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tical, financial and social questions which occupy time, the rights of person were not violated in the National Assembly. During the four days of France, if property was generally respected, it June, he might have been seen, musket in hand, his was not that they were protected by a governface black with powder, perhaps grim with blood. ment. All that the so-called government, did do, I don't know upon which side he fought. Step now or could do, was, not to command, but to conciwith me the distance of a square, and enter one of liate, pacify and coax the mob, which was rethe theatres. There is a middle-aged gentleman, ally master. There was a furious animal, onmuz. with his wife and daughter. He seems as entirely zled in the street, ready to leap opon and tear 80free from care and happy—and he laughs as hear-ciety to atoms. For four mortal months, daily safetily at Arnal's drolleries, as he did in the palmiest ty was purchased only by daily sacrifices. Society days of Louis Philippe, when business went on pros- slood tremblingly in dread every moment, lest the perously and no body dreamed of republics, insur- ravenous beast should reject the offering and leap rection, and communism. He has not sold as much upon its prey. Was this fearsul state of things during the last four months as he did during three never to end? The mob must be seized, mastered, weeks of the same period last year. Follow him confined, or there was an end to eivilization and home. He was on duty, as national guard to day. society. This was done after the terrible struggle and you will find that before going to bed he places of June. The mob has now a master-it crouches. his uniform where it can be easily gotten at, and Bat is society entirely reassured? Is commerce sees that his musket and cartridge box are ready revived? Is confidence restored ? No. Are the for use, not knowing but to-morrow he may be again shops filled with customers ? are the boulevards and engaged in deadly conflict for family and property. the Champs Elysées peopled as before ? Have the
Russians and the English returned 10 Paris ? are Carpe diem, &c.,
the thousands of houses lately vacant, rented ? No.
No! Why? Because every body feels that the preis his motto too. But I don't believe that if to- sent safety is produced only by a temporary and morrow our friend were called upon to vote by se extraordinary measure. Put an end to the state of cret ballot upon the question, “Republic or Monar- siege, and presto! relieved from the military hand chy ?" he would cast his vote for the Republic. which now represses insurrection, the mob will re
The theatres and other places of public amuse- appear in the streets. Confidence and prosperity ment, are indeed being opened and they are well will not be permanently restored until ibere is a altended. But this is not so sure an index of re- strong and permanent government established. Is turning confidence as would at first be supposed. a government of sufficient strengih, practicable unSince the insurrection of June, the clubs have been der republican forms ? I believe not. Such is the closed. It was they that drew away every night present condition of Paris ; and such it will probathe crowds who had been the support of the thea- bly continue for a month or several months more, tres. Frenchmen cannot spend their evenings qui- so long as the state of siege is preserved. Bat this elly at home. They don't kuow what domestic en- is no republic. The press, the clubs, the people, joyment is. If they are not amused with public are under a role as arbitrary as that of Napoleon spectacles, they will conspire in clubs. The uni- or of the Emperor of Russia. There is no such versality of clubs during the months of May and thing as free deliberation, or discussion, any where June, caused the theatres to be so deserted, that at except in the National Assembly itself, which deone tiine they were all closed, and government, in creed the state of siege, and may end it at pleaaddition to the regular annual allowance accorded But it is necessary and is therefore acquito several of them, voted a large sum to enable esced in. Will it not continue to be necessary! them to open and struggle on till winter. The in- Yes : and it will have sooner or later to be made surrection of June took place, the clubs were clo-permanent, not under the vain mockery of a Resed, and the theatres were again peopled. The public and the state of siege, but, ipso nomine, ugprices of admission have been lowered so as to der a monarchy with strong monarchical institabring theatrical amusements within the reach of all lions. The French nation is like a generous and who are able to abstract any som at all from the high spirited horse, capable of excellent service and support of themselves and families. The shops, safe, if skilfully managed and ever onder tight rein: tvo, are reopened now, day and night. But this only but once relax the rein, or mismanage him, or leave proves that for the present, under the military dic-bim to bimself, and the driver will soon be seen tatorship of Gen. Cavaignac, there is no fear of afoot, musing over the scattered remains of his riot. Property feels safe for the moment, under broken buggy. Friend B-, then, does not see the protection of an actual and strong government. Paris, and will not see it, in its normal state, brilUntil the 24th of June, there could not be said to liant, animated, gay, charming, as it was in Janube a government in France. There really was ary and February of the present year, prior to the none that felt strong enough, or that was strong breaking out of the Revolution. Since then, the enough to have a will of its own. If, up to that'city has passed through three distinct phases, ef
