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suits have been uninterrupted ; our Na- In the same spirit, Governor Holbrook, tional rights are respected ; partisan ani- of Vermont, recapitulating the blessings mösities are fast burning out, and the enjoyed by the land, recommended the spirit of fraternal affection has been expression of thanksgiving, “ that at the beautifully manifest throughout a wide first note of alarm, the loyal American extent of our common country. Though people of all professions, pursuits, parcomposed of the representatives of many ties, and opinions, so spontaneously ralnations, a general calamity has revealed lied in defence of our beautiful and beour strange homogeneity, has served to loved country as to give assurance that, obliterate prejudices, has moved all alike with the blessing of Providence, they by the same patriotic emotion. All alike will emerge from the struggle bringing have responded to the call to save our their institutions with them, firmly esimperiled institutions. The marvelous tablished, and standing before the world energy which the crisis calls forth proves a full demonstration of the power and nur national spirit to be unabated, our stability of a free government.” vigor unwasted, and gives promise, un- Governor Buckingham, of Connecticut, der the blessings of God, of a higher po- looked beyond the present hardships of sition in all that constitutes true national the struggle to the new national life in greatness. Though evils follow the train the future. "To maintain our rights," of armies, yet for these we have a great said he, "against the combined powers compensation in the fact that the expo- of rebels, to reëstablish this government sures and expenditures incident to war upon the foundations of righteousness, will necessarily counteract the tendency and to open the way for this whole peoof the age to effeminacy and luxury. ple to engage again in the avocations of

In strong scriptural phraseology blend- peace, will cost us time and treasure and ing the motives of religion with the duties life. It will carry sorrow into many a to the State, Governor Curtin, of Penn- heart and grief into many a family circle. sylvania, besought the blessing of Heaven But we may rejoice in confidence that "on behalf of these United States, that God, who holds the destinies of nations our beloved country may have deliver- in His hands, has no attribute which can ance from these great and apparent dan- take side with the oppressor ; that He is gers wherewith she is compassed, and with us in this struggle for right and justhat the loyal men now battling in the tice ; that the privations and losses which field for life may have their arms made we now suffer will be abundantly restrong and their blows heavy, and may warded by the richer, purer, and higher be shielded by His divine power, and blessings of liberty which shall be perthat He will mercifully still the outrage manently enjoyed by future generaof perverse, violent, unruly, and rebel- tions." lious people, and make them clean hearts The most characteristic document, and renew a right spirit within them, and however, which made its appearance give them grace that they may see the on this occasion, was one from the pen error of their ways and bring forth works of Governor Andrew, of Massachusetts. meet for repentance, and hereafter, in all Filled with instructive pious emotion, godliness and honesty, obediently walk and overflowing with that outspoken in His holy commandments, and in sub- eloquence with which the old Puritans mission to the just and manifest author- supported national duties and trials with ity of the republic, so that we, leading a religious consolations and sanctions, it quiet and peaceful life, may continually sets before us in a vivid manner the Offer unto Him our sacrifice of praise sacred enthusiasm, the earnest patriotand thanksgiving"

ism, which sent forth so many of the



noblest spirits of the land to bleed and "For the measure of success which has die in the cause of the country. This attended the enterprise of those who go noticeable State paper ran thus :

down to the sea in ships, of those who The example of the Fathers, and the search the depth of the ocean to add to dictates of piety and gratitude, summon the food of man, and of those whose the people of Massachusetts, at this, the busy skill and handicraft combine to . harvest season, crowning the year with prepare for various use the crops of the the rich proofs of the Wisdom and Love earth and the sea :of God, to join in a solemn and joyful “For the advantages of sound learnact of united Praise and Thanksgiving ing, placed within the reach of all chilto the Bountiful Giver of every good dren of the people, and the freedom and and perfect gift.

