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force on reaching Nashville to less than headed by Mayor Cheatham, to whom, 10,000.* Unable to hold the city against as at Clarksville, every assurance of the forces of the Union advancing by safety and protection to the people, in land and water, General Johnston left a their person and property, was given. rear guard, under General Floyd, to se- In the meanwhile, on the same morning, cure the stores and provisions, and pro- one of Commodore Foote's gunboats, with ceeded with the remainder of his forces a number of transports, arrived, bringto Murfreesboro. General Floyd hav- ing General Nelson, with a considerable ing under his command the demoralized body of troops. The interview with the wreck of an army, mainly of fugitives, officers was considered satisfactory by in spite of the remonstrances of the citi- the committee, and the mayor, in a prozens, destroyed the costly railway and clamation, on the following day, “rewire suspension bridges over the Cum- spectfully requested that business be reberland. Besides the bridges, two valu- sumed, and that all our citizens, of every able steamboats, in process of conver- trade and profession, pursue their regusion into gunboats, were destroyed, lest lar vocations." they should fall into the hands of the The same day, General Buell issued Union army, which was hourly expected. a general order to the army, from his The week which ensued was one of utter headquarters at Nashville, congratulapanic and confusion. Sick and wounded ting his troops, “ that it has been their soldiers were dying rapidly in the over- privilege to restore the national banner crowded, ill-appointed hospitals ; lawless to the capitol of Tennessee. He believes soldiers were rioting, and plundering pri- that thousands of hearts in every part vate houses ; a mob was contending with of the State, will swell with joy to see the military authorities for the public that honored flag reinstated in a position stores, of which Nashville had been one from which it was removed in the exciteof the most important depots of the Con- ment and folly of an evil hour ; that the federacy, which were at one time given voice of her own people will soon proclaim to the people, at another withheld to be its welcome, and that their manhood and removed for the retreating army. Heavy patriotism will protect and perpetuate rains meanwhile poured down upon the it." Various injunctions were added, devoted region and added to the embar- requiring a strict observance of the rights rassments and melancholy of the scene. of property, and the protection of all On the 25th, the Union forces were at peaceable citizens.

" We are in armış, the city to receive its surrender. The said he, “not for the purpose of invading advance of the arıny which had followed the rights of our fellow countrymen any. in pursuit of Johnston, after his evac- where, but to maintain the integrity of uation of Bowling Green-the defences the Union, and protect the Constitution of which, when General Mitchel's com- under which its people have been prosmand, after great exertions, reached the perous and happy.” place, were found to be far less for- Governor Harris, from his executive midable than had been supposed-had office at Memphis, whither the legislature reached the neighborhood of Nashville, had adjourned, issued on the 19th, a viotwo days before, when it was agreed that lent proclamation deploring the fate of the formal surrender of the city should Fort Donelson, and declaring that Tenhe made to General Buell on his arrival. nessee was “now to become the grand He was now present with General Mitch- theatre, wherein a brave people will el, and was waited upon at Edgefield, op- show to the world, by their heroism and posite the city, by a delegation of citizens, suffering, that they are worthy to be,

what they have solemnly declared them

* General Johnston's letter to Mr. Barksdale.

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selves to be, freemen. Announcing that The new duties and responsibilities of he would himself take the field at their a mixed civil and military character head, as Governor of the State and com- thrown upon the government by the ocmander-in-chief of its army, I call “said cupation of so considerable a portion of hie, “upon every able-bodied man of the a State, in open hostility to the Union, State, without regard to age, to enlist in were met by the appointment by Presiits service. I command him who candent Lincoln, of Senator Andrew Johnobtain a weapon to march with our son, as military Governor of Tennessee. armies. I ask him who can repair or The nomination was confirmed by the forge an arm, to make it ready at once Senate on its presentation, on the 4th of for the soldier. I call upon every citi- March, and at the same time the rank of zen to open his purse and his storehouses Brigadier-General was bestowed upon of provisions to the brave defenders of the new Governor. Fully armed with our soil. I bid the old and the young, authority to establish a provisional govwherever they may be, to stand as pic- ernment in the State, Governor Johnson kets to our struggling armies. *** immediately left Washington, for the seat You have done well and nobly, but the of his new duties, in company with the work is not yet accomplished. The Hon. Horace Maynard, member of Conenemy still flaunts his banner in your gress from the Knoxville district of Tenface ; his foot is upon your native soil ; nessee, and the Hon. Emerson Etheridge, the echo of his drum is heard in your a loyal member of the previous Congress inountains and valleys ; hideous desola- from eastern Tennessee, at present clerk tion will soon mark his felon track unless of the House of Representatives. The he is repelled. To you who are armed, party, accompanied by other prominent and have looked death in the face, who Union exiles, reached Nashville on the have been tried and are the Old Guard,' 12th of March. Governor Johnson set the State appeals to uphold her standard. himself at once to prepare the way for Encircle that standard with your valor the restoration of the State to its legitiand your heroism, and abide the fortunes mate position in the Union—a work of war so long as an enemy of your State which would probably have had a good shall dare confront you. The enemy prospect of success, had not the presence relies upon your forfeiture to reënlist, of the confederate armies on its soil, and makes sure of an easy victory in marked it out as the “dark and bloody your want of endurance. Disappoint ground” of desperate and continuous him !