like each other, unlike any thing that appeared beertés !" Since that day the red flag has only apfore, marking the progress of the Revolution. It peared upon the barricades, the symbol of insuris now in the fourth. During the month of March, rection and terror. the whole Parisian population was in a state of In the course of this month too, all the foreignconstant ebullition, not angry, not threatening, ex- ers resident, or temporarily in Paris, repaired in cept upon one or two occasions, but intense and in- public procession to offer their congratulations to teresting and amusing to the cool looker-on. All the young Republic,-Germans, English, Ameriregular business was suspended, every body was in cans; and Belgian, Spanish, Italian and Polish the streets, and every body shouting " vive la Re- refugees to express their reviving hopes that the publique !" It was the month of processions. All French Republic would declare itself humanitaire, classes, ages and sexes, all professions and trades, and undertake as of yore, the republican propafrom the highest to the lowest, without exception, gande. Of evenings, and till a very late hour of met, chose their marshals and spokesmen, formed the night, during the month of March, the labourin procession and proceeded along the boulevards, ers en blouse, without work, and receiving daily quays and principal thoroughfares of the city to from the public treasury their stipend of thirty the Hotel de Ville, where the members of the Pro-cents, and numbering many tens of thousands, visional Government were silling. Numerous tri- formed themselves into numerous bands and tracolored flags floated along the line. At the head versed the city in every direction, singing in full was a large banner, upon which was inscribed, in chorus their patriotic songs and shouting “ Vive la large characters, the name of the corporation or Republique !" No quarter of the city was so retrade whose members were making the demonstra- mote or so retired that its inhabitants were not tion. At irregular intervals during the line, if it startled more than once during the night by the was long, were groups of singers sending forth the passage of these noisy republicans under their winstirring notes of the Marseillaise, or the chorus of dows. Every fifth or sixth rank bore aloft large the hymn of the Girondins.
flaming torches. The passage of their long col
omns along the deserted streets an hour or two “Mourir pour la patrie-mourir pour la patrie ! after midnight, had in it, for one looking down upon C'est le sort le plus beau, le plus digne d'envie !" the scene from his window in the third or fourth
story, something strikingly wild, picturesque, and, At the end of each stanza, all voices shouted "Vive perhaps, all associations considered, a little terrila Republique !" They proceeded to the Hotel de fying. This was the first phrase of Paris streetVille, were admitted, all, if not too numerous, if life after the revolution. too many, by their delegates, into the presence of The scene changed, and April was devoted to the the Provisional Government, where they declared planting of Liberty trees, to the number of several their acceptance of, and devotion to the Republic, hundreds, all over Paris. They are not poles as exposed the griefs onder which they labored during with us, but living poplar trees, from twenty to the monarchy, and required that the Republic should fifty feet high. The people were still idle, still reredress them. Upon Louis Blanc or Lamartine or ceiving their thirty sous per day from the public Ledru Rollin, usually devolved the duty of reply. treasury, still amused by the promises of Louis He thanked them for their support, glorified the Blanc, Ledru Rollin, Albert & Co. Satisfied for the people, swore that the Republic, made by them, present with these promises, and their daily pay for should be ever for them, and promised all they ask- no labor, they were persuaded, as well they might ed for. All then cried "Vive la Republique !" and be under such circumstances, that the Republic was the procession moved off as it came up, with ban- a very fine thing, and for want of something else ner, shout and song. The Government was only to do, they planted Liberty trees. This was enknown to say “ No," once during the month of couraged by the government, which unable to conMarch. That was when a large band of workmen trol, essayed thus to amuse the people, and precame up with the red flag flying at their head and vent them rolling the ball of Revolution too rapidly demanded that it should be adopted by the Repub-toward the abyss of the Red Republic. A band lic in place