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The President's Proclamations. The news of the fall of Sumter went like a thunderbolt through the land. The martial spirit of the people was aroused. These gups were not heard clashing their iron hail against the walls of that fort alone. The people heard them breaking their force against the temple which their fathers had builded, and shattering it to atoms. They felt that law, order, peace, the foundations of the Republic, had been outraged, and that there was no release from the obligation to rise up, and, as one matı, rush to the annihilation of the powers of the Rebellion. Never British blood nor Celtic ire leaped quicker at an outrage offered to their nation's honor, than did the American spring to redeem his flag from this deep disgrace.
Before, the President had hesitated to precipitate events, for fear that he might add one straw to the lighting of the fires of civil war among thirty millions of people. He would rather err on the side of mercy; he would rather be slow to anger; slow to hurl the North and the South, those two gigantic powers, against each other in mortal conflict. Hence the myrmidons of secession were allowed to build their batteries, point their guns, and threaten to belch their fires upon the cherished institutions of the Union, as long as a hope was left that they might repent of their haste, and withdraw from their work of ruin. But now the last ray of hope was fled. The President of the United States had nothing to do but to strike in return. Justice, mercy, duty to millions, urged him to strike, and he no longer hesitated. He immediately called his counsellors together. They heard the cry of the people, and that it was to arms. As their official Executive, he saw there was no cause, no time for deliberation. Immediately the proclamation went forth, on the 15th of April, the day after Snimter fell, for 75,000 men to execute the laws of the land. As the laws of the Union were obstructed in South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas, by combinations too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary means, he thought kit to call forth the militia of the several States to the number of 76,000, to execute the laws. He appealed to all loyal people to aid in maintaining the nation's honor, the perpetuity of popular government, and to redress the wrongs already long enough endured.
And here comes a part of the Proclamation that should be read by all men in the South ; that should be fastened upon their doorposts, so that they could not fail to understand it, and show that this is a war not against the legal rights of any man, - that it is to protect all men, and the peace of the country.
" I deem it proper," he said, " to say that the first service assigned to the forces hereby, called forth, will probably be to repossess the forts, places, and property which have been seized from the Union; and in every event, the utmost care will be observed, consistently with the objects aforesaid, to avoid any devastation, any destruction of, or interference with property, or any disturbance of peaceful citizens in any part of the country.”
He commanded ihe persons composing these combinations to retire peaceably to their respective abodes within twenty days from date.
He also summoned both Senators and Representatives to assemble ju their respective Chambers at noon, on July 4th, and there determine such measures as the public safety and interest might demand.
On the 19th of April, he issued another Proclamation, declaring the ports of the States of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas theports of all the States that had seceded - in a state of blockade.
On the 27th of April, he issued another Proclamation, declaring the ports of Virginia and North Carolina under blockade, they having seceded since the date of the preceding Proclamation.
On the 3d of May, he deemed it necessary to issue another Proclamation, calling for 42,000 volunteers to serve for three years, unless they were sooner uischarged. He also directed that the regular army be increased by 22,714 men ; and also called for the enlistment of 18,000 seamen for the naval service.
On the 10th of May, he declared, by Proclamation, martial law upon the islands of Key West, the Tortugas, and Santa Rosa, and Florida.
On the 12th of August, he also issued another Proclamation, appointing the last Thursday in September as a day of humiliation and prayer and fasting, for all the people of the nation.
And on the 16th of August, he issued his last Proclamation, declaring the seceded States in a state of insurrection, and interdicted all commercial intercourse with them.
Immediately upon the first Proclamation, the Secretary of War issued a call to the Governors of the several States for three months' men, to be detailed from the militia of the State, for each man to take the oath of allegiance to the Government, and to be mustered into the service of the United States as soon as possible.
The national Executive had done his duty. He had not precipitated war upon the country; war had been forced upon him; and now, às Commander-in-Chief, he could fight, and feel the power of justice was in his sword. It only remained for the people to respond to his call, and by their acts show to him, and to all the world, whether or not it was so easy to break in two the Great Republic.
