious measure defeated, he was the champion called upon to do it. He was State senator from 1840 to 1814. All this time he was in assiduous practice of the law. In 1844 he was elected to Congress from the Sangamon District, and was serving there with distinction when the Mexican war broke out. Fall of military fire, he left Washington, and raised the "Fourth Illinois " in Springfield, and embarked for the war. Arriving at Matamoras he was sent to Washington as bearer of dispatches, made a splendid speech for the cause of the volunteers in his seat, and then resigned it. He rejoined his regiment in time to be in at the victory of Vera Cruz, and advanced with Scott's army into the interior.
At Cerro Gordo, Shields was disabled. Baker sprang to the head of his brigade, charged a masked battery, took it, and completed an utter rout of the Mexican army. He was succeeded in his congressional district by Abraham Lincoln. He left Springfield, and went to Galena, and in a few months went to Congress. Here he labored some time with industry and success. He declined a re-election, formed a business connection with the Panama Railroad Company, and went to trouble and sickness at the head of four hundred men into the hot breath of Panama. He slowly recovered from a terrible sickness. He returned, restless still. He went to California in 1852, and early became chief among the lawyers of that State. Here he made money, friends, and fame. Unhappy at the murder of his friend Broderick, he went to Oregon, and, entering into the election of 1859, headed the republican party of the State. He was proposed for the Senate, and was elected. This was the summit of his ambition. He went to Washington, and all along the route scattered his jewels of eloquence. He went to the Senate, and for once stood among his peers. Rebellion lifted her red hand, and the din of war called him to the field. His friend, the President, offered him a brigadier generalship. It was declined, and so was the commission of a major general. He was in for work, not fame. He commenced recruiting. Men flocked to fill his ranks. There was a charm in his name. He settled all his private affairs — the winds of eternity had whispered to him. He was at Ball's Bluff. He rode in front of his men with his left hand in his breast. He spoke cool, encouraging words to his men, They fought, he fought, with a terribly cool bravery. The battle was desperate. Though hopeless, they knew only to fight. A sudden flash from a near covert of the enemy, and Baker was dead.
So lived and fell one of the restless and resistless geniuses and heroes of western life, - of American history. Uneducated in the rules of the schools, he was a polished orator; trained more to the life of western activities, he had the history of the scholar and the point of the rhetorician. Not labored, he was running over with the fluency of his thought and language. Apparently indolent in his habits, there was always a clean and beautiful finish in bis performances. He was a man of “positive and aggressive character," but his soft persuasions were such that he could win golden opinions even among his most bitter political opponents. In the backwoods of the West he was
restless, energetic, powerful; in the fierce, hot life of California, he was to hold respect and esteem by skill with pistol and tongue, the only recognized representatives of manliness in those regions; and in the United States Senate, or in the mass-meeting of New York City, he could adopt the high range of sentiment, and cultivate all styles of expression and discussion that become the leaders in those positions. With books or bayonets, senators or gold-diggers, sentimentalists or unscrupulous politicians, he could meet each on his own footing, and convince him that he had a man before him, subtle, conl, energetic, persuasive. Baker will make Ball's Bluff immortal.
November 1, Lieutenant-General Scott resigned his command of the Union army, and McClellan took his place. The same day Floyd was again defeated by Rosencranz at Gaulay Bridge. On the 8th was fought the battle of Belmont, where our forces were compelled to retire to their boats before large re-enforcements of the rebels. On the 15th, Captain Wilkes brought Mason and Slidell to New York, having taken them from a British steamer. At Mumfordville, on Green River, Kentucky, on the 17th the rebels were defeated, with thirty-three killed and thirty-three wounded. On the 18th General Pope surprised a rebel camp, and took one thousand three hundred prisoners, including three colonels and seventeen captains, and all their camp stores and equipage December 20 was fought the battle of Drainsville, where the rebels were again defeated with considerable loss.