of the tri color. This was the most would go out into the country and select their glorious moment of Lamartine's life. Obeying poplar tree, dig it op and bring it into the city. promptly a noble inspiration, he advanced to the Mauy hundreds of woodsmen would then collect balcony, overlooking the clamorous crowd assem- about it. It would be raised upon the shoulders of bled in the open square below. Rejecting the red fifteen or twenty men, and then preceded by flags flag, “ Never !” exclaimed the orator, “Le dra- and one or two drummers, by fifteen or twenty men peau rouge que vous nous presenter, citoyens, n'a armed with muskets, swords and pistols, followed jarais fait que le tour du Champs-de-Mars trainé by several hundred labourers en blouse in irregular dans le sang du peuple: le drapeau que nous vou-procession, and attended by as many more gamins lons consacrer à la Republique a fait le tour du de Paris, they proceed to the spot where it is promonde, avec notre courage, notre gloire, et nos lib-'posed to erect the tree. Windows fly open from
the first to the sixth story along the route of the pro- of these trees erected in all the public places of cession, for none are so deaf or so retired but they Paris, will outlive the French Republic. are alarmed by the drums, the shouts, the songs, The third phase of Paris, passed through during with the occasional discharge of firearms in the the months of May and June, was of a very difair, which mark the passage of the patriotic col- ferent character. The people had become tired of
They arrive at the spot, the tree is deposi- these amusements; Louis Blanc's organization of ted on the ground, and the pavement torn up for labor was proving itself to be vaio, impracticable, a space of about ten feet square. Before they have dangerous, utopianism; the government could not completed the hole, another drum is heard ; and keep its promises to the people, and saw the imanother crowd of gamins is seen approaching, in possibility of continuing to pay eternally the thirty the midst of which appears escorted by a file of cents a day for no labor—the national workshops National Guards in uniform, Monsieur le Curé of went into operation—the workmen said they had the parish in full canonicals, attended by some half been deceived, and became day by day more dispodozen boys, also in religious costume, bearing wax sed to appear in arms for riot and revolution—the candles and books. They come to bless the Lib- hundred and fifty clubs were formed, and in their erty tree about to be raised. The tree is now nightly sittings fomented discontent among all classadorned more or less profusely with colored rib- es, and organized rebellion—the hundred and eighty bons, one or two tri-colored flags are firmly fixed new ultra journals of all shades of politics, from to it,—the religious services are performed in the deepest red 10 white, started up like mushrooms midst of the greatest respect and profound silence and powerfully contributed with the clubs to madof the spectators, every body being uncovered,-a den the public mind, and hasten the crisis-sinisspeech is then made, perhaps by the curé, perhaps ter and most terrifying reports were in daily circoby some popular orator, and the priest departs as lation—no more juyous demonstrations took place ; he came with his drum and escort of National conspiracies were weaving-outbreaks were threatGuards and boys. The tree is then planted. The ened, almost daily—all faces became gloomy, paving-stones, which have been taken up, are ranged shops were closed-theatres shut up—the rappel, in order to form a border for the spot, while some calling the national guard to arms to quell emeof the band proceed through the crowd which has utes, was now as familiar a sound as heretofore had been collected by all this parade, to make a collec- been the notes of the Marseillaise-strangers and tion of money to defray the expenses of the occa- hundreds of French, who could afford to do so, left sion. These contributions were frequently solic- the city-reactionist parties were formed—Orleaaited with a tone and manner which showed that it ist, Bourbonist, Bonapartist- hoping to turn to acwould be dangerous to refuse : and the leaders of count the crisis which was evidently approaching. the ceremony have on several occasions been de- The partial explosion of 15th May, took place, foltected, a few hours after, making merry in a café lowed at last by the grand and terrible explosion of upon the proceeds of the collection. The rest of 23rd June. That ended the gloomy and fearful two the day till, sometimes, a late hour of the night, is months of May and June, and introduced the fourth spent in ornamenting the spot about the foot of the more quiet phase, through which Paris is now passtree, planting flowers, vines, and erecting a taste- ing, and which, I have described above. I spoke of ful ornainental hedge or railing about it. Shouts the hundred and fifty clubs, and of the hundred and of “ Vive la Republique !" patriotic songs, and the eighty new journals which sprang into existence frequent discharge of firearms continue till the final after the revolution, and contributed so powerfully dispersion of the party.