Response of the People. The Fiery Cross had gone forth; the summons to twenty-five millions had been sounded, and on the instant, we saw a "noble and puissant nation rousing herself like a strong man from sleep, and shaking her invincible locks." Time enough had been spent in urging measures of conciliation. Force was now the only appeal. The North
ern 'Giant, calm in his haste, buckled on the Vulcanian panoply of war, and began to show stern front to Hydra-headed Rebellion. The people felt the magnitude of their task, and showed themselves equal to its undertaking.
Secessia received the Proclamation with storms of denunciation; she rushed like a headless and infuriated mob to any and all points where she could steal, capture, and destroy, to thwart the action of the President.
Citizens, but not governments, in the Southern border States, hesitated to take the fearful plunge. The Executives of every State South, save that of Delaware and Maryland, threw their swords into the Southern balancé.
The madness of the Secessionists became a frenzy to grasp the material and the advantages of war. They declared to all the South that they had been attacked, that the war was to be a war for their subjugation, that it was the ambition of the North to rule by the sword, and to make war upon their institutions. They only asked to be let alone, and there would be no war. Certainly there can be no fighting if we do not oppose the assassin aiming at our life.
With this logic in their mouths, the Government was denounced, and the Union was to be overthrown. Governor Magoffin, of Kentucky, positively refused to furnish men "to aid," as be said, “in subduing the sister Southern States." Governor Harris, of Tennessee, would not furnish men for the Union, but, if necessary, 50,000 against it. Governor Jackson, of Missouri, and Ellis, of North Carolina, followed in ihe footsteps of Magoffin and Harris. Governor Letcher, of Virginia, forgetting and trampling under his feet the memories of Henry and Madison, Jefferson and Washington, replied to the Secretary of War, and told him that he derided the useless purpose of subjugating the South, and that Virginia would not furnish troops for that purpose, but would send troops to oppose it with determination.
Immediately upon the passage of the ordinance of secession in secret session by a vote of 60 to 59, he recognized the Southern Confederacy by proclamation, ordered the sinking of vessels at the entrance of Norfolk harbor, and issued a proclamation for the militia of the State to hold itself in readiness to answer an iminediate call for action. He struck for Harper's Ferry, with its 15,000 stand of arms and machinery, but the gallant Lieutenant Jones snatched them from his grusp, by their sudden destruction. He attempted to seize the Gosport navy yard, but that was destroyed, and the ships of war Pennsylvania, Delaware, Columbus, Merrimac, Raritan, Columbia, Germantowe, Plymouth, Dolphin, and United States, were scuttles and set on fire, and the Cumberland was towed out. Governor Hicks, of Maryland, Unionist, refusing to convene the Maryland Legislature, gave the President notice that no more troops could go through Baltimore without fighting their way. Of all the Southern States, Governor Barton, of Delaware, on the 26th of April, called for Union troops. Davis, the dictator, replied to the proclamation by calling for 32,000 men from the seceded States, and issuing his Letters of Marque and Reprisal to prey upon Northern commerce, thus adding barbarism to treason.
