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mean to say that there may not be literary men by,cessful. Statements entitled to confidence have profession, who are under no necessity of devoting shown that a like proportion of young men, who themselves to manual labor, whose attention to the engage as clerks in some of our large cities, make duties of several learned professions creates a sorı shipwreck of their moral characters. If this estiof necessity that they should be closeted students. mate should seem to exaggerate the truth,-yet Yet while certain professions may demand this ex- none will deny that facts would show a fearful apclasive devotion of time and talent, I say, the la proximation to such a resnlt. This is enough 10 borer possesses great advantages for vigorous men-prove that the employments of agriculture and the tal action, and he should be a student as well as a mechanic arts serve to secure that quietude and workman in his trade or art.
mental calmness favorable to successful effort. Called by business into the shop of an engraver It is the wise saying of a wise man, that "the in New York, I found the artist with his appren-objection to gaming is that it circulates money lices earnestly occupied each at his plate, while without any intermediate labor or industry.” This one in the centre was reading aloud from a useful brings to view a comprehensive principle. Genbook. He told me this was his daily practice, and erally, the same objection oblains to the gaming, or he found it beneficial in all respects. The prac- circulation of money in any other way, without intice of many mechanic arts will admit of the same termediate labor or industry. Speculation may be plan of improvement. Moreover, all have their successful; but the money acquired not being the evenings, which must be spent somewhere and in result of labor, will be less valuable either to the something. Let them be diligently employed in possessor or the public. And whenever by fraud, gathering intellectual treasure, and the industrious or even by bargain, money is wrung from the nemechanic will soon outstrip the slothful student in cessities of another without a proper equivalent, mental acquisition.
the moral sense of the oppressing party receives a The efforts at improvement now suggested will shock, and he loses with himself more in characrequire some resolution, labor and perseverance. ter than he gains in capital. Labor without profit But these are requisites for success in every thing. is often better than profil without labor. Labor is With them, any man of common capacity may be suited to the moral as well as the physical consti. intellectual and learned. Let it be tried. Let one tution of man: it is necessary to his moral as well year of assiduous application be pursued on the as to his physical health. Without it, he will eiplan proposed, and the result of the experiment ther be a savage des pising accumulation. or a sucker will astonish the most sceptical. “ Nulla dies sine on the vitals of society, fauening on the life-blood linea”-lei no day pass without one line at least of others, and dull with plethora, while the victims and the year will present an aggregate of acquisi- of his sordid gluttony are fainting with famine. tion worthy of record.
That man is wise, and regards the physiral conI have said that time is money. It is so when stitution of his nature, who earns his own bread by industriously employed. This money is power in his own labor,-personal, if not manual labor. He the hands of the possessor.
le is certainly true. is unwise and disregards all experience aod all histhat a state of independence is secured with more tory, who trains his sons to rely on the results of certainty, and more generally by farmers and me his labors or estate, which may be soon squandered chanics, than by any other class of men. If spec. in the practice of idle and expensive habits, and ulators, who ofien lose all, do sometimes secure leave them doubly poor by contrast and a false edgreat fortunes, the patient and industrious mechau-ucation. Revelation in God's word accords with ic, in all cases, has the moral certainly of that revelation in his works. Both appoint and require which is much better-a competency-all he can that man shall procure his bread by the sweat of enjoy, an independence which raises him above his brow. The man who contradicis either fighis want, while he occupies a place below envy. He against God, and finds his proper punishment has the prayer of Agrir—" neither poverty nor promptly rendered. Lassitule, ennui, and insanity, riches"—the golden mean—the temperate zone of or dissipation follow iu rapid succession. social life exempt from burning heat and frigid cold We think, naturally and of necessity. It is surof the extremes on either side. The hard-working prising how much may be acquired by direcung man, therefore, who is studious and industrious, ar- this, thought to some concentrated, consecutive rives with all moral certainty at the two great sour- course of investigation. If we aitempt one thing ces and means of power-knowledge and wealth. at a time, and always something, by single steps Franklin practised on these principles, and he rose we pass over distances and surmount difficulties from a poor printer's boy to be one of the most which might well frighten bold men in the aglearned, and personally, one of the most powerful gregate. The fable of the snail that ontstripped
The naiura! occupations of men are the the hare is full of sound instruction. li is not by safest both to pecuniary profits and to morals. Of fitful leaps, but by steady, persevering labor that all who engage in this conntry in mercantile profits, men are commonly made great either in wealth or it is estimated that seven-eighths at least are unsuc-'intellect. The mechanic that is always in his shop
will be easily found by those who are seeking | labor creditable to the man who engages in it. This his services. If he is always at work, he will be we do, when the laborer is made a scholar and enabled to do much, to be punctual, to fulfil his secures to himself the influence and respect which promises, if they are judiciously made. Punctual knowledge commands for the man who has it. This labor will make punctual customers, and this man we do, 100, when the laborer is cheered on to per. will grow rich, and in due lime, when age requires severance in his efforts and attains to the wealth rest, he will be able to be at leisure, leaving his which is the proper result of industry. business to others, while those of his age who were Such men have been honored, are honored, must at leisure while he was busy, will be struggling still be honored, wherever they are found. Knowledge even under the infirmities of age for their daily is power. The man who has it, other things being bread.