alacrity with which these advantages are “I do, therefore, with the advice and embraced and improved :-consent of the Council, appoint THURS- “For the opportunities of religious inDAY, the 21st day of November next, the struction and worship, universally ensame being the anniversary of that day, joyed by consciences untrammelled by in the year of our Lord sixteen hundred any human authority :and twenty, on which the Pilgrims of “For 'the redemption of the world Massachusetts, on board the Mayflower, by Jesus Christ, for the means of grace, united themselves in a solemn and writ- and the hope of glory. ten compact of government, to be ob- “And with one accord, let us bless served by the people of Massachusetts and praise God for the oneness of heart, as a day of Public Thanksgiving and mind, and purpose in which He has unitPraise. And I invoke its observance by ed the people of this ancient Commonall people with devout and religious joy. wealth for the defence of the rights, lib

erties, and honor of our beloved coun'Sing aloud unto God, our strength: make a 'joyful noise unto the God of Jacob.

try : * Take a psalm, and bring hither the

May we stand forever in the same timbrel, the pleasant harp with the psaltery. • Blow up the trumpet in the new moon,

mind, remembering the devoted lives of * in the time appointed, on our solemn feast day. our fathers, the precious inheritance of For this was a statute for Israel,

Freedom received at their hands, the and a law of the God of Jacob.-Psalm 81, vs.

weight of glory which awaits the faithful, 'o bless our God, ye people, and make the voice and the infinity of blessing which it is • of his praise be heard :

our privilege, if we will, to transmit to • Which holdeth our soul in life, and suffereth not

the countless generations of the Future. 'For thou, O God, hast proved us: thou hast tried "And, while our tears flow in a stream us, as silver is tried.' --Psalm 66, vs. 8, 9.

of cordial sympathy with the daughters “Let us rejoice in God and be thank- of our people, just now bereft, by the ful ; for the fulness with which He has violence of the wicked and rebellious, of blessed us in our basket and in our store, the fathers and husbands and brothers giving large reward to the toil of the and sons, whose heroic blood has made husbandman, so that our paths drop verily sacred the soil of Virginia, and, fatness :

mingling with the waters of the Poto“For the many and gentle alleviations mac, has made the river now and for of the hardships which, in the present ever ours, let our souls arise to God time of public disorder, have afflicted on the wings of Praise, in thanksgiving the various pursuits of industry : that He has again granted to us the

" For the early evidences of the re- privilege of living unselfishly and of dyviving energies of the business of the ing nobly, in a grand and righteous people :

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let them also that hate him flee before him.”

"For the precious and rare possession was being gathered on many a battleof so much devoted valor and manly field for the historic life of the nation heroisin

" America," said he, was peculiarly "For the sentiment of pious duty a providential country. This was the which distinguished our fallen in the continent upon which results were to be camp and in the field :

brought forth. Those were short-sighted “And for the sweet and blessed con- men who supposed that the defeat of one solations which accompany the memories party or other would injure the final reof these dear sons of Massachusetts on sult of Freedom. No man, no party, to immortality.

was responsible for this great commotion. "And in our praise let us also be One said it was the Abolition party; penitent. Let us seek the truth and but who made the Abolition party ? ensue it,' and prepare our minds for Another said it was the Secession party whatever duty shall be manifested here- but what had made the Secession party? after:

Underworking all was the providence of May the controversy in which we God. The harvest to which we were stand be found worthy, in its consum- called was a terrible harvest, the harvest mation, of the heroic sacrifices of the of death. From many a Thanksgiving people and the precious blood of their table there were noble sons absent tosons, of the doctrine and faith of the day, some of them sleeping in unshroudfathers, and consistent with the honor of ed graves, where the breezes of the PoGod and with justice to all men. tomac sighed their requiem, God grant

that before another year the great na'Let God arise, let his enemies be scattered :

tional table may be spread, and there * As smoke is driven away, so drive them away.?- would be thirty-four plates and thirtyPsalm 68, vs. 1, 2. "Scatter them by thy power, and bring them down, four States, and a Star-Spangled Banner O Lord, our shield.-Psalm 59, v. 11.