The North, too, sprang to its feet. Governors convened legislatures, and not a single Executive became false to his allegiance to the Constitution of the United States. The Banks everywhere offered their capital for furnishing supplies, arming and equipping troops, and forwarding them immediately to the seat of war. The banks of Boston vored a loan of ten per cent. of their capital; and the legislature of New York voted 30,000 men and 3,000,000 of money for the same patriotic purpose. Prominent men everywhere, those distinguished for their integrity and influence, by letter and by public speech, joined their voices in encouraging the people to do the great work before them. Meeting, were held in every town and city, resolves passed, money raised, and men enlisted. In the principal cities exasperated people, no longer willing to suffer patiently with those whose principles struck at the heart of law, visited men, and newspaper offices, suspected of sympathy with secession, compelled them to disavow their sentiments, and raise the stars and stripes. The Flag of the Union never before received such homage. Its folds appeared upon every housetop in the Northern States, and men looked upon them with a new honor, love and reverence, Union badges, the red, white, and blue, were worn by everybody, so that all men declared their principles to all men upon the street. Everywhere, partisan feeling was laid aside; the people knew no Democrat, no Republican, no Abolitionist; all men moved to the step and the music of the Union. New York, the metropolis in which secession dreamed that she saw sufficient corruption to aid her treason, would listen to nothing but sentiments of loyalty, and pledged her millions, at the hands of her merchant princes, to crush secession at its birth. Rhode Island, though the smallest of the States, was not behind the old Bay State, and the Empire Sate, in the promptitude of her reply to the call of the President, and in her action, gave herself a glorious record upon the page of history. Military companies sprang up ready armed, like Minerva from the head of Jupiter, from Maine to Minnesota, from the Northern lakes to Mason and Dixon's line, and begged to be sent to the scene of action. The Germans, Irish, Scotch, and English- men who had Aed from the Old World's oppressions and luxuries — flew to arms to defend their adopted country. In secession they saw only an oligarchy and a tyrant, who would, in America, enact another thousand years of Europe, with its age of bitterness for man, and only its few years of glory: Not only partisan and sectonal strife were forgotten, but Protestant and Catholic, who had been at battle since the days of Luther, forgot their religious differences, joined hands, sent their prayers to one God of battles, and asked Him to crown their united purpose with victory.
Thus, in the North, the State authorities and the people collected their scattered elements of strength, and awakened their dormant thunders," to hurl destruction upon Secession; upon those seeking to encompass the ruin of the best government' on earth, or of history. Governors and legislatures, without one word or thought of treason, or of sympathy with those who had been, for two centuries, their Southern brethren, now that the hour of compromise and of patience had gone, and the hour of war had come, sprang forth to seize every advantage that nature and prosperity had placed in their hands, to sustain what the South would destroy. The moral grandeur of the spectacle was sublime in the extreme. Neither Greece at Thermopylæ, nor Rome with an Attila at her gates, stood clothed with mightier habiliments of moral power. Before the authorized national Executive had spoken the behest of law, the people stood with folded arms, waiting and hoping that the South would return to her reason; stood calm, and saw their forts and arsenals stolen, seized, dismantled, and turned against them, - saw frowning batteries ready to storm iron hail upon their garrisons and beloved flag, which, in all its history, had never been humbled; yet moved not to defence, and spoke words of conciliation and candor. But when the law said war, war it was. This patience of the people; this respect of the people for law; this sudden and united uprising of the people in solid Macedonian phalanx, gave the lie to the political philosophy of a Palmerston and a Derby, to the carping critics and admirers of an effeminate European aristocracy, who had no faith in the moral dignity of man, no faith in self-government, no faith in the American democracy. The highest results of civilization in the British Epire, the uprising of her people agairst the tyranny of a Stuart or a Guelph, can show no higher deed. Democracy, for all the ages, was vindicated.
Continuance of the Rebellion. We have sketched the opening of the war, the Proclamation of the President, and the response of the people; now we propose a brief sketch of the rebellion.
Apr. 23, John Bell, of Tennessee, cast his lot with rebellion. He, with many others, was borne down by the tempest of popular treason. Everywhere in the North, and in the South, on the last of April, all was confusion and disorder. The Governors of the Southern States were using their executive functions to aid the advances of rebellion; the armed mobs, and those who had the name of troops, were seizing and destroying, and appropriating to their own purposes bonds and monies of the United States in the collectors' offices, steamers and vessels belonging to Northern men, forts and arms. Numerous Southerners, in Washington, refused to take the oath of allegiance, and resigned their positions.