equal, will exert a controlling influence. He triA great mistake often made and fraught with the amphs over matter. He controls the masses of worst consequences is, that labor is discreditable to men-their minds as well as their physical force. a gentleman. Nature says—there can truly be no This it is which gives the great superiority to some gentleman without it. It is necessary to the ex- men over others. They are sought out, and will istence-certainly to the perfection of the race in occupy the high places of society. When these their proper relations here. It is necessary to powers are directed to the melioralion of human wealth, comfort and happiness. It is the appoint- woes, those who possess and exert them become, ment of God himself. God made man a laborer. and are called, benefactors. Their names are inIn every good sense of the term, which connects scribed on the catalogue of honored and honorable him with the interest of his race and the proper men. They do their part, and do much to render destiny of man; He made the laborer a gentie labor reputable. Let the mass of working men man and the gentleman a laborer. It has been said then do their duty, and things will find their proper the devil made the gentleman, and this very vulgar level. The order of nature will be restored in the expression is certainly graphic in truth whenever estimate men place on the different professions and any man is tempied to believe that it is discredita- occupations of life. Among ihe nobility of natore, ble to work for a living, and that a gentleman is the farmer will hold the pre-eminence, first among made by idleness. The term properly expresses equals. The mechanic next-and we shall all a character, not a form or profession. He is a come in, not far behind, indeed, but yet behind in true gentleman, whose heart dictales a propriety our respective professions, forming concentric eirof conduct in all the relations of life, and whose cles : the one great human family around the soil, outward acts are the comely expressions of correct whence we came, and from which we derire oor principles.
subsistence while we live, and to which we are Our day is distinguished for expedients to im- destined to return and repose in death. prove and advance the human race. This is well. The effort is a noble one-worthy of man; and that is saying enongh. But, like the efforts of the day on all other subjecis, there is a strong tendency to fanaticism in the labors of those who seek
THE GOLDEN-RING. human perfectability by ordinary agencies and factitious schemes. Here, too, men seek for the phi
From the German of Bettine Brentano's. losopher's stone, some catholicon, a panacea which is to work miracles, some high-pressure expedient for making gentlemen without labor, and securing the avails of labor without industry. After men I mow by the Necker, are starved into the truth, thev will find that nature
And mow by the Rhine :
I have a heart's treasure, cannot be well forced to make gentlemen. They
Yet lonely repine. must come in the regular way. As well might the doll-maker attempt to compete with nature. He
What helps me the grass, if may make a pretty thing. But he produces no
The scythe's edge be worn ? living, breathing, thinking, useful being. So fash
What helps me a treasure,
If from me he's gone? ion may make a gentleman out of any dandy that walks on two feet instead of four-but it is a thing
But since I must reap only fit to show in the windows of a loy shop, and
By the Necker and Rhine, had much beiter he left there for fools to gaze at,
I'll throw to the waters than be put into the hands of a young lady. We
This gold-ring of mine. confer a real benefit, do something effectually to ele
It rolls down the Necker, vate ihe race, and make advances to the only real
It rolls down the Rbine; philosopher's stone which turns every thing it touch
It shall swiin on there under es into gold, whenever we do any thing to render
And sink in the brine,
But a fish, as it swimmeth,
events, through all its meanderings, in every age Has swallowed the ring,
of the world ; in every clime, under every diverThey serve up the fish At the board of the king.