waving over all. Out of this trial the Given at the Council Chamber, this thir- nation already had great gain. It had ty-first day of October, in the year of fused the discordant elements of the naOur Lord one thousand eight hundred tion; we should be a nobler nation hereand sixty-one, and the eighty-sixth of after than ever before. We had gatherthe Independence of the United States ed in a harvest of noble names, and the of America. JÓHN A. ANDREW.

whole land was the richer for it. EllsBy His Excellency the Governor with Baker

, were noble seed from whom rich

worth, Greble, Winthrop, Lyon, and the advice and consent of the Coun-harvests should yet be gathered. People cil. OLIVER WARNER, Secretary.

had said that the American Revolution

had secured our liberty for ever. But The discourses delivered in the vari- we could not live for ever on that ; Libous pulpits breathed the most devoted erty must be earned by a people at least patriotism, while the people were solemn- as often as every century. It was the ly reminded of the work before them, sad, sweet memories of heroic men which and urged to new efforts. From numer- made nations truly rich. Over a harvest ous passages of kindling eloquence, which of weakness and national degeneracy, will be sought hereafter as memorials of had it come, we might well have wept. these troubled days, we select one re- But thank God we had a harvest of flecting the spirit of many,—that in armed men. Let us put in the sickle, which the eminent orator, the Rev. Dr. even though it be the sword, and thank Chapin, from his pulpit, in New York, God for the harvest before us, terrible presented the "terrible harvest " which with death but rich in the noblest and





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dearest beneficences demanded by free- and missing were estimated at a hundred. men.

The repulsed assailants returned to their In Western Virginia a sharp engage- camp at Cheat Mountain, and the enemy ment was fought, on the 13th of Decem- presently retired to Staunton. ber, at Camp Alleghany, on the summit A movement in the division of General of the Alleghany mountain, on the bor- McCall

, from Camp Pierpont, on the der of F ocahontas and Highland coun- Potomac, in December, exhibited the ties, the road to Staunton. The enemy increasing discipline and soldierly spirit having left their intrenched camp' at of the Union forces. Learning on the Greenbrier river, where they had been 19th, that the enemy's pickets had adassailed by General Reynolds; in Octo- vanced to within four or five miles of ber,* had fallen back to this place. An the lines, and were carrying off and expedition to attack them in their new threatening good Union men, that officer position, started from the Union camp determined to arrest their movements, at Cheat Mountain summit, seventeen and, if possible, capture the force which miles distant, on the 12th, under the was assembled in the neighborhood of command of Brigadier-General Reuben Dranesville. Brigadier-General E. O. H. Milroy, composed of about two thou- Ord was accordingly sent forward with sand Indiana, Ohio, and Virginia troops, his command, early on the morning of with a company of cavalry. On ap- the 20th, with instructions to surround proaching the position the force was di- and capture the party, and at the same vided for a simultaneous attack on op- time to collect a supply of forage from posite sides. The division accompanied the farms of some of the rank secessionby General Milroy was first on the spot, ists in that vicinity. His brigade conat daylight of the 13th, and driving in sisted of four regiments of Pennsylvania the pickets, reached the top of the moun- infantry, the Bucktail rifles, commanded tain on the enemy's right. They then by Lieutenant-Colonel Kane, a detachadvanced toward the camp, where the ment of five companies of Pennsylvania enemy-two Georgia regiments, a Vir- reserve cavalry, commanded by Lieutenginia l'egiment, and two battalions with ant-Colonel Jacob Higgins, and Captain two field batteries, under Colonel Edward Easton's battery of four guns, two 12 and Johnson, received them with vigor. The two 24-pounders, altogether numbering a fight was kept up for several hours with force of between 4,000 and 5,000. The heavy losses, when a retreat was order-force of the enemy which they were to ed. Owing to the bad state of the road meet, is represented in a letter, published and its obstruction by the enemy, the in the Richmond Dispatch, as about other division intended to coöperate was 2,500. It was under the command of delayed. It came into action, however, General Stuart, and was composed of and kept up for several hours an “Indian the 11th Virginia regiment, Colonel Garfight," at close quarters with the foe. land ; the 6th South Carolina, LieutenantThe losses of the Union side were re- Colonel Secrest ; the 10th Alabama, Colported at twenty killed, one hundred and onel John H. Forney ; the 1st Kentucky, seven wounded, and ten missing. An Colonel Tom Taylor ; Captain Cutts’ Sumaccount published in the Richmond En- ter flying artillery, and detachments from quirer, states that twenty of the enemy Ransom's and Radford's cavalry. The fell upon the field, while the wounded parties met near Dranesville. The batets. There was an attempt to turn the ing one Lieutenant-Colonel and four CapUnion left, but it was at once checked by tains, and three missing. That of the the battery. In front on the right, there rebels was some fifty killed, a hundred was resolute fighting at close quarters. and thirty or more wounded, many seThe excellent position of Easton's bat- verely, and seven prisoners. The Alatery, however, soon drove the enemy's bama and South Carolina troops suffered battery from its position, an advance was severely. The contest lasted an hour, bemade, and the rebels fled toward their tween one and two o'clock in the aftercamp at Centreville, leaving their killed noon. General McCall, who arrived on and wounded on the field. The road was the field after the action commenced, orstrewed with men and horses, two cais- dered the return march to his camp, sons, one of them blown up, a limber, a bringing with him sixteen wagon loads gun carriage wheel, a quantity of artil- of excellent hay, and twenty-two of lery ammunition, small arms, and an im- corn. mense quantity of heavy clothing, blan