This closed the year of 1861. Rebellion was assuming greater proportions every day, and so, too, were the means for defence. The North had but one will — the Union must be preserved. In that idea they did not falter.
Lander. Among the greatest losses sustained by Massachusetts in this war, is the death of Brigadier-General Frederick William Lander of Salem, who was wounded at Ball's Bluff, and who died of a congestive fever aggravated by his wound, at Camp Chase, on the upper line of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.
He was a son of Captain Edward Lander, and was born at Salem, Dec. 17, 1822. He chose the position of civil engineer early in life. He was educated at the Dummer Academy, Byfield, and completed his education as engineer at Partridge's Academy. He was always characterized by a great fondness for field sports, manly exercise, and adventure. He entered the service of the government some ten years since, and was one of the most active and energetic among those engaged in the exploration of the raiiroad routes to the Pacific. He bad the command of an expedition in 1858, to open a wagon road to California' across the plains. He made five explorations across the continent, as engineer, chief engineer, or superintendent. He was superintendent of the last surveys for the great wagon road, and he did his work with such celerity and efficlency, that he was highly complimented by the Secretary of the Interior in his official report. Of the appropriations made by Congress in two seasons alone for the construction of these roads, he brought back $100,000 of unexpended funds. He was one honest employé of the government. His experience in these explorations made his judgment extremely valuable in regard to the routes for the Pacific Railroad, and Committees of both Houses of Congress had frequent recourse to his knowledge and judgment. At one time he organized a party, at his own expense, and surveyed a route from Washington Territory, through California, to the western part of Missouri. In some cases he had to fight the Indians, and rout them, to save his life, and proceed with his enterprises. In these expeditions he became acquainted with, and the personal friend of our commanding General, McClellan. His public services brought him in contact with most of the great men of the time, and he was honored by all.
On the breaking out of the rebellion he offered himself to his country. He was made brigadier-general of volunteers. He served with great efficiency as aid to General McClellan, in Western Virginia. On the 2d of June, in the command of the 9th Indiana and 14th Ohio Regiments, in conjunction with Col. Kelly with another detachment, they marched through a fearful storm, attacked and shelled out the rebels at Phillippi. On the 11th of July, at the battle of Rich Mountain, “ Col. Lander," the official report said, " led the leaders into the fight.” Upon the earnest solicitation of General McClellan, Governor Sprague, and Senator Carlisle, he was made a brigadier-general, and assigned an important station. During the disaster at Ball's Bluff he was at Washington, arranging for the opening of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. As soon as he received intelligence of the action, he hastened to the spot, and on the 22d was wounded in the leg by a musket ball, in the skirmish which he had with the rebels opposite Edwards' Ferry. He took the field, after his confinement, too early, and over exposure and excitement speedily developed the disease that caused his death, which occurred March 2d, 1862.
His sister, the celebrated sculptress, makes her home in Italy, but is now a Florence Nightingale in the hospitals at Washington. He married Miss Davenport, a lady whose qualities of head and heart and whose dramatic genius are well known.
The most important feat performed by him was the opening of the railroad and telegraph to Hancock, Virginia, which he accomplished with two thousand men, in two columns, marching thirty-two miles in an incredibly short space of time. This act celled out a war bulletin from Secretary Stanton, highly complimentary to his abilities.
At his death, the commanding general issued an order announcing his death, and paid him the highest er.comiums of friendship and respect.
When his remains came to his home, they were honored by all the respect that his fellow-citizens and the State authorities could bestow. He lived a life of heroism, and died honored, - a good destiny.