sity of circumstance, and no period can be found in
which, under whatever disadvantages, and in conSpoke out the king thereat ;
flict with whatever formidable obstacles, unappalled - Whose ring shall this be?
and incorruptible witnesses to the supremacy of Then out spoke my Treasure;
man's moral nature, have not stood forih. Beyond - The ring is for me.
and above all, the Deity himself has spoken through My heart's dearest riding
the medium of revelation : and the “great central Both up hill and down,
truths” of humanity-the dictates of duty-lhe obQuick brought my ring back from
ligations and responsibilities of man—and his desThe court and the town.
tiny in time and eternity-have been proclaimed Thon may'st reap, (he said,) darling,
“ in letters of living light" by Him who “spake as By Necker or Rhine,
never inan spake,” and who vindicated his authori. But throw not henceforward
ty as a Messenger from Heaven, by the clearest Thy ring in the brine.
testimonies of power.
Eighteen centuries and a J. M. LEGARE. half have rolled onwards : that religion which Jesus South Carolina.
tanght has found its way to the highest seats of hu
man civilization, and professedly lies at the foundation of every enlightened government : its re
wards and penalties—its doctrines and requisitions, have diffused themselves far and wide over the en
tire surface of society; and yet the worst depravTHE EDUCATION OF THE PEOPLE.* iry prevails. Injustice stalks abroad in the noon
day sun of Christianity. Man oppresses his brothIt requires but a cursory observation of the past er man : deprives him by force or by fraud of his history and existing condition of mankind to be most valued rights : crosses his path at every turn : come sensible of the widely extended prevalence, violates the sanctuary of his home: blasts his repin this our world, of a principle of evil—which, otation : crushes the fairest flowers of hope and call it by what name you will account for its ori- affection which sprung up around his path-and gin as you may limit if you please its dominion systematically prepares pit-falls for his destruction, and establish the impossibility of its ultimate tri- even while professing for him the highest regard. umph, by considerations drawn from the most in War consumes its thousands, and the unrestrained fallible oracles of truth,-exerts, nevertheless, and indulgence of human passion, in channels unsanchas ever exerted a potent, not to say a parainount tioned even by public opinion, its tens of thousands. influence over the happiness of our race. How to Want and wretchedness abound; while millions counteract this influence and 10 substitute in its are expended in the establishment and support of place the general, if not universal prevalence of armies, the administration of civil and criminal tritruth,-how to circumscribe within the narrowest bunals, and the maintenance of institutions renderboundaries the operation of the vicious propensi-ed necessary solely by the prevalence of ignorance ties of our nature, and correspondingly to expand and vice. the sphere of the nobler and purer affections—these While, however, indulging in this melancholy are problems which in every age, and in none, per retrospect of the past—this gloomy survey of the haps, more than in the present, have tasked the in- present-we are by no means at liberty to infer tellects of the wisest and best of mankind. As-that no progress has been made in substantial wiscend the stream of history to its very source, and dom and virtue during the ages which have elapsed amid the darkness of primeval ignorance, we shall since the commencement of the historical era. On still recognize the presence, and to some extent, the other hand, it is manifest that a very considerathe influence of “ preachers of righteonsness"— ble advancement has taken place in the general vindicators of integrity, expounders of wisdom, standard of intelligence and moral worth : and that blameless in their lives, uncontaminated by sur- while individual instances of mental and moral surounding corruption, fearless and triumphant in their periority in the earliest periods of humanity have deaths. Trace the complicated current of human not been surpassed in later times, there has obvi
ously been a gradual diffusion of the elements of • Eleventh Annual Report of the Secrrory of the Mas. true greatness and happiness throughout the intersachusetts Board of Education. Boston : 1848. vening period, so that at the present day knowledge
The Rajix: or Virginia Public School Advocate. By of every description, is far more general, and a S. A. Jewett. Richmond : 1818.
high moral culture far more frequenily attained than Southern Journal of Education. Knoxville and Rich. in any preceding age. Those impatient spirits
who, taking counsel from the clearness of their own
mond : 1848.