to the popular exasperation which prevailed and Scenes like this just described form the most stri- led to such deplorable consequences during the king feature of the physiognomy of Paris, during months of May and June. Let me enumerate some the month of April. It might occur to one to sug- of them for you." They will remind you strongly gest that the selection of the poplar tree is of ra. of the revolution of 1789. Their names will dether unfortunate omen for French Liberty. It af signale clearly enough their character, and tone of fords no shade, it bears no fruit, its wood is fit for politics. no useful purpose, it is notoriously short-lived. It
CLUBS. presumes to overtop most other trees of the forest without any really rightful claim to this superiority. Fraternal Friends—The Fotore—The Rights of Perhaps, however undesignedly chosen, it will Man-Equality and Fraternity-Emancipation of prove to be in all these particulars, the most fitting the Nations Universal Fraternity-Jacobinssymbol of French Liberty. Most of the Lombar- The Mountain-Progress—Union of Workmendy poplars thus planted have taken root, and are German Democratic-Fraternal Democrats--Freenow covered with verdure. Some of them bear, men—The Vigilants—Socialist Republicans-Uniwritten on a sheet of white paper, framed and cov- ted Propagandists—Democratic Free Thinkers ered like an engraving, with glass, the date of the Labourer's Righis-- Young Mountain— Public Safeerection and by whom planted. I predict that most ty-Fraternity of Nations Socialist Labourers
Friends of the Blacks—Revolutionary-Club of
The epigram has been a favorite method of conNEWSPAPERS.
veying a single thought, from the time of the Greeks
down to the present day. This is not a bow for Spartacus—Le Vrai Gamin de Paris—Le Nou- every one to shoot withal. It is no easy matter to veau Cordelier-Le Petit Homme Rouge—La Co-produce a genuine epigram. It should be brief, lére da Vieux Republicain-L'Avenir des Travail. clear, elegant in expression; and must contain a leurs-La Sentinelle des Clubs—La Commune de point, some unexpected and strikir.g turn of thought, Paris-Le Salut Public-L'Ajnable Faubourien ou like a fly preserved in amber. The specimens of le Journal de la Canaille-L'Apôtre du Peuple- this species of composition which constitute the La Republique Rouge-Robespierre-La Voix des Greek anthology are of every variety; dedicatory, Femmes-L'Ami du Peuple—Le Volcan-Le Jour-descriptive, amatory, elegaic; rarely humorous or dal du Diable-Le Radical-Diogene Sans-Cu-satirical. The Latin epigram is more frequently lotte-La Lanterne-La Politique des Femmes-humorous and personal; but in the hands of its La Lettre du Diable à la Republique-Le Diable great masters, Catullus and Martial, it is disfigurRose-- Le Lampion--La Republique des Femmes--ed by scurrillity and obscenity. We beg pardon of Le Bunhomme Richard-Le Diable Boileux-Le the exclusive partizans of classical learning, for Tocsin des Travailleurs-Le Journal des Sans-Cu- expressing our judgment that, in the humorous lottes-La Mére Duchesne-Le Père Duchesne- epigram, the ancients must yield the palm to the La Carmagnole-L'Accusateur Public-Le Napo- moderns. leonien--L'Aigle Republicaine--La Redingote It is our design, in the present paper, to offer Grise—Napoleon Republicain-Le Petit Caporal— some specimens of the modern epigram; and as Le Reveil du Peuple-La Voix des Clubs—Le we have no Analecta at hand, we must beg our Vieux Cordelier-La Propagande Republicaine-readers to be content with such as we have gathLa Democratie Egalitaire-Les Droits de l'Hom- ered, in the course of our reading. We take them me--L'Alliance des Peuples--L'Incendie--Le as they come. Sanguinaire.
Bertinazzi, commonly called Carlin, was the harNot one in thirty of these journals now appear. lequin of the Italian theatre, in his day. The folThey were discontinued during the insurrection of lowing is his epitaph. June, and if they reappear now, they will be promptly suppressed by the hand of General Ca
De Carlin pour peindre le sort, vaignac.
T'res.peu de mots doivent suffire : Well M," said B-, “shall we go to Swit.
Toute sa vie il a fait rire, zerland together ?"
Il a fait pleurer à sa mort. " Upon the whole I don't think that I can do better than to go. The thing will pay I am persua
At the demise of pope Clement IX., a devout ded. I have not been able easily to pass certain
cardinal, named Bona, was spoken of, as his sucdifficulties—but I have jumped over them and must
This circumstance gave occasion for the take the consequences. How many will be of the
pasquinade, Papa Bona Sarebbe un Solecismo : party ?"
to which Daugiéres replied : "There's W. of New York, R. of Charleston, and G. of Delaware, would like to join us. It is doubtful, however, if they can all make it conve
Grammaticae leges plerumque Ecclesia spernit: nient to go so soon as we desire to. When shall
Forte erit ut liceat dicere Papa Bona.
