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PORTRAIT OF GENERAL U. S. GRANT.
MAP OF PORT HUDSON AND ITS DEFENCES..
CHART OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER FROM THE OHIO TO THE GULF OF MEXICO..
PORTRAIT OF GENERAL GILLMORE..
PORTRAIT OF GENERAL HOOKER
BATTLE OF CHANCELLORSVILLE-GENERAL SICKLES DIVISION COVERING THE RETREAT.....
BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG.......
PORTRAIT OF EDWARD EVERETT...
MAP OF GETTYsburg AND ITS VICINITY..
PORTRAIT OF GENERAL MEADE
CHATTANOOGA AND ITS DEFENCES..
BATTLE OF Lookout MOUNTAIN.
PORTRAITS OF GENERALS J. E. B. STUART, VAN DORN, J. C. BRECKINRIDGE, FORrest, and
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
PORTRAIT OF GENERAL CUSTER..
PORTRAITS OF GENERALS SEDGWICK, TERRY, JOHN G. FOSTER, CROOK, AND MERRITT
PORTRAIT OF GENERAL W. T. SHERMAN..
PORTRAITS OF GENERALS BRAGG, LONGSTREET, J. E. JOHNSTON, HOOD, AND KIRBY SMITH....
PORTRAIT OF GENERAL SHERIDAN..
PORTRAIT OF GENERAL STONEMAN.....
PORTRAITS OF GENERALS HOWARD, ROUSSEAU, GRIERSON, SLOCUM, AND JEFFERSON C. DAVIS
THE WAR WITH THE SOUTH:
A HISTORY OF THE
GREAT AMERICAN REBELLION.
The Condition of Vicksburg after the Surrender.-Comparatively little Ruins.-Marks of the Bombardment.-The Hospitals.-Persistence of the Defenders of Vicksburg.-Starved out.-Mule Meat.-A Soldier's Bill of Fare.The Efforts made by the Enemy to relieve Vicksburg.-Proofs of Weakness.--Determination of General Pemberton.-Fighting to the "last dog."-Effects throughout Mississippi. - Retreat of Johnston.-General Sherman in Pursuit.-Jackson evacuated.-Sherman occupies Jackson.-Destruction of Railroad Property. Nothing goes well in the Southwest."-Mississippi abandoned by Johnston.-Sherman's return to Vicksburg.-Surrender of Port Hudson.-Operations of General Banks in Louisiana.-Operations in the Teche Region.-Capture of the Diana. - Battle of Beasland. -Advance of Banks to Franklin.-Co-operation of the Navy.-The Queen of the West burned. -The Diana blown up.-A Fleet of Transports destroyed.-Fort Butte La Rose captured.-General Grover forms a junction with Banks.--Banks at New Iberia.-At Martinsville.-At Opelousas.-At Alexandria.
THE Condition of the city of Vicks
burg and its defences, when entered 1863. by the victorious army of General Grant, was such, notwithstanding the tremendous fire to which they had been so long exposed, as to surprise every observer. It was natural to expect a general scene of ruin, yet few of the buildings were demolished, and most of the houses were so little injured as to be easily rendered habitable. The shot and shell which had been poured so continually into the city had, however, left their marks everywhere. The streets were ploughed up, the pavements shattered, and the yards, gardens, and other inclosed spaces, pitted with great holes. The shrubberies and cultivated grounds
which once so greatly adorned the picturesque Vicksburg, presented a scene of confused ruin.
With a daring mockery of the cruel spirit of war, the people had ornamented their houses with the missiles of destruction.
"Nearly every gate in the city," writes a visitor,* "is adorned with unexploded thirteen-inch shells placed atop of each post. The porches and piazzas (nearly every house has one) are also adorned with curious collections of shot and shells that have fallen in the yards." He adds: "It is said that there are some houses in the city that have escaped unscathed; but in my rambles
New York Tribune.
through the streets I could not find firing was very severe. The excavations branch out in various directions after passing the entrance. I should not imagine them very desirable bed-chambers, but they seem to have answered a very good purpose. In one or two instances shells entered them, and two women and a number of children were thus killed during the siege."
The inhabitants and the soldiers of the garrison, though they had suffered severely, as the hospitals indicated, which were filled with from four to five thousand sick and wounded, persisted in declaring that they would have still held out if there had been any hopes of relief.
"I entered perhaps twenty buildings in all, and found frightful-looking holes in the walls and floors of every one. The house occupied by General Pemberton as his headquarters, has a hole in the first room you enter on the left side of the hall, which a mule could crawl through without difficulty. The publisher of the Vicksburg Citizen invited me into his residence, and interspersed his remarks while showing me around with frequent cautions not to tread here and there, for fear a shattered piece of its flooring would let me through into the cellar. And so it is all over the place. The northern portion of the city suffered most, and I cannot convey any idea of the damage sustained better than by saying it has been smashed.
"Notwithstanding the evidences every where visible of the terrible ordeal through which the people and city have passed, the Vicksburgers persistently assert that they have not been much damaged; that shells are comparatively innocent things-' nothing when you get used to them;' that they could have held out a year if they had had provisions, etc. They also claim to have learned how to dodge shells, and say that those fired from the mortars had become favorites with the people. Shots from Parrott guns were not so popular.
"The most noticeable feature of the city is the group of caves in every hillside. In these caves the women and children were sheltered during the night, and occasionally in day-time when the
"There is but one reason," says the observer already quoted, "given by the rebels for their surrender. They say they discovered that they would be starved out before it would be possible for Johnston or anybody else to raise the siege; and although they could have held out six or seven days longer, they would have gained nothing thereby, the prospect being that at the end of that time Johnston would be as far off as he is now. They repel the suggestion that they were afraid of an assault in column on the 4th of July, and say that they would have been able to repel any such assault. However this may be, the fact that they were brought to desperate straits for something to eat is indisputable. All prejudices against mule meat were thoroughly conquered by hunger, and the army was using it freely, esteeming it better food than the blue beef and rancid pork upon which they
formerly subsisted. The little remnant money enough to buy them is a fact
"A rebel staff officer informed me,
Notwithstanding the failure of the enemy to relieve the beleaguered city, great efforts were made. That they were unsuccessful, proved not only the skilful disposition by General Grant of his great resources to render them abortive, but the weakness to which the enemy had been reduced. With a full consciousness of the importance to their. cause of holding Vicksburg, they made the most desperate attempts to defend and relieve it. General Pemberton, who commanded the place, was stimulated to
"Flour, $5 per lb., equal to $1,000 per bbl.
"Beef, $1 to $1 25 per lb., supply exhausted.
"Butter sold five weeks ago at $2 50 to $3 per 1b., almost superhuman effort, for the sake
since which time there has been none in market.
of his own good name, which had been tarnished by his failure to prevent the approach of General Grant. Every word he uttered proved the passionate resolve of a man who had but one
"Coffee, $7 50 to $10 per lb. ; none on hand for four throw of the dice left to retrieve him
"Mule meat, $1 per lb.
"Louisiana rum (only liquor in market), $40 to $100 per gallon.
"Rice, 75 to 80 cents per lb.
Sugar, 70 cents per lb.
"Molasses or treacle, $10 per gallon.
"Corn meal, $40 per bushel, supply exhausted.
"Tea, $15 to $20 per lb. ; none on hand for four weeks
Clothing beyond all price, a man refusing $100 for an ordinary white shirt.
"That these stunning prices were freely paid by all who could produce
self, and upon which he was determined to risk his all.
Wh retiring before the victorious troops of Grant, he uttered this passionate appeal to his soldiers:
"The hour of trial has come. The