conceptions of truth, and of the vast capabilities of within the half century now about to close, immea. the race, are unable to repress their wonder that surably exceeds that of the entire period which sixty centuries of progress under the guidance of preceded it; and that so durably have the strong teachers sent from Heaven, have scarcely imbued foundations of the intellectual fabric been laid, and mankind with the elementary principles of sound so rich and abundant are the materials already col. wisdom, will do well to advert, in their turn, to the lected for the superstructure, a vigorous exertion open volume of nature and providence ; and from of the will alone is required to enable even the a consideration of those immense periods of past present generation to erect for themselves “ monatime which modern science is but beginning to de- mentum ære perennius"-a monument of enduring velup in the annals of the physical universe, con- grandeur. This may be done by the practical refirm the instructive lesson that with God " a thou- alization of a few simple, but pregnant principles, sand years are but as one day—and that, in com- and the sacrifice upon the altar of the common good parison with elernitv, no lapse of time measured by of a few invelerate and hurtful prejudices, the slow our material standards, can enter as an element growth of centuries of ignorance and error. Place into the estimate of human progress. “ In the Christianity in its primal simplicity on the throne vast heavens," says Prof. Nichols, “as well as which legitimately belongs to it—let individuals in among phenomena around us, all things are in a every walk of life-let communities and nations stale of change and progress. There 100, on the faithfully carry out the injunction of the law of sky, in splendid hieroglyphics, the truih is inscri. love as inscribed upon the records of our common bed, that the grandest forms of present being, are faith and written upon the heart of every respononly germs, swelling and bursting with a life to come. sible being-let liberal provision be made in every And if the universal fabric is thus fixed and consti community, for the early and systematic education tuted, can we imagine that aught which it contains of every child—let our institutions of government is unupheld by the same preserving law-ihat anni- be so modelled as to give effect to the wishes of hilation is a possibility, real or virtual—the stop- an intelligent constituency, and so administered as page of the career of any advancing being, while to secure to all the unrestricted enjoyinent of those hospitable infinitude remains ? What, indeed, is means of prosperity which a bounteous Providence the numerical value of the few thousand years du- confers—let these simple principles but perrade ring which man and all his works have found their the minds of the representatives of our modern place on this earth of ours, when compared with civilization, and he who distrusis the certain conthe myriads, not of years and centuries merely, but sequences, in the complete renovation of humanity, of ages, with which modern astronomical and geo- must impugn the clearest principles of enlightened logical researches have rendered us familiar? In reason and doubt the uniform results of God's Prov. reference to periods such as these, the collective idence as taught in His word and manifested in the annals of humanity dwindle to the merest point. whole order of human events. “ Fifty lives succeeding each other, and of a length To expect, however, such a state of things, in to which individuals otien aitain, would reach back- the existing condition of the world : 10 suppose wards beyond the recorded commencement of the that the complicated interests which are interworace ;" but who shall undertake to limit, even in ven in the institutions and laws of the present time imagination, the continuance of its generations, or can, by any process, be at once dissevered and eato fix the precise place, in the order of Providence, grafied upon a new, even though a more thrifwhich it now occupies, or may at any preceding ty stock-would be Utopian in the extreme. No period have fulfilled in the great scheme of things ? such supposition is indulged: the idea is both in
There is another consideration intimately con- practicable and absurd. The reformation of socienected with this view of the subject, and which ty is not the task of a single day, or a single year: may reasonably jnstify our most confident anticipa- scarcely even of a single generation under the haptions with reference to the future. Nearly all piest auspices. Jis foundation may, however, be those great discoveries and inventions which have laid, and its ultimate completion ensured, beyond given such an impulse to our modern civilization, the contingency of fortune, by the co-operation of and in many important respects essentially modified the highest minds of the existing generation in an our entire inental and moral philosophy, are due to ENLIGHTENED AND COMPrehensive system of Popthe last three centuries; and if we go no farther ular Education. It admits of no dispute-the back than the middle of the eighteenth, or even the proposition has been established by the highesi tescommencement of the nineteenth century, we shall liimony, and is, indeed, susceptible of the clearest find ample evidence that the progress of improve- demonstration—that it is within the legitimate pror. ment has increased in a rapidly accumulating ratio, ince of the government of every civilized Siste, within the brief compass of comparatively a very to make such provision for the education of all its few years. Indeed, it would be far from presump- citizens, as shall secure to each the full dereiopa tuous to assert that the progress actually attained, ment and the right direction of the faculties of our in the civilized nations of Europe and America, common humanity--as shall enable each to fulái