Vana soloecismi ne te conturbet imago : we start ?"
Esset Papa bonus, si Bona Papa foret. "On Friday morning."
“What kind of money shall I provide myself with !"
The infamous Cæsar Borgia, natural son of Pope "French gold by all means. There is not a Alexander VI., took for his device ; Aut Cæsar, publican in Europe whose eyes will not twinkle at aut nihil: upon which an obscure poet wrote the the sight of a Napoleon.' Get you a blouse— following epigram. Have your passport properly prepared, and I'll call for you at Meurice's at 8 A. M. on Friday.”
Borgia Cæsar erat, factis et nomine, Cæsar;
Aut nihil, aut Cæsar, dixit: utrumque fuit. Gentle reader, my next letter will be dated some time next week, from some part of Belgium.
G. B. M. Nicholas Bourbon, a Latin poet of the sixteenth
century, published a volume of poems entitled Nu- But, to their pens, while scribblers add their tonguts, gae; and was castigated by a brother-poet, Bellay,
The waiter only can escape their lungs. as follows:
The following epigram will explain itself.
Casta Susanna placet ; Lucretia, cede Susannae :
Tu post, illa mori maluit ante scelus. Barbier, the inventor of the perruque, and almost a cardinal, left, in his will, a hundred crowns
The author, from whom we take it, gravely reany one who should write his epitaph. La Mon- marks : Ajoutons qu'il est plus facile de faire une
Epigramme sur Lucrèce, que de se tirer de la sitanoye made an attempt.
ation où elle se trouva: a sentiment in which our Ci gît un tres.grand Personage,
readers will, we presume, very readily concur. Qui fut d'un illustre lignage,
Pierre de Marca was rewarded for his real Qui posséda mille vertus,
against Jansenism, by the offer of the diocese of Qui ne trompa jamais, qui fut toujours fort sage.
Paris. But on the very day on which he would
have become archbishop, he died. This circum
stance is commemorated by Colletet, in a mockChapelain, after having obtained considerable re- epitaph. putation, as a poet, destroyed it all, at a single blow, by the publication of La Pucelle; a ridiculous pro
Ci gît Monseigneur de Marca,
Que le Roi sagement marqua, duction, which drew forth an epigram from Mont
Pour le prélat de son eglise ; mort.
Mais la mort qui le remarqua,
Et qui se plaît à la surprise,
Tout aussi-tôt le demarqua.
A friend of the Abbé de Maacroix proposed to Corneille barely escaped a similar fate. It was him a very eligible marriage with a lady of great lifficult to recognize the author of the Cid, in some of the subsequent effusions of his genius. When beauty, &c. Here is his ungallant reply: the tragedies of Agesilas and Attila appeared, Boi. Ami, je vois beaucoup de bien leau greeted them with the following impromptu :
Dans le parti qu'on me propose ;
Mais toutefois ne pressons rien;
Prendre femme est étrange chose!
Il faut y penser mûrement :
Gens sages, en qui je me fie,
M'ont dit que c'est fait prudemment
Que d'y songer toute sa vie. Faure, bishop of Amiens, was famous for the quantity rather than the quality of his funeral ora- When Coleridge published his Ancient Mariner, tions. On the publication of one of the dullest of it was declared to be absurd and opintelligible. To them, a wag penned the following epigram :
humor his critics he published anonymously the
following lines, addressed to himself: Ce Cordelier mitré, qui promettoit merveilles, Des hauts-faits de la Reine, Orateur ennuyeux,
Your poem must eternal be,
Dear sir, it cannot fail,
For 'tis incomprebensible,
And without head or tail. Our readers will be reminded of Byron's rejoinder to Fitzgerald, who was in the habit of reciting An ingenious inditer of laudatory epitaphs, as his own verses, closing with the lines,
long as modern newspaper obituaries, presented a
volume of them to Pope. He returned the follow. Lord Byron, who frequently borrowed from the French ing : poets without acknowledging it, has very closely imitated
Friend, in your epitaphs I'm grieved, Boileau, in his “ Versicles ;"
So very much is said.
One half will never be believed,
The other never read.
We close, for the present, with Porson's epi-
gram on Hermann.
The Germans in Greek,
Are sadly to seek.
All except Hermann