May saw the continuance of disorder. The bill to hold a State convention passed the legislature of North Carolina, when secession became evident for that State also. The Connecticut legislature, actuated by a different principle, voted $2,000,000 to sustain the government. May sixth, Virginia, the mother of Presidents, was admitted to the Southern Confederacy; the Arkansas convention voted, 69 to 1, to secede; the rebel Congress made public the War and Privateering Act; and the Kentucky legislature met to drag that old State out of the Union, if possible; and on the next day the Governor of Tennessee announced a military league between that State and the Southern Confederacy. Between this time and the 24th, the same activity exhibited itself in all the States, North and South; troops rushing to Washington from the North, and rebels arming and organizing in all the South. The most noticeable fact of these days was the attempt of the rebels to take Kentucky out of the Union, under the lead of her traitor Governor Magoftin. On the twentieth, when he found it impossible to coerce her into disunion, he issued his proclamation of Neutrality - thus giving a quasi assistance to rebellion, and resistance to the North.
On the 24th occurred the general advance of the Union forces across the Potomac into Virginia, for the purpose of occupying Arlington Heights, which commanded the City of Washington, and erecting defences against the approach of the rebels in that direction. Upon their advance, ine rebels evacuated Alexandria, which was immedi. ately occupied by our forces under Col. Ellsworth. At this time occurred the death of Ellsworth, who was shot by the traitor Jackson, the landlord of the Marshall House.
Ellsworth. Colonel Ephraim Elmer Ellsworth was born at Mechanicsville, a small town in Saratoga County, N. Y., on the banks of the Hudson, April 23, 1837. His father's fortunes were completely wrecked in the financial disasters of that period, and he was never able to retrieve them. Young Ellsworth was thrown on his own resources. After various employments in Troy and New York, and pursuing studies at a great sacrifice that peculiarly fitted him to enter West Point, and after ineffectual attempts to enter that place, and his failure for the want of political influence, he removed to Chicago, and there successfully engaged in business as a patent agent. Fraud deprived him of much of the fruit of his industry. Not losing heart, he resolved upon the study of law, and coined something by copying in those hours that others were devoting to relaxation. But war was his predilection; and he perfected himself in the exercise of the swordsman, marksman and the gymnast. He looked upon these for higher purposes than those of the duelist; he sought to improve by popularizing the lightinfantry drill of the militia. For this purpose he studied the light-infantry drill of France, as exercised in Africa, Russia and Italy. He devoted himself to a thorough study of the French Manual, translated under the direction of Hardee. Having made himself its master, he gathered around him a number of young men of temperate habits and athletic bodies, and thus organized the United States Zouave Cadets, of Chicago, - the first American Zouave company. Tobacco and intoxicating liquors were not to be used by any member of his company, upon pain of expulsion. He discarded the old uniform, and adopted one that gave perfect freedom to the limbs and body. He drilled his company for about a year, and also gave his attention to similar organizations in Springfield and Rockford. At the United States Agricultural Fair he won the colors, only to keep them until some other company could show a superior ability.
In July, 1860, they came East, and everywhere attracted enthusiastic crowds. In New York they filled the Academy of Music, and the streets, to suffocation. All men who saw him, and his influence over his men, felt that he had a wonderful genius for command.
In the Presidential election he advanced the cause of Lincoln by his popularity and his appeals. He formed a volunteer regiment on his return from the East, and tendered its services to the Governor, conscious that he saw war in the future. He exerted himself to influence the Legislature of Illinois to pass a military bill for putting that State upon a better footing to meet any emergency of war, but failed to effect his object. He was known to the President elect, and at his request accompanied him to Washington to receive a lieutenant's commission as preliminary to his entrance :0 the War Department, where he hoped to create the Militia Bureau of which he had long been preparing a plan.