intelligently every daty of life--lo shun its vices would be irreclaimable nuisances to society, and and snares-to circumscribe within the smallest that ninely-five per cent. would be supporters of the possible compass its inevitable ills, physical and moral welfare of the community. moral, and to transmit to coming generations, the “With teachers properly trained in Normal fairest inheritance of virtuous dispositions, frugal Schools, and with such a popular disposition tohabits, onsullied integrity, and noble aspirations, wards schools as wise legislation might effect, ninewhich the tide of time has yet wafted upon the teen-twentieths of the immoralities which afflict expanded shores of Christian civilization. society might, I verily believe, be kept under hatch
The practicability of such a result has been es, or eradicated from the soil of our social instiplaced in strong relief by the last Annual Report tutions." of the able Secretary of the Massachuseits Board
I believe there would not be more of Education, the Hon. Horace Mann, at present the than one-half of one per cent. of the children edoRepresentative in Congress from the eighth Con- cated, on whom a wise judge would be compelled gressional district of that State, and the successor 10 pronounce the doom of hopelessness and irreof John Quincy Adams. Having addressed a cir- claimability.'” cular to the most experienced teachers, residing in Mr. Pace, the late distinguished Principal of the several States of the Union, and in different local- New York State Normal School, whose lamented ities, east, west, north and south, with the view of death, in the midst of his usefulness and the meeliciting reliable information on this interesting ridian of his fame, recently occurred, says : point, he puts the inquiry, What percentage, or “ Could I be connected with a school furnished proportion in every hundred pupils, if placed under with all the appliances you name ; where all the their tuition, or, that of the ablest and best teach children should be constant attendants upon my iners which can be procured, for a period of twelve struction for a succession of years; where all my years, between the ages of four and sixteen for len fellow teachers should be such as you suppose, and months of each year, during the ordinary school where all the favorable influences described in your hours, can be so trained as to become “ useful and circular should surround me and cheer me, even exemplary men, honest dealers, conscientious ju- with my moderate abilities as a teacher, I should fors, true witnesses, incorruptible voters or magis. scarcely expect, after the first generation of chiltrates, good parents, good neighbors, good mem- dren submitted to the experiment, to fail, in a sinbers of society ? In other words, with our present gle case, to secure the results you have named.” knowledge of the art and science of education, “I should not forgive myself, nor think myself and with such new fruit of experience as time may longer fit to be a teacher, if, with all the aids and be expected to bear, what proportion or percentage influences you have supposed, I should fail, in one of allchildren must be pronounced irreclaimable and case in a hundred, to rear up children who, when irredeemable, notwithstanding the most vigorous they should become men, would be honest dealeducational efforts which in the present state of so-ers, conscientious jurors, true witnesses, incorruptciety can be put forth in their behalf; what pro- ible voters or magistrales, good parents, good neighportion or percentage must become drunkards, pro- bors, good members of society ;'or, as you express fane swearers, detractors, vagabonds, rioters, cheats, it in another place, who would be 'temperate, inthieves, aggressors upon the rights of property, of dustrious, frugal, conscientious in all their dealings, persons, of reputation or of life ; or, in a single prompt to pity and instruct ignoranee, instead of phrase, must be guilty of such omissions of right, ridiculing it and taking advantage of it, publicand commissions of wrong, that it would have been spirited, philanthropic, and observers of all things better for the community had they never been sacred ;' and, negatively, who would not be • drunkborn ?" To these inquiries, the persons addressed ards, profane swearers, detractors, vagabonds, riwithout concert with each other, concur substanti oters, cheats, thieves, aggressors upon the rights ally in opinion that from ninety-five to ninely-nine of property, of persons, of reputation or of life, or in every hundred of the children thus educated goilty of such omissions of right and commissions may be rendered virtuous and intelligent men and of wrong that it would be better for the community women; and this too of the first generation sub- had they never been born.'' mitted to the experiment.
Mr. Solomon Adams, of Boston, a gentleman The venerable Dr. John H. Griscom, of New who has been engaged in the profession of teachJersey, a man of irreproachable integrity, and of ing for nearly a quarter of a century, and during the utmost weight of character, after an experience that time has had under his charge nearly iwo thouof more than forty years as a teacher, and after sand youth of both sexes, says: having had thousands of children under his care, “Permit me to say that, in very many cases, says:
after laboring long with individuals almost against My belief is that, under the condition mention- hope, and sometimes in a manner 100 which I can ed in the question, not more than two per cent. [of now see was not always wise, I have never had a the first generation submitted to the experiment,]'case which has not resulted in some good degree