"I shall enter on no encomium of Massachusetts; she needs none. There she is. Behold her, and judge for yourselves. There is her history; the world knows it by heart. The past, at least, is secure. There is Boston, and Concord, and Lexington, and Bunker Hill; and there they will remain forever. And, sir, where American liberty first raised its voice, and where its youth was nurtured and sustained, there it still lives, In the strength of Its manhood, and full of its original spirit. If discord and disunjon shall rend it, if party strife and blind ambition shall pluck at and tear it, if folly and madness, if uneasiness under salutary and necessary restraint shall succeed in separating it from the Union, by which alone its existence is made sure, it will stand, in the end, by the side of that cradle in which it. Infaney was rocked ; it will stretch 'forth its arm with whatever of vigor it may still retain over the friends who gather round; and it will fall at last, ir fall it must, amidst the proudest monuments of its own glory, and on the very spot of its origin.” – WEBSTER.
Thus spoke the great defender of the Constitution; and what he has spoken becomes history. The loyal millions of the North defend that Constitution, and that Unioni, with their arms, that the great debater defended with his unapproachable eloquence. States marshal themselves in a column of defence, and Massachusetts, true to her glorious old historic memories, leads the attack. She is the great American Pioneer of ideas; for these ideas she first led the attack upon the dogmas of priestcraft and kingcraft, which had so long shut the gates of mercy upon mankind ; first led the attack upon taxation without representation - and why should she not be the first to lead the attack upon the treason of the Oligarchy?
And what is this question with which Massachusetts has to deal? It is a question between law and anarchy - between democracy and a dictator - between the Goth and the Roman. Massachusetts springs into the arena as one of the great arbiters, to strike the balance with the sword. When she strikes, it is not for the depression, but for the exaltation of the human race. So she has always struck; and history is full of the effectiveness of her blows.
The Mayflower brought here the germ of the future state. The fruit has not ripened to belic the golden merit of the germ. Carver and Bradford, signing that social compact in the cabin of the Mayflower, had no thought but that of justice, equity, equality, and the full development of the man, in an infant state, freed from the historical memories and feudal oppressions of England. They dreamed of a new empire, and in Massachusetts have their children seen the fruition of that dream.
Those honest men made religion the basis of their new state. In this we do not see a blind faith, but an intelligent worship under the supremacy of law, subjected to priuciples, and these principles the edict of God, written on the pages of the Bible, of naiure, and in the heart of man. They signed that compact with conscientious motives, and we aver, against the assertions of all cavillers, that conscientious motives, from that day to this day, have been the guiding spirit of the development of this Massachu. seits State. What she has believed right, she has done; what she has believed wrong, she has desisted from doing. Of her wisdom, at all times, we will not speak; we only exalt the unvarying integrity of her purpose. Not a savage fell slain by her sword, not a woman burned as a witch, not a bullet sped at Lexington or at Bunker Hill, but each act was done under obedience to that which was believed to be the Higher Powir. Her wisdom may be impeached - her integrity, never. We do not forget her intolerance, the connection of church and state, nor negro slavery, nor Hartford Conventions. They are all blemishes ; but they stand as evidence of want of wisdom, not want of integrity.
It is needless to point out the brilliant passages of her history; they are known, She was the first Staie planted and raised on this continent for higher motives than mere gain; the first to adopt the pure democracy in politics ; the first to declare universal liberty, equality, and toleration; and in her government, schools, literature, mercantile integrity, industry, and in the innovating power of her ideas, she is the first of all the States. She has sent so much vigor, power, enterprise, and ambition to the great North-west, that she may look up to her, and call her Mother.
Hence she should have been the first to speed ruin to this rebellion, which struck at Plymouth Rock, at Bunker Hill, at Lexington, to destroy their sacred political signiticance forever. Not to have been in Baltimore, on the 19th of April, 1861, were worse tban not to have been at Lexington, on the 19th of April, 1775. As her record in the establishment of independence was glorious, so is, and will be, her record in the second great war for independence. All her power, wealih, talent, genius, will come up to the labor, and she will do more than achieve, she will deserve success.
Legislative Action. Four facts stood out prominently in the response of Massachusetts to the Proclamation of the President. First, the excellent system for the organization and discipline of the military force of the State; second, ihe ascertaining at head-quarters of the