teries of the two forces were placed op

posite each other, at a distance of about + Correspondence of the Cincinnati Commercial, Cheat five hundred yards, on the Centreville Record, vol. iii., pp. 466-471.

road. On either side were dense thick

* Ante, vol. i., p. 567

* General McCall's Official Report, December 22, 1861. kets, etc. The loss on the Union side was Special correspondence of the Richmond Dispatch, Centreseven killed, sixty-one wounded, includ- vile, December 24, 1861. Correspondence New York Ti




" You

The Second session of the Thirty-thy, and no vaunting display of home seventh Congress was promptly organized resources, the conviction so familiar to on the regular day of assembling, the statesmen, that diplomacy in the long run 2d of December. President Lincoln's must be based upon material interests, Message, delivered the following day, was forcibly impressed upon the suggeswas a calm, temperate review of the tions which he offered. Master of the position of the Government, and the situation, the President evidently felt progress of the war. In a single brief that he could rely on the obvious necesopening sentence, the usual acknowledg- sities of the case in working out a satisment was made of the mercies of Heaven factory solution of the problem. to the nation :-" In the midst of unpre- will not be surprised to learn,” said he, cedented political troubles, we have cause " that in the peculiar exigencies of the of great gratitude to God for unusual times, our intercourse with foreign nagood health and most abundant harvests." |tions has been attended with profound The foreign relations of the country solicitude, chiefly turning upon our own were then taken up, and significantly domestic affairs. A disloyal portion of touched in a few pithy paragraphs ; a the American people have, during the striking commentary upon or deduction whole year, been engaged in an attempt from the mass of correspondence which to divide and destroy the Union. A the Secretary of State laid before the nation which endures factious domestic public, and which has been freely cited divisions is exposed to disrespect abroad, in these pages.

With no undue expec- and one party, if not both, is sure, sooner tations from the justice of the National or later, to invoke foreign intervention. cause, with no appeal to foreign sympa- Nations thus tempted to interfere are

* Ante, vol. i., chapter xxviii., on Foreign Relations. not always able to resist the counsels of

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