conflict. The capture of Nashville, had, In a message to the legislature the in fact, only transferred the war from following day, Governor Harris stated, Kentucky to Tennessee, and the struggle that since the passage of the State act of was not likely to grow less desperate as May, 1861,* he had organized and put it was brought nearer the strongholds of into the field, for the confederate service, the rebel authority. fifty-nine regiments of infantry, one regi- In a speech to the citizens who had ment of cavalry, eleven cavalry battal- assembled before his hotel, on the evening ions, and over twenty independent com- immediately after his arrival, Governor panies, mostly artillery. The Confeder- Johnson reminded his hearers of the ate government had armed about fifteen nature and progress of the rebellion, and thousand of these troops ; but to arm the the moderate and reasonable course taken remainder, Governor Harris had “to by the government for its suppression. draw heavily upon the sporting guns of He found, he said, the State without our citizens."

authority, its executive, legislature, and * Ante voli

judiciary dissolved, or in abeyance; he

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p. 192.

was there "to give the protection of law, tive policy will be adopted. To those, actively enforced, to her citizens, and, as especially, who in a private unofficial speedily as may be, to restore her gov- capacity have assumed an attitude of ernment to the same condition as before hostility to the government, a full and the existing rebellion. ** Those who, complete amnesty for all past acts and through the dark and weary night of the declarations is offered, upon the one conrebellion, have maintained their allegi- dition of their again yielding themselves ance to the Federal government, will be peaceful citizens, to the just supremacy honored. The erring and misguided, of the laws.” In this spirit, blending a will be welcomed on their return. While good share of sagacity with his patriotic it may become necessary, in vindicating impulses, Governor Johnson entered the violated majesty of the law, and in upon his task, and secured the peace reasserting its imperial sway, to punish and good order of this important city, intelligent and conscious treason in high under circumstances of no ordinary emplaces, no merely retaliatory or vindic-barrassment.



ISLAND, FEB. 1862.

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DURING the last months of 1862, there taken for the suppression of the rebelwas considerable activity at New York, lion he was summoned by Governor in the preparation of the material for a Sprague of Rhode Island, where his combined military and naval expedition, merits were well known, to take comwhich was understood to be placed di- mand of the 1st regiment of volunteers rectly under the charge of General Am- of that State. In the organization of the brose Everett Burnside. This gentleman, forces at Washington, previous to the bata native of Indiana, a graduate of West tle at Bull Run, he was assigned a BrigaPoint, in 1847, and subsequently an dier's command in the division of General artillery officer, actively engaged in the Hunter, and, as we have seen, was foreMexican war, and on the frontier, re- most in action in that engagement. His signed his commission in the army, in personal qualities were such as eminently 1853, and then became engaged in Rhode litted him for command ; active, energetic, Island in the manufacture of a breech- and self-reliant, of shrewd military sagaloading rifle invented by himself and city, united with practical experience, a bearing his name. He was thrown out keen disciplinarian, frank and pleasing in of this pursuit, with considerable pecuni- manner, he secured both the respect and ary embarrassment, by the failure of the the affection of his men. Secretary of War, the secessionist Floyd, The entire military force of the expeto provide as had been expected, for the dition, as it was gathered at Annapolis, employment of the weapon in the army. numbered about sixteen thousand men, He then was employed as President of comprising 15 regiments of infantry, a the Land Office Department, and after- battalion of infantry, a battery of artilwards as Treasurer of the Illinois Cen- lery, beside a large body of gunners for tral Railway, the company with which the armed vessels, capable of rendering General McClellan was also connected. service on land, and the sailors of the When the first military measures were fleet. There were three army brigades,

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