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1066 Battle of Hastings, and William the Norman becomes King of England.

1080 Tower of London built.

1095 First Crusade.

1171 Saladin establishes the empire of the Turks in Egypt.

1188 Third Crusade under the Emperor Barbarossa. 1202 Inquisition established.

1209 Crusade against the Albigenses.

1215 Grant of the Magna Charta by King John. 1258 First English parliament held at Oxford.

1302 The mariner's compass invented.

1308 The Pope's seat of power at Avignon in France. 1324 John Wickliffe born, the Morning Star of the Reformation.

1330 Invention of gunpowder by Berthold Schwartz, a monk.

1376 John Huss born, the undaunted defender of the



Grand schism in the Catholic church.

1415 John Huss was burnt at Constance, and his ashes thrown into the Rhine.

1435 Printing invented by Guttemberg. 1461 Printing introduced into England. 1484 Luther born at Eisleben, in Saxony.

1492 America discovered by Christopher Columbus. Caxton the printer died.

1517 Luther disputes with Tetzel about the profane indulgences, &c., of the Pope; and by exposing the errors, superstitions, and assumptions of the Romish church, paved the way for the Reformation-The contemporaries of Luther were Zuinglius, Melancthon, Erasmus, Knox, and Copernicus.

1534 The Reformation in England. 1546 The death of Luther.

1558 Elizabeth confirms and protects the Reformers. 1572 Massacre of the Protestants in France on St. Bartholomew's day.

1588 Destruction of the Spanish Armada.

1605 Gunpowder Plot.


Circulation of the blood discovered.

A.D. 1641

Massacre of Protestants in Ireland.


Great Plague in London.


Royal Society established.


1666 Great Fire in London.

William Penn's American charter.

1685 James II. encourages Popery-1688, Abdicates. 1689 William and Mary came over to England. 1698 Peter the Great of Russia travels to England, France, and Holland.

1702 Queen Anne reigns in England. 1704 Battle of Blenheim-Marlborough. 1727 Inoculation first tried in England. British Museum founded.

1760 Royal Academy founded.

1749 Violent erruption of Mount Vesuvius, and discovery of the city of Herculaneum.

1773 Suppression of the Jesuits by Pope Clement XIV. 1776 Declaration of Independence by the United States of America.


Revolution in France.

1793 Execution of Louis XVI.

1798 Expedition of Bonaparte to Egypt. Battle of the Nile-Nelson - Pitt.

1801 Bonaparte made First Consul.

1804 Bonaparte made Emperor of France.

1805 Victory of Trafalgar.

1806 Death of Pitt and Fox.

1812 Expedition of Bonaparte to Russia, and burning of Moscow-his disastrous retreat.

1814 Treaty of Paris, and restoration of Louis XVIII. The Pope released from confinement in France, and Papal See restored.

1815 Bonaparte returns from Elba; resumes imperial power-Battle of Waterloo.

Second entry of Allies into Paris, and restoration of Louis XVIII.-Bonaparte's departure to St. Helena.

1830 Revolution


in France-Charles X. flies from France, and Louis Philippe elected King of the French.

Gregory VI. Pope-makes some advances to liberalism.


1840 War between England and China commences. 1848 Louis Philippe_abdicates, and with his whole family leaves France and comes to England. Revolutions and bloodshed in the principal kingdoms of Europe.

France, after horrible struggles and bloodshed, establishes a republic -Louis Napoleon, nephew of Bonaparte, elected President.

Prussia, the German small States, and Austria, in confusion and civil war.

The Pope (Pius IX.) driven out of Rome in disguise, and escapes the populace.


PALMER and CLAYTON, 10, Crane-court, Fleet street.

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