The war broke out - the call was made for volunteers — Ellsworth, disgusted with the politica! corruption of Washington, hastened to New York, to raise a Zouave regiment of the firemen of that city, whose metal he well knew. He had an interview with the Chief of the Fire Department; the Chief issued the call, and in two days twelve hundred names were enrolled. Ten companies were accepted, and proceeded to Fort Hamilton to drill. He was now in his element. His regiment became the pet of New York. They received their stand of colors before leaving the city. On the second of May, less than three weeks after he had left Washington, alone, without authority, with nothing but his own will, he was again in that city at the head of a splendid regiment, created from the citizens by his own energy. He worked on, drilling and controlling his regiment, a task most difficult to perform, but one to which he was entirely equal. May 22 the order came to march to Alexandria. He went there with his regiment. Finding that no resistance would be offered, he gave the necessary orders to have the railroad communication interrupted, and proceeded in person with a small detachment to seize the telegraph. Catching sight of a secession fag, over the Marshall House, he entered, and asked what flag that was. The man replied that he knew nothing of it; that he was only a lodger. Ellsworth proceeded to the roof, cut down the flag, and, on his way down, Jackson sprang forward from a corner, and aimed a double-barreled fuwling piece at Ellsworth's breast. Private Brownell, in front, tried to strike it up, but the assassin discharged the piece, driving into his very heart a gold circlet on which were these words, “Non nobis sed pro patria.” Brownell immediately slew the assassin. Ellsworth's remains were taken to the East Room of the White House, at the request of the President. He and his Cabinet accompanied them to the depot on their way to New York. At New York they were laid in state in the Governor's room. A funeral procession of great length accompanied his remains to the river; aud at the home of his childhood, amid the fury of a storm, they were committed to the earth.
We can give no more enduring comment upon the character of this man, than appears by quoting the last letter which he wrote to his parents the night before moving to Alexandria :
HEAD QUARTERS FIRST Zouaves, Camp LINCOLN,
Washington, May 23. My Dear FATHER AND MOTHER:
The regiment is ordered to move across the river to night. We have no means of knowing what reception we are to meet with. I am inclined to the opinion that our entrance into Alexandria will be hotly contested, as I am just informed a large force have arrived there to-day. Should that happen, iny dear parents, it may be my lot to be injured in some manner.
Whatever may happen, cherish the consolation that I was engaged in the performance of a sacred duty; and to-night, thinking over the probabilities of the morrow, and the occurrences of the past, I am perfectly content to accept whatever my fortune' may be, confident that He who noteth even the fall of a sparrow will have some purpose even in the fate of one like me. My darling and ever loved parents, good-by. God bless, protect and care for you.
ELMER. This advance of the Union troops into Virginia was the vanguard of the Northern army. It was saluted as an invasion by Virginia, in her deep degeneracy. In the estimation of many, the ermine of the Supreine Court of the United States was also tarnished by treason, in the attempt of the Chief Justice to put the military authorities in such an exigency under the hand of that court, in the Meryman case. On the 27th of May, Jefferson Davis, with his rebel Congress, reached Richmond, Virginia, and the blockade of the Mississippi was commenced ; and May 31, General Lyon took command, in the place of General Harney, at St. Louis. Thus, the end of May saw no abatement in the designs of the rebels.
The next battle of any importance was fought at Philippi, Virginia, by Col. Kelly, with a loss of 16 killed and ten prisoners to the enemy, and the Union men lost only two killed, and Col, Kelly wounded.
June 1st occurred the battle of Big Bethel, near Fortress Monroe, an unfortunate attempt being made to surprise the enemy. Our forces were repulsed with 14 killed and 45 wounded. Among the number killed were Lieutenant Greble and Major Winthrop, the next signal martyrs of the war.
Greble. John Lunt Greble was born in Philadelphia, on the 19th of January, 1834. He was of honorable German parentage, whose ancestors distinguished themselves in the Revolution, at Monmouth and Princeton. As a boy, he
was studious, yet had the qualities of firmness and courage strongly developed. In 1850 he received an appoinsment as cadet at West Point, and on the 1st of July, 1854, graduated with high honors in his class. He immediately entered the army, received a commission as brevet second lieutenant in the Second Artillery, and was stationed at Newport barracks. In September he was made second lieutenant, and went to Tampa, Florida. He was engaged here two years, and took active part in the Indian troubles caused by Billy Bowlegs. After going home sick, in 1856 he returned with recruits, and resumed active service, and discharged, for a time, the duties of quartermaster and commissary;. In December, 1856, he was appointed acting assistant professor of Ethics at the military acadeiny, and held that position until Oct. 1860, having, in the mean time, been promoted to a first lieutenancy. As professor, he was required to give instruction in History, Rhetoric, Elocution, International and Constitutional Law, the Constitution of the United States, and Logic. In October, 1860, as he repeatedly solicited active service, he was ordered to Fortress Monroe. "On May 26th he was sent to Newport News, as Master of Ordnance. Here the three thousand volunteers looked to him for real instruction. He superintended the works here mentioned, and also gave them instruction in the handling of artillery, Col. Phelps, commandant at Newport News, was ordered to march at midnight, and attack and surprise the rebels at Little Bethel. Greble was detailed by him to command the artillery. He obeyed with alacrity, but remarked to a brother officer that the expedition was 'ill-advised that no good could come of it, and that he feared that he would not come off the field alive. At midnight he left Newport News with two six-pounders, with only two mules to draw the one, and 100 men the other. Two miles in the advance, with one gun and 11 artillerymen, he heard firing in the rear. He returned to the point, and found his other gun firing into a Brooklyn regiment. This notified the enemy of his approach, when they retired to their works at Camp Creek. In sight of the enemy's works, he planted his gun, opened fire, and steadily advanced to within 100 yards of the works. When urged to retire, or dodge the balls, he refused, and kept up his fire for two hours, silencing all the enemy's guns, but one, by the accuracy of his aim. They made a sortie; he drove them back with his grape. The officers near him urged him to dodge or retreat, when he replied, “I never dodge: and when I hear the notes of the bugle calling a retreat, I will retreat, and not before.” Only five of his men remained ; and, as it was evident that no command existed on the field, he gave the order to limber up the gun, and take it away, when a ball struck him in the temple, and he fell, exclaiming, “Oh, my God!” Philadelphia did him honor in her last attentions to his remains.
Winthrop. Major Theodore Winthrop was born in New Haven, on the 22d of September, 1828. He was grave, delicate, precocious. At 16 be entered Yale; became the idol of his college friends; studied for the Clark scholarship, and won it; studied for the Berkeleian scholarship, but another being judged equal, they drew lots; the other won, and then divided the honor. Greek and mental philosophy were his favorite studies. He had a right to be called a scholar by nature. His mother was a great-granddaughter of President Edwards; and, among his relatives on his mother's side, he counted six presidents of colleges. But for failing health, he would have studied for a professorship or the ministry. He graduated in 1848, when 20 years old. He travelled for his health ; went to England; spent some time at Oxford; walked through Scotland; went to France and Germany; explored Switzerland on foot, and did a great deal of walking in Italy and Greece. Becoming acquainted with Mr. W. H. Aspinwall in Italy, he became tutor to his son on his return; and then returned and spent six months more in Italy with him. After a short time he entered Mr. Aspinwall's counting.room. Subsequently he was engaged by the Pacific Steam-Ship Company, and went to Panama. He was gone two years; and, in the mean time, travelled through California, Oregon, went to Vancouver's Island, Puget Sound, and the Hudson Bay Company's station there. After another expedition, he returned home, studied law, and was admitied to the bar. He entered Fremont's political campaign, and did heroic labor for him in the dark places of Pennsylvania. The following year he went to St. Louis to practise law, but his health was not equal to the climate. He returned to New York, and could not be a lawyer. His brain was full of other fancies. He became a constant visitor to Church's studio; presided at the development of that great picture the Heart of the Andes. He was a writer, - a man of ideas. His pen was always by him, always prolific. His first public article was the description of the N. Y. 7th, in its march to Washington, and published in the June, '61, number of the Atlantic. The war, the proclamation came. He marched with the Seventh N. Y., as all supposed to battle. 'At Fortress Monroe he was made